Philosophy Final

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Philosophy Final
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2012-06-27 18:49:27
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Marissa Philosophy mixie
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Week 3 review. doesn't include abortion
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  1. The Problem of Evil
    If God is Omnipotent, Omniscient, Omni-Benevolent

    Why does Evil Exist?
  2. Theodicy
    Attempt to justify or defend the unlimited goodness of an all-powerful God with the reality of evil
  3. Moral Evil
    The evil human beings do to each other is through the exercise of their free will
  4. Natural Evil
    Bad consequences that are the result of the impersonal forces of nature
  5. Metaphysical Evil Theodicy
    Explains Natural Evil
  6. The Free Will Defense
    • -"persons" must have free will, without free will we would be robots
    • -God can only have a loving relationship with "persons"
    • -free will alowes the possibility of evil acts
    • -cause of action: being
    • - The origin of moral evil lies forever concealed within the mysetery of human freedom 
  7. The Irenaen Theodicy
    • "Bios"=Biological life
    • God is still working with humanity to bring it to a state of self-relization of Divine Love--> soul-making
    • Independent Environment needed
    • This is the only way to develop the character qualities to gofrom Bios to Zoe 
  8. Cognitive REALism
    real objective world (mind-independent)
  9. Cognitive Relativism
    no mind independent reality
  10. Analytic Truth
    • The subject and the predicate are equal
    • based upon the definitions of concepts not experience  
  11. Synthetic Truths
    • The predicate adds knowledge to the subkect
    • based upon experience  
  12. The correspondence Thory
    a belief is true if it relates correctly to reality
  13. Coherence Theory
    • A belief is true if it holds together into a coherent system
    • our beliefs do not necessarily have to correspond correctly to reality 
  14. Pragmatic Theory
    A belief is true if it works
  15. Espistemology
    • The study of knowledge 
    • "He pissed on knowledge-y" 
  16. Rationalist
    All knowledge can be know through the mind inquiring by itself
  17. The Method of Doubt
    (Descartes) 
    In order to discover that which is absolutely true, we try to find that which we can absolutely not doubt. If we get decieved once, we must disregard the path to absolute truth


     
  18. Cogito Ergo Sum
    (Descartes) 
    "I think therefore I am"

    when we think about ourselves thinking, we cannot be decieved 

    only thing we know for absolute certain 
  19. Objective Reality: 2 points to prove
    (Descartes) 
    • 1. That God exists
    • 2. That God is not a deciever 
  20. Where does the idea of God come from?
    (Descartes) 
    Our idea of God is greater than we should be able to think of
  21. Discourse on Method (4)
    (descartes)
     
    -4 rules that will help us to arrive at the approximate truth

    • 1. Never except anything as a truth unless it is self evident
    • 2. Divide and Conquer: Divide each problem into as many parts as possible
    • 3. Begin with the Easiest: Then more to the more difficult
    • 4. Be as complete as possible: Omit nothing
    •  
  22. Innate Ideas
    (Descartes) 
    • 1. God's Existence
    • 2. Methaphysical Truth 
    • Law of non-contraditctions
    • 3. Mathmatical Truths 
  23. Empiricist
    All knowlesge is derived from EXPERIENCE
  24. Tabula Rasa 
    (Locke)
    Blank slate

    simple ideas--> complex ideas
  25. Objects of Sensation
    (Locke) 
    Mind-independent objects that vause sensations within us

    related to primary qualities 
  26. Primary Qualities
    (Locke) 
    In the objects of sensation/mind independent qualitiy
  27. Objects of reflection
    (Locke)
    The ideas the objects of sensation have stimulated in our minds

    relate to secondary qualities 
  28. Secondary qualities
    (Locke) 
    In the objects of reflection/ mind-dependent qualites
  29. Subjective Idealism
    (Berkeley)
    The belief that only ideas exist
  30. "Esse est percipi"
    (Berkeley)
    To be is to be perceived
  31. Can we have certain knowledge?
    (Hume)
    YES!

    foundation of all knowledge is in sensory experience
  32. Relation of ideas...certain knowledge
    (Hume)
    • Analytic truths
    • ALWAYS can involve a contradiction...b/c its how we define the terms
  33. Matters of fact
    (Hume)
    Synthetic truth....based upon a experience

