uh management

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dariusnavy
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160266
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uh management
Updated:
2012-07-03 17:43:25
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mana 3335 test
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mana 3335 test #3
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  1. the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people  persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal
    motivation
  2. the physical ot psychological requirements that must be met to ensure survival and well-being
    needs
  3. a reward that is tangible, visible to others, and given to employees contingent on the  performance of specific tasks and behaviors
    extrinsic reward
  4. a natural reward associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake
    intrinsic reward
  5. theory that states that people will be motivated when they perceive that they are being treated fairly
    equity theory
  6. the contributions employees make to a company
    inputs
  7. the rewards employees recieve for their contributions to the organization
    outcomes
  8. others with whom people compare themselves to determine if they've been treated unfairly
    referents
  9. an employee's perception of how the rewards received from an organization compare with the employee's contributions to that organization
    outcome/input ration
  10. a form of inequity in which you are getting fewer outcomes relative to inputs than your referent is getting
    underreward
  11. a form of inequity in which you are getting more outcomes relative to inputs than your referent
    overreward
  12. the perceived  degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed
    distributive justice
  13. the perceived fairness of the process used to make reward allocation decisions
    procedural justice
  14. a thory that states that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they will be offered attractive rewards
    expectancy theory
  15. the attractiveness or desirability of a reward or outcome
    valence
  16. the perceived relationship between effor and performance
    expectancy
  17. the percieved relationship between preformance and rewards
    instrumentality
  18. theory that states that behavior is a function of its consequences, that behaviors followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently, and that behaviors followed by negative consequences, or not followed by positive consequences, will occur less frequently
    reinforcement theory
  19. the process of changing behavior by changing the consequence that follws behaivior
    reinforcement
  20. cause and effect relationships between the performnce of specific behaviors and  specific consequences
    reinforcement contingencies
  21. rules that specify which behaviors will be reinforced, which consequences will follow these behaviors, and the schedule by which the consequences will be delivered
    schedule of reinforcement
  22. reinforcement that strengthens behavior by following behaviors with desirable consequences
    positive reinforcement
  23. reinforcement that stregthens behavior by witholding an unpleasant consequence
    negative reinforcement
  24. reinforcement that weakens behavior with undesirable consequences
    punishment
  25. reinforcement in which a positive consequence is no longer allowed  to follow a previously reinforced behavior, thus weaking the behavior
    extinction
  26. a schedule that requires a consequence to be adminstered after every instance of a behavior
    continuous reiforcement schedule
  27. a schedule in which consequences are delivered after a specified or average time has elapsed or after a specified of average number of behaviors has occured
    intermittent reinforcement schedule
  28. an intermittent schedule  in which consequences follow a behavior only after a fixed time has elapsed
    fixed interval reinforcement schedule
  29.  an intermittent schedule in which the time between a behavior and the following consequences varies around a specified average
    variable interval reinforcement schedule
  30. an intermittent schedule in which consequences are delivered following a specific number of behaviors
    fixed ratio reinfrocement schedule
  31. a target, objective , or result that someone tries to accomplish
    goal
  32. a theory that states that people will be motivated to the extent to which the accept specific, challenging goals and receive feedback that indicates  their progress  toward goal achievement
    goal-setting theory
  33. the extent to which goals are detailed, exact, and unambiguous
    goal specificity
  34. the extent to which a goal is hard or challenging to accomplish
    goal difficulty
  35. the extent to which people consciuodly understand and agree to goals
    goal acceptance
  36. information about the quality or quantity of past perfoemnce that indicates whether progress is being made toward the accomplishment of a goal
    performance feedback
  37. the ability to influence another person
    power
  38. the process of affecting thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of another person
    influence
  39. the right to influence another person
    authority
  40. the range in which attempts to influence a person will be perceived as legitimate  and will be actes on without a great deal of thought
    zone of indifference
  41. power based on and agent's abililty to control rewards that a target wants
    reward power
  42. power that is based on an agent's ability to cause an unpleasant experience for a target
    coercive power
  43. power that is based on position and mutual agreement; agent and target agree that the agent  has the right to influence the target
    legitimate target
  44. an elusive power that is based on interpersonal attraction
    referent power
  45. the power that exists when an agent has specialized knowledge or skills that the target needs
    expert power
  46. activities that other groups depend on in order to complete their tasks
    strategic contingencies
  47. access to an d control over important information
