Management Week 4

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  1. gap between an actual and desired situation
  2. 3 problem solving methods
    • histocial cues
    • scenario technique
    • perceptions of others
  3. identifying trends that are different from the past can indicate a potential problem
    historical cues
  4. to forecast and anticipate problems, people consider different scenarios and then plan how they would handle those.
    scenario technique
  5. customers may complain about certain aspects of a product or service. if nothing is done in response to these complaints a company could miss out on an opportunity to prevent a brewing problem
    perceptions of others
  6. identifying and choosing solutions that lead to a desired result
    decision making
  7. rational model: logical 4 step approach to decision making
    • 1. identifying the problem
    • 2. generating alternative solutions
    • 3. selecting solution
    • 4. implementing and evaluating the solution
  8. based on premise that decision making is not rational simons normative model and garbage can model
    non rational models
  9. based on premise that decision making is not rational - decision makers are guided by bounded rationality and is characterized by limited information processing and satisficing
    simon's normative model of decision making
  10. based on prmise that decision making is sloppy and haphazard
    garbage can model
  11. use information readily available in memory
    availability heuristic
  12. using similar situations to predict the occurence of an event
    representativeness heuristic
  13. decide before investigating then seek confirming evidence
    confirmation bias
  14. decisions are influenced by initial information, data, stereotypes
    anchoring bias
  15. tendency to be overconfident about estimates or forecasts
    overconfidence bias
  16. kowledge of an outcome influences our belief about the probability that we could have predicted the outcome earlier
    hindsight bias
  17. tendency to consider risks about gains differently than risks about losses
    framing bias
  18. tendency to stick to an ineffective course of action when it is unlikely that the bad situation can be reversed
    escalation of commitment bias
  19. implementing systems and practices that increase the sharing of knowledge and information throughout an organization
    decision making
  20. information gained through experience that is difficult to express and formalize
    tacit knowledge
  21. information that can be easily put into words and shared with others
    explicit knowledge
  22. A Decision Making Style: have a low tolerance for ambiguity and are task oriented. They are efficient and action oriented but tend to be autocratic
    directive style
  23. A Decision Making Style: have a higher tolerance for ambiguity and a tendency to overanalyze a situation. They tend to consider more information and take longer to make decisions but can be autocratic
    analytic style
  24. A Decision Making Style: have a high tolerance for ambiguity and tend to focus on the people or social aspects of work. They take a broad persepctive and like to consider numerous options, but can be indecisive when making decisions
    conceptual style
  25. A Decision Making Style: are the most people oriented of the four possibilities. They are supportive and receptive, but have a tendency to avoid conflict and to be too concerned about others
    behavioral style
  26. T/F groups are more efficient than individuals
  27. T/F groups are more confident in their choices than individuals
    Yes? but doesn't mean they had the best decision
  28. T/F the larger the group the poorer the decision quality
  29. When to use groups for decision making
    • if add'l info would increase quality
    • if acceptance is important
    • if people can be developed through their participation
  30. process to generate a quantity of ideas where quantity is more important than quality, no criticism, build on others ideas, create status free environment
  31. group meets to discuss a problem
    individual generate ideas independently
    everyone shares an idea from his/her list and they are recorded
    group discusses all ideas
    group members vote
    nominal group technique
  32. manager identifies an issue
    questionnaire is sent to others and returned to manager
    manager summarizes responds and sends feedback to participants
    participants send their feedback and comments
    cycle repeats until issue is resolved or all relevant info is gathered
    delphi technique
  33. thinking up new things
    doing new things
    • creativity
    • innocation
  34. creating something entirely new
  35. combining or synthesizing two existing things
  36. improving or changing things
  37. one party perceives its interests are being opposed or set back by another party
  38. serves organization's interest - typicall issue focused and stimulates creativity
    functional conflict
  39. threatens organization's interests - typically person focused - breeds hostility - stifles communication
    dysfunctional conflict
  40. 4 causes of conflicts
    • incompatible personalities or value systems
    • role ambiguity/overload
    • interdependent tasks
    • competition for limited resources
  41. Desired conflict outcomes
    • agreement
    • stronger relationships
    • learning
  42. outcome of conflict: desired because unresolved conflicts typically come back as problems in the future.
