Exam 2: Face and Scalp

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Exam 2: Face and Scalp
2012-06-27 15:02:18
anatomy face scalp

review of 6/27 lecture on face and scalp for exam 2
Show Answers:

  1. What is unique about the skin of the face?
    • thickness of skin is less in facial region
    • muscles of facial expression insert into deep surface of skin 
  2. What innervates the skin of the face?
    cutaneous branches of trigeminal nerve
  3. Which cranial nerve is the trigeminal nerve?
    CN V
  4. What are the muscles of facial expression also known as?
    mimetic muscles
  5. Where are the muscles of facial expression arranged?
    around eyes, nostrils, and mouth
  6. What is the general function of th emuscles of facial expression?
    dilators or sphincters
  7. What innervates the muscles of facial expression?
    terminal branches of facial nerve
  8. What cranial nerve is the facial nerve?
    CN VII
  9. Sensory innervation of the face is provided by:
    cutaneous branches of trigeminal nerve
  10. What are the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve?
    • ophthalmic (V1)
    • maxillary (V2)
    • mandibular (V3)  
  11. Where do supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves branch from? 
    ophthalmic (V1)
  12. What do the supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves supply?
    the upper eyelid and skin of forehead and anterior scalp
  13. Where does the infraorbital nerve branch from?
    maxillary (V2)
  14. What does the infraorbital nerve supply?
    skin of nose, lower eyelid, upper lip and most of cheek
  15. Where does the mental nerve branch from?
    mandibular (V3)
  16. What does the mental nerve supply?
    skin of lower lip and chin
  17. Where is the scalp?
    anything above eyebrows
  18. Where is the buccal branch of CN V?
    goes to cheek
  19. What is the function of the buccal branch of CN V?
    purely sensory
  20. What provides motor innervation to muscles of face?
    five terminal branches of facial nerve
  21. What structure does the facial nerve pass through as it gives off its five terminal branches?
    parotid gland
  22. What are the five terminal branches of the facial nerve?
    • temporal
    • zygomatic
    • buccal
    • mandibular
    • cervical
  23. How are the terminal branches of the facial nerve named?
    indicates their destinations
  24. What does the temporal nerve supply?
    side of skull and forehead
  25. What does the zygomatic branch supply?
    muscles around eye
  26. What does the buccal branch supply?
    muscles in cheek
  27. What does the mandibular branch supply?
    muscles associated with lower lip and chin
  28. What does the cervical branch supply?
    platysma in neck
  29. Of the 12 cranial nerves, which is most susceptible to injury and disease?
    facial n.
  30. What is facial nerve paralysis commonly known as?
    Bell's palsy
  31. Bell's palsy usually results in what disabilities?
    weakness of facial muscles, or complete paralysis of facial muscles on the affected side
  32. Are symptoms of Bell's palsy reversible?
    in most cases symptoms subside with passage of time
  33. How many arteries provide blood supply to face and scalp?
  34. Which two arteries provide blood supply to the face and scalp?
    • transverse facial artery
    • facial artery 
  35. What is the transverse facial artery a branch of?
    superficial temporal
  36. Where does the transverse facial artery run?
    horizontally across zygomatic arch
  37. What is the facial artery a branch of?
    external carotid
  38. What does the facial artery supply?
    most of the facial region
  39. Which triangle does the facial artery pass through?
    submandibular triangle
  40. The facial artery passes through the submandibular before crossing which bone to reach the facial region?
  41. After the facial artery enters the facial region, where does the artery go?
    medial angle of eye
  42. Which branch of the external carotid artery is the facial artery?
    the 3rd branch
  43. How many terminal branches does the external carotid artery have?
  44. Why does the facial artery have a twisted appearance?
    so it can lengthen when jaw opens widely
  45. Where does the facial vein lie in comparison to the facial artery?
    facial vein lies posterior to facial artery
  46. The facial vein connects with what other vein below the mandible?
    common facial vein
  47. After the facial vein and common facial vein connect, they becom a tributary to which vein?
    internal jugular
  48. The facial vein has important connections with several other veins including the:
    • superior ophthalmic
    • and pterygoid plexus 
  49. Where is the superior ophthalmic vein?
    in the orbit
  50. Where are the pterygoid plexus?
    in infratemporal fossa
  51. Do the veins in the face have functional valves?
  52. What is the clinical significance of the ophthalmic and pterygoid plexus with the facial vein?
    • they communicate with cavernous sinus in cranial cavity; infectious material is easily transported to cavernous sinus by way of these venous connections
    • life-threatening situation may develop 
  53. Why is it so dangerous to get an infection in the cavernous sinus in the cranial cavity?
    difficult to treat this region with antibiotics
  54. What are the five layers of tissue on the scalp? (from superfical to deep)
    • Skin
    • subCutaneous tissue
    • galea Aponeurotica
    • Loose areolar tissue
    • Pericranium    
  55. What usually covers the skin of the scalp?
  56. Is the skin of the scalp thick?
    relatively thick
  57. What is contained in subcutaneous tissue of the scalp?
    vessels, nerves, and lymphatics
  58. What is the galea aponeurotica?
    a broad aponeurosis uniting two muscles
  59. Which two muscles does the galea aponeurotica connect?
    frontalis and occipitalis
  60. What is areolar tissue?
    connective tissue
  61. What is the function of the loose areolar tissue?
    permits limited movement of the scalp
  62. What is another name for pericranium?
  63. What is the cavernosus sinus?
    • bilateral structure in cranial cavity
    • collection of veins
    • connects to ophthalmic vein  
  64. Veins in the scalp have direct connections with venous channels in the cranial cavity by way of what?
    emissary veins
  65. Where do emissary veins enter the cranial cavity?
    foramina in skull, such as parietal and mastoid foramina
  66. What is the clinical importance of the emissary veins?
    vascular channels can transmit an infection of the scalp to the cranial cavity
  67. What surrounds the arteries of the scalp?
    dense layer of connective tissue
  68. Is it easy for the arteries to constrict after a scalp laceration occurs?
    no, connot constrict easily to decrease hemorrhaging
  69. Since arteries in the scalp cannot hemorrhage easily, are scalp lacerations extermely bloody?
  70. What provides innervation of the scalp?
    supraorbital and supratrochlear nn
  71. Supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves are branches of what?
    V1 anteriorly and greater/lesser occipital nn. posteriorly