    information power
  48. power ised for personal gain
    personal power
  49. power used to create motivation or to accompllish group goals
    social power
  50. a lack of power
    powerlessness
  51. the use of power and influence in organzations
    organizational politics
  52. actions not officially sanctioned ny an organization that are taken to influence others in an order to meet one's personal goals
    poitical behavior
  53. the ability to get things done through favorable interpersonal relationships outside of informally prescribed organiztional mechanisms
    political skills
  54. sharing power in such a way that individuals leatn to believe in their ability to do the job
    empowerment
  55. the process of influencing others to achieve  group or organizational goals
    leadership
  56. leadership theory that holds that effective leaders possess a similar set of traits or characteristics
    trait theory
  57. relatively stable characteristics, such as abilities, psychological motives, and consistent pattern of behavior
    traits
  58. degree to which a leaders structures the roles of followers by setting goals, giving directions, setting deadlines, and assigning tasks
    initiating structure
  59. the extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable, and supportive and shows concern for employees
    consideration
  60. the way leader generally behaves towards followers
    leadership style
  61. leadership theory that states that in order to maximize work group performance, leaders must be attached to the situations that best fit their leadeship styles
    contingency theory
  62. degree to which a particular situation either permits or denies a leader the chance to influence the behavior of a group
    situational favorableness
  63. degre to which followers respect, trust, and like their leaders
    leader-member relations
  64. the degree to which the requirements of a subordinate's tasks are clearly specified
    task structure
  65. the degree to which leaders are able to hire, fire, reward, and punishment power
    position tower
  66. leadership theory that states that leaders can increase subordinate satisfaction and performance by clarifying and clearing the paths to goals and by increasing the number and kinds of rewards available for attainment
    path-goal theory
  67. leadeship style in which the leader lets employees know precisely what is expected of them, gives them specific guidelines for performing taskset standards of performance, and makes sure that people standard rules and regualtions
    directive leadership
  68. a leadership style in which the leader is friendly and approachable, shows concern for employees and their welfare, treats them as equals, and creates a friendly climate
    supportive leadership
  69. a leadeship style in which the leader consults employees for their suggestions and inputs before making decisions
    participative leadership
  70. a leadership style in which the leader sets challenging goals, has high expectations of employees, and displays confidence that employees will assume responsibility and put forth extraordinary effort
    achievement-oriented leadership
  71. a theory that suggests how a leader can determine an appropriate amount of employee particpation when making decisions
    normative decision theory
  72. leadership that creates a positive image of the future that motivates organizational memebers and provides direction for the future planning and goal setting
    visonary leadership
  73. the behavioral tendencies  and personal characteristics of leaders that create strong relationships between them and their followers
    charismatic leadership
  74. charismatic leaders who provide developmental opprtunities for followers, are open to positive and negative feedback, and have moral standards that emphasize the larger interests of the group, organization, or society
    ethical charismatics
  75. charismatic leaders who control and manipulate followers, do wha is best for themselves instead of  their oragnizations, and have moral standards that put their interests before everyone else's
    unethical charismatic
  76. leadership that generates awareness and acceptance of a group's purpose and mission and gets employees to see beyond their own needs and self-interests for the good of the group
    transformational leadership
  77. leadership based on the an exchange process, in ehich followers are rewarded for good performance and punished for poor performance
    transactional leadership
  78. the process of transmitting information from one person or place to another
    communication
  79. the process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments
    perception
  80. the personality,, psychology, or experienced-based differences that influence people to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli
    perceptual filters
  81. the tendency to fill in gapsof missing information by assuming that what we don't know is consistent with what we already know
    closure
  82. the tendency for people to perceive themselves as personally and situationally similar to someone who is having trouble or difficulty
    defensive bias
  83. the system of official channels that carry organizationally approved approved messages and information
    formal communication channels
  84. communication that flows from higher to lower levels in an organization
    downward communication
  85. communication that flows from lower to higher levels
    upward communication
  86. communication that flows among managers and workers who are at the same organzational level
    horizontal communication
  87. the transmission of messages from employee to employee outside the formal communication channels
    informal communication channel (grapevine)
  88. communicating with someone for the direct purpose of improving the person's on-the-job performance or behavior
    coaching
  89. communicating with someone about non-job-related issues that may be affecting or interfering with the person's performance
    counseling
  90. movement of the body and face
    kinesics
  91. the pitch, rate, tone, volume, and speaking pattern of one's voice