  43. outcome of conflict: are desired because conflict that is resolved positively is more likely to lead to future interaction and information sharing between parties
    stronger relationships
  44. outcome of conflict: results from positively resolved conflict that helps shape our behaior and helps us grow as individuals
  45. three types of conflict
    • personality conflict
    • intergroup conflict
    • cross cultural conflict
  46. someone challenges the group or decision makers on an existing or new proposed course of action
    devils advocate
  47. focuses on challenging assumptions and developing complee alternative solutions and debating them based on their merits
    dialect approach
  48. Five conflict handling styles
    • integrating
    • dominating
    • obliging
    • avoiding
    • compromising
  49. the i win you lose perspective
    dominating style
  50. the I lose you win perspective
    oblicing/accomodating style
  51. I lose and you lose persective
    avoiding style
  52. you win I win perspective
    integrating/collaborating style
  53. Alfonso tends to be an agreeable person with a high need for affiliation.  When he encounters conflict situations at work he is most likely to use which conflict management style:
    a.Dominating; Integrating
    b.Integrating; Compromising
    c.Compromising; Avoiding
    d.Obliging; Dominating
    e.Avoiding; Obliging
  54. avoiding costly lawsuits by resolving conflicts informally or through medidation or arbitration
    alternative dispute resolution
  55. neutral third party guides parties to make a mutually acceptable solution
  56. parties agree to accept the decision of the neutral arbitrator
  57. give and take process between conflicting interdependenet parties
  58. when the parties are take a win lose perspective based on the premise that whater you gain i lose and vice versa
    distributive negotiation
  59. people not taking stands or positions but instead focusing on their and the other party's underlying interests
    integrative negotiation
  60. Before entering a negotiation with a client over the price of his company’s service, Ben thinks about the client’s interests and his company’s interests.  He then brainstorms several options that would satisfy both needs.  The approach Ben is taking represents:
    a.Integrative negotiation
    b.Distributive negotiation
    c.“I win, you lose” negotiation
    d.Compromise negotiation
    integrative negotiation
  61. reflects the prominence of its brand in the minds of the public and the perceived quality of its goods and services
  62. defined as the willingness to be vulnerable to a trustee based on positive expectations abou tthe authority's actions and intentions
  63. reflects the perceived fairness of an authority's decision making
  64. reflects the degree to which the behaviors of na authority are in accordance with generally accepted moral norms
  65. means your personality traits include a general propensity to trust others
    disposition based trust
  66. means that trust is rooted in a rational assessment of the authority's trustworthiness
    cognition based trust
  67. means that it depends on feelings toward the authority that go beyond any rational assessment
    affect based trust
  68. a general expectation that the words, promises, and statements of individuals and groups can be relied upon
    trust propensity
  69. the characteristics or attributes of a trustee that inspire trust
  70. defined as the skills, competenciess, and areas of experties that enable an authority to be successful in some area
  71. the believe that the authority wants to do good for the trustor apart from any selfish or profit centered motives
  72. the perception that the authority adheres to a set of values and principles that the trustor finds acceptable
  73. the perceived fairness of decision amking outcomes
    distributive justice
  74. reflects the perceived fairness of decision making processes
    procedural justice
  75. procedural just rule: concerns giving employees a chance to express their opinions and views during the course of decision making
  76. procedural just rule: provides employees with a chance to request an appeal when a procedure seems to have worked ineffectively
  77. procedural just rule: help ensure that procedures are neutral and objective
    consistency, bias suppression, representativeness, and accuracy
  78. reflects the perceived fairness of the treatemnt received by employees from authroities
    interpersonal justice
  79. pertains to whether authorities treat employees in a dignified and sincere manner
    respect rule
  80. reflcets whether authorities refrain from making improper or offensive remarks
    propriety rule
  81. sustained dislplay of hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviors excluding physical contact
    abusive supervision
  82. reflects the perceived fairness of the communications provided to employees from authories
    informal justice
  83. mandates that authorities explain decision making procedures and outcomes in a comprehensive and reasonable manner
    justification rule
  84. requires that those communications be honest and candid
    truthfulness rule
  85. occurs when an authority recognizes that a moral issue exists in a situation or that an ethical code or pronciple is relevant to the circumstance
    moral awareness
  86. captures the degree to which the moral issue has ethical urgency
    moral intensity
  87. captures the degree to which people chronically perceive and consider issues of morality during their experience
    moral attentiveness
  88. reflects the process people use to determine whether a particular course of action is ethical or unethical
    moral judgement
  89. argues that as people age and mature they move through several stages of moral development
    cognitive moral development theory
  90. reflects an authority's degree of commitment to the moral course of action
    moral intent
  91. relationships that are based on narrowly defined, quid pro quo obligations that are specified in advance and have an explicit repayment schedule.
    economic exchange
  92. relationships  are based on vaguely defined obligations that are open-ended and long-term in their repayment schedule.
    social exchange
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Management Week 4
Management Week 4
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