Research Class

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Research Class
2012-06-28 17:32:13
Research Class

Research class
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  1. Level of significance do researchers most often use?
    .05 or 95%
  2. Null hypothesis example
    No difference
  3. Sampling method is the best way to select a group most representative of population
    Random sample
  4. the most meaningful research problems come from what sources
    Clinical Practice
  5. all subs have = chance of being called
    random w/o replacement probability sample
  6. Empirical data
    Documented evidence(data) gathered through directobservation rather than a researcher’ssubjective belief.
  7. Nursing research
    A systematic processof investigating problems to gainknowledge about improving care thatnurses provide.
  8. Nursing science
    The body of knowledgethat is unique to the discipline ofnursing.
  9. Qualitative research
    An approach forgenerating knowledge using methodsof inquiry that emphasize subjectivityand the meaning of an experience forthe individual.
  10. Quantitative research
    An approach forgenerating knowledge based ondetermining how much of a givenbehavior, characteristic, orphenomenon is present.
  11. Replication
    The ability of researchers torepeat a study using the same variablesand methods or slight variations ofthem.
  12. Research consumer
    Readers of nursingresearch whose objective is applyingfindings to nursing practice or usingthe findings to conduct furtherresearch.
  13. Research team
    A group that collaboratesto conduct a research project, fromdetermining the initial research questionthrough communicating the results.
  14. Research rigor
    Striving for excellence inresearch, which involves discipline,scrupulous adherence to detail, andstrict accuracy.
  15. Scientific inquiry
     The process ofanalyzing data critically that have beengathered systematically about aparticular phenomenon.
  16. Scientific method
     A systematic researchprocess that involves the followingsteps: selecting and defining theproblem, formulating researchquestions or hypotheses or both,collecting data, analyzing data, andreporting results.
  17. Triangulation
    Use of quantitativeand qualitative methods tocollect data about a particularphenomenon.
  18. Ways of knowing
    An assortment ofmethods used to acquire new knowledge;including tradition, authority, trial anderror, and intuition.
  19. Anonymity
    A condition in whichthe identity of subjects remainsunknown, even to the researcher, toprotect subjects participating in astudy, and to promote objectiveresults.
  20. Confidentiality
    Protecting data that isgathered or learned from patients bynot disclosing information withouttheir permission.
  21. Basic research
    A type of study designedto develop the knowledge base andextend theory without direct focus onclinical application.
  22. Applied research
     A type of studydesigned to gather knowledge that hasdirect clinical application.
  23. Correlational research
    A type ofnonexperimental study designed toexamine the relationship between andamong variables.
  24. Cross-sectional research
    A study thatcollects data at a particular point intime and does not require follow-up.
  25. Descriptive research
    A type ofnonexperimental study designed toprovide a knowledge base when littleis known about a phenomenon; usedto describe variables rather than totest a predicted relationship.
  26. Experimental research
    A study in whichthe researcher manipulates and controlsone or more variables and observes theeffect on (an)other variable(s).
  27. Human rights
    The protection ofsubjects participating in a researchstudy; includes the right to freedomfrom injury, the right to privacy anddignity, and the right to anonymityand confidentiality.
  28. Longitudinal research
    A study thatfollows a cohort of subjects andcollects data over time.
  29. Nonexperimental research
    A descriptivestudy that does not exhibit a greatamount of control over variables.
  30. Prospective research
    A study thatexamines data collected in the present.
  31. Retrospective research
    A study thatexamines data collected in the past.
  32. Risk-benefit ratio
    The relationshipbetween potential harm to subjectsand potential positive outcomes ofparticipating in a research study; anevaluation used by subjects to makevoluntary informed consent.
  33. Electronic databases
    Bibliographic filesthat can be accessed by the computerthrough an online search (i.e., directlycommunicating with a host computerover telephone lines or the Internet)or by CD-ROM (compact discs thatstore bibliographic information).
  34. Empirical literature
    Databasedliterature that presents reports ofcompleted research; also calledscientific literature.
  35. Literature review
    A critical summaryof the most important scholarlyliterature on a particular topic.Scholarly literature can refer toresearch-based publications andconceptual or theoretical literature.
  36. Operational definitions
    Explanationsof concepts or variables in terms ofhow they are defined for a particularstudy.
  37. Primary source
     Source reported by theperson(s) who conducted the researchor developed the theory; refers tooriginal data or first-hand facts.
  38. Problem statement
    A statement of thetopic under study, outlining allrelevant variables within the study,providing justification for the choiceof topic, and guiding the selection ofthe research design.
  39. Purpose statement
    A statement thatdescribes why the study has beencreated.
  40. Refereed journals
    A journal thatdetermines acceptance of manuscriptsbased on the recommendations ofpeer reviewers.
  41. Replication
    The duplication of researchprocedures in a second study todetermine whether earlier results canbe repeated.