    paralanguage
  92. the method used to deliver an oral or written transmission
    communcation medium
  93. the act or process of perceiving sounds
    hearing
  94. making a conscious effort to hear
    listening
  95. understanding the speaker's perspective and personal frame of reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to the speaker
    empathetic listening
  96. feedback that disapproves without any intention of being helpful and almost always causes a negative or defensive reaction in the recipient
    destructive feedback
  97. feedback intended to be helpful, corrective, and/or encouraging
    constructive feedback
  98. web/software-based discussion tools that allow employees to ask questions and share knowledge
    collaborative discussion sites
  99. information that is collected form surveys given to organizational members and then compiled, disseminated, and used to develop action plans for improvement
    survey feedback
  100. a personal website that provides personal opinions or recommendations, news summaries, and reader comments
    blog
  101. regulatory process establishing standards to achieve organizational goals, comparing actual performance to the standards, and taking corrective action when necessary
    control
  102. a basis of comparison for measuring the extent to which various kinds of organizational performance are satisfactory or unsatisfactory
    standards
  103. the process of steering or keeping the course
    cybernectic
  104. a mechanism for gathering information about performance deficiencies after they occur
    feedback control
  105. a mechanism for gathering  information about performance deficiencies as they occur, thereby eliminating or shortening the delay between performance and feedback
    concurrent control
  106. a mechanism of monitoring performance inputs rather than outputs to prevent or minimize performance deficiencies before they occur
    feedforward control
  107. the situation in which behavior and work procedures do not  conform to standards
    control loss
  108. the costs associated with implementing or maintaining control
    regualtion costs
  109. the extetn to which it is possible to implement each step in the control process
    cybernetic control
  110. the use of hierachical authrity to  influence employee behavior by rewarding or punishing employees for compliance or noncomplinance with organizational policies and rules
    bureaucratic control
  111. the use of observable measures of worker behavior or outputs to assess performance and influence behavior
    objective control
  112. the regiulation of behaviors and actions that workers perform on the job
    behavior control
  113. the regualtion of workers' results or outputs through rewards and incentives
    output control
  114. the regualtion of workers' behavior and decisions through widely shared organizational values and beliefs
    normative control
  115. the regualtion of workers behavior  and decisions through work group values and beliefs
    concertive control
  116. measurement of organizational performance in four equally important areas: finaces, customers, internal operations, and innovation and learning
    balanced scorecard
  117. performance improvement in part of the organization at the expense of decreased performance in another
    suboptimization
  118. a type of analysis that predicts how changes in a business will affect its ability to take in more cash than it pays out
    cash flow analysis
  119. accounting statements, also called profit-and-loss statements, that show what has happened to an organization's income, expenses, and net profit over a period of time
    income statements
  120. calculations used to track a business's liquidity, efficiency, and profitability over time compared to other businesses in its industry
    financial ratios
  121. quantitative plans through which managers decide how to allocate available money to best accomplish company goals
    budgets
  122. the amount by which company profits exceed the cost of  capital  in a given year
    economic value added
  123. a performance  assessment in which companies identify which customers are leaving and measure the rate at which they are leaving
    customer defections
  124. customer perception that the product quality is excellent for the price offered
    value
  125. an adaptive response mediated by individual differences and/or psychological processes, that is a consequence of any action that places special psychological/physical demands on a person
    stress
  126. the person or event that triggers the stress response
    stressor
  127. a steady state of bodiliy functioning and equilibrium
    homeostasis
  128. the embodiment of a person's perfect self
    ego-ideal
  129. how a person sees himself, both positvely and negatively
    self-image
  130. an imbalance preoccupation with work at the expense of home and personal life satisfaction
    workaholism
  131. a cost associated with absenteeism, tardinessm strikes and work stoppages, and turnover
    participation problem
  132. an organizational cost resulting from court awards for job distress
    compensation award
  133. a complex of personality and behavior characteristics, including competitiveness, time urgency, social status insecurity, aggression, hostitility, and quest for achievement
    type A behavior pattern
  134. a perosnality characterized by commitment, control and challenge  and, hence resistant to distress
    personality hardiness
  135. a way of managing stressful events by changing them into less subjectively stressful events
    transformational coping
  136. an unhealthy, insecure patternof behavior that leads to speration in relationships with other people
    conterdependence
  137. an unhealthy, inseceur pattern of behavior that leads to preoccupoied  attempts to achieve security through realtionships
    overdependence
  138. an organiztional philosophy according to which people and organizations should take joint responsibility for promotinghealth and prventing distress and strain
    preventive stress management

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