    NEVER a contradiction...only high probability
  34. Two types of pereceptions
    (Hume)
    • 1. Impression from sense data of mind independent reality
    • 2. Thoughts/ideas: From our memory of impressions/imagination

    difference?? impressions are more lively than thought/ideas
  35. Empirical Criteria of Meaning
    (Hume)
    • 1. All meaningful ideas must be traced back to sense impression (experience)
    • 2. Ideas and beliefs that cannot be traced back to sense impression (experience) are meaningless
  36. Causality is a matter of:
    (Hume)
    CUSTOM and HABIT
  37. Copernican revolution
    (Kant) 
    Synthetic A Priori knowledge
  38. Transcendental Idealism
    (Kant) 
    • The view that:
    • the FORM of our knowledge of reality comes from REASON 
    • But the CONTEXT of our knowledge of reality comes from OUR SENSES 
  39. Form of knowledge comes from reason examples
    (kant) 
    • - relations between things
    • - cause of things
    • - law relating to things
    • - organization of things 
  40. Transcendental Structure of Mind
    (Kant) 
    Our minds have a structure that we impose upon all the information we recieve through experience

    • space
    •      time
    •           causality
  41. Synthetic a priori knowledge
    (Kant) 
    we know a priori (before experience) that all of our experiences will include space, time, causality
  42. The Individual 
    (Existentialism major theme) 
    strong emphasis on the individual....how the individual experience life
  43. Passion
    (Existentialism major theme) 
    passion plays centeral role, as opposed to the emphasis on reason and rationality. The emphasis is on passionate commitment.

    existentialist: to live is to live passionality  
  44. Human freedom
    (Existentialism major theme) 
    Existentialist are concerned with personal freedom. both political and free will
  45. Existence
    (Existentialism) 
    Key component of existentialism's idea of existence is the realization of one's own death
  46. Authenticity
    (Kierkegaard) 
    when a person lives in the moment and is ready for any outcome—with no excuses and no falling back on membership in some group.

    you are your own person 
  47. Inauthenticity
    (Kierkegaard)
     
    when one’s actions ignore the needs of the individual or made less important than the institutions 
  48. "Leap of Faith"
    (kierkegaard) 
    a blind, personal commitment to God at every moment of your life. The very fact that this leap is completely independent of reason is what makes it so strong

    no reason 
  49. Subjective Truth
    (Kierkegaard) 
    • Central element in a meaningful life. 
    • "inwardness and passion"
    • - personal choice "taking hold" of one's life by commiting oneself passionately to what one chooses
  50. The Aesthetic Life
    "existential dialects"
    (kierkegaard) 
    life of pleasure, of desire and satisfaction...choice

    exemplified by the life of don juan- life of sensual enjoyment

     
  51. Ethical Life
    "Existential Dialectic"
    (Kierkegaard) 
    Life of duty...choice of being ethical is not itself an ethical choice

    • followed the moral philosoophy of Kant
    • - central duty and moral principle 
  52. Religious Life
    "Existential Dialectic"
    (Kierkegaard) 
    the belief in God
  53. Will to power
    (Nietzsche) 
    the fundamental force that motivates all action os the will to power

     
  54. We all seek to:
    (Nietzsche)  
    Dominate others

    we are all unequal in abilities....survival of the fittest...the strongest will dominate the weaker 
  55. Death of God Philosophy
    (Nietzsche)  
    God plays no role....except as the protector of slave morality

    ....no rational basis for belief in God or slave morality....Master morality will rise 
  56. In all things except human beings...
    (Sarte) 
    Essence preceeds existence
  57. Humans
    (Sarte)
    Existence preceeds existence

    • No god to give us our essence
    • we must create or own essence
    • therefore we are responsible for our reactions 
  58. Anguish
    (Sarte)
     
    The pressure of knowing that we are choosing for all humanity by the way we life our lives
  59. Forlorness
    (Sarte)
     
    God does not exist and we have to face all the consequences of this fact
  60. Despair
    (Sarte) 
    We must reckon with all the possibilities when we make a decision 
  61. 1st principle of existentialism
    (Sarte) 
    Man is nothing else but what he makes of himself
  62. 2 definitions of subjectivity
    (sarte) 
    • 1. the individual chooses and makes himself
    • 2. it is impossible for a man to transcend the human condition. We can only experience life as a particular human being 
  63. Logotherapy
    (victor frankl) 
    meaning therapy
  64. Existential Vacuum
    (victor frankl) 
    He points out how often people, when they finally have the time to do what they want, don't seem to want to do anything!

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