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- Small pleomorphic
- NO CELL WALL
- Slow growers
- Highly fastidious
- Need complex media
- Mycoplasmas adhere to the epithelium of mucosal surfaces
- Mycoplasma Class Mollicutes
What are the 3 species of Human pathogens for Mycoplasma?
- M. pneumoniae (Respiratory)
- M. hominis (genital)
- Ureaplasma (urogenital)
How are the Human pathogens for Mycoplasmas transmitted?
- Sexual contact
- Mother to child
- Respiratory secretions
How do you collect a specimen for Mycoplasmas?
- No cell wall so are susceptible to drying
- Immediate transport to lab is important
- Swabs are placed with TSB 0.5% albumin and 400U penicillin
- Specimen should be placed at -70C if not processed immediately
What are the growth conditions for Mycoplasma?
- Cultures are seldom ordered
- Require trained personal (experts)
- Only 40% sensitivity
- Special media: SP4 broth/agar and 5-10% CO2
What organism requires only SBA and arginine?
What organism requires SBA and urea and can also use Shepherd's 10 B Broth?
What are more growth conditions required for Mycoplasma?
- Blood Cultures need 1% gelatin to decrease toxicity of SPS
- Collection must be ASAP (due to dryness)
- Dracon and Ca alginate swabs with metal shaft
- TSB with 0.5% albumin and 400U/mL of penicillin for transport
How do you identify Mycoplasmas?
- Like colonies stained with Dienes stain
- Colonies have a typical fried egg appearance
- Stained colonies have a light periphery and dark-blue center
How long does M. hominis take to grow?
How long does M. pneumoniae take to grow?
What organisms grow in NY city agar as minute colonies, only observed with a stereoscope?
What are the Serological procedures to identify Mycoplasmas?
- Cold agglutinins (used for detecting atypical penumonia)
- EIA and IHA detect both IgG and IgM
- Complement fixation
- Indirect immunofluorescence
- PCR (very specific)
Reference labs perform serology on what organisms?
Characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae are:
- Causes a typical pneumonia or "walking pneumonia"
- 20% of the reported pneumonias
- Higher incidence in young adults (not seasonal)
- Groups at risk: college students, military
- Transmission is by aerosol droplets
- Most infections asymptomatic or mild
- Incubation period 2-3 weeks
- Non-specific symptoms: sore throat, dry cough, fever, malaise, anorexia
- Extrapulmonary infections are rare
Characteristics of M. hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum:
- Associated with urogenital tract
- Opportunistic pathogens
- Higher rates in Africans (men and woman)
- M. hominis found in 50% of healthy adults (interpretation difficult when asymptomatic)
- Reported as cause of Non gonococcal urethritis
What organism causes salpingitis, pelvic, inflamatory disease, and post-partum fever?
What organism causes 10% of cases of Non gonococcal urethritis in man and upper female genitourinary tract disorders?
What are the antimicrobials these organisms are susceptible?