  42. Scientific literature
    A databaseliterature presenting reports ofcompleted research.
  43. Secondary source
    Source reported byperson(s) other than the individual(s)who conducted the research ordeveloped the theory; usually represents a comment, summary, orcritique of another’s work.
  44. Theoretical literature
    Conceptualarticles presenting reports of theories,some of which underlie researchstudies, and other nonresearch-relatedmaterial.
  45. Borrowed theories
    Theories taken fromother disciplines and applied to nursingquestions and research problems.
  46. Concepts Symbolic
    statementsdescribing a phenomenon or aclass of phenomena.
  47. Conceptual model 
    A set of abstract andgeneral concepts that are assembled toaddress a phenomenon of interest.
  48. Constructs
     Higher-level concepts thatare derived from theories and thatrepresent nonobservable behaviors.
  49. Deductive approach
    An approach toreasoning that generates theory bybeginning with known facts, movingfrom the general to the specific. It isan approach used to test predictionsand validate existing relationships.
  50. Grand theories
    Theories that arecomplex and broad in scope. Grandtheories attempt to explain broad areas and include numerous conceptsthat are not well defined and thathave ambiguous and unclearrelationships.
  51. Inductive approach
    An approach toreasoning that involves collectingobservations that lead to conclusionsor hypotheses. This approach movesfrom specific observations to generalstatements that can be tested throughresearch.
  52. Metaparadigm.
     Refers to the primary orcentral phenomena that are of interestto a particular discipline.
  53. Middle-range theories
    Theories thatlook at a piece of reality and thatcontain clearly defined variables inwhich the nature and direction ofrelationships are specified.
  54. Nursing theory
     A specific and concreteset of concepts and propositions that accounts for or characterizesphenomena of interest to thediscipline of nursing.
  55. Practice theories
    Theories that are morespecific than middle-range theoriesand that produce specific directions orguidelines for practice.
  56. Theory
    An organized and systematic setof interrelated statements (concepts)that specify the nature of relationshipsbetween two or more variables, withthe purpose of understanding aproblem or nature of things.
  57. Complex hypothesis
     A statementexplaining and/or predictingrelationships between two or moreindependent and dependent variables.
  58. Dependent variable
     A variable that isobserved for changes or to assess thepossible effect of a treatment ormanipulation; may be the effect oroutcome of an experimentalprocedure; also referred to as acriterion variable. Usually symbolizedby the letter Y.
  59. Directional hypothesis
    A hypothesisthat makes a specific prediction aboutthe direction of the relationshipbetween two variables.
  60. Extraneous variable
    A variable that isnot controlled for in a study,threatening the internal validity of thestudy.
  61. Hypothesis
    A statement about therelationship between the variables thatare being investigated.
  62. Independent variable
    A variable that ismanipulated and controlled by theresearcher; also called a predictorvariable. Usually symbolized by theletter X.
  63. Nondirectional hypothesis
    Ahypothesis that does not stipulate inadvance the direction and nature ofthe relationship between twovariables.
  64. Null hypothesis (H0)
    A hypothesisstating that no relationship ordifference exists between twovariables. Also called statisticalhypothesis.
  65. Research hypothesis (H1 or Ha)
     Ahypothesis stating a relationship ordifference between two variables. Alsocalled an alternative, declarative, orscientific hypothesis.
  66. Research question
    A concise,interrogative statement written in thepresent tense including one or morevariables.
  67. Simple hypothesis
     A statementexplaining and/or predicting arelationship between one independentand one dependent Variable A measurable characteristic
  68. Variable
     A measurable characteristic thatvaries among the subjects beingstudied.
  69. Accessible population
    Population thatis readily available to the researcherand that represents the targetpopulation as closely as possible.
  70. Cluster sampling
    Type of sampling inwhich the researcher selects groups ofsubjects rather than individualsubjects; also called multistagesampling.
  71. Convenience sampling
    Type ofnonprobability sampling in which theresearcher selects subjects or elementsreadily available; also called accidentalsampling.
  72. External validity
     Extent to whichresults of a study can be generalizedfrom the study sample to otherpopulations and settings.
  73. Network sampling
     Type ofnonprobability sampling that takesadvantage of social networks.
  74. Nonprobability sampling
     Type ofsampling in which the sample is notselected using random selection.
  75. Population
    set of subjects, objects,events, or elements being studied; alsocalled the target population.
  76. Probability sampling
    Type of samplingin which every subject, object, orelement in the population has anequal chance or probability of beingchosen.
  77. Purposive sampling
    Type of nonprobabilitysampling in which theresearcher selects only subjects thatsatisfy prespecified characteristics; alsocalled judgmental or theoreticalsampling.
  78. Quota sampling
    Type of nonprobabilitysampling in which quotas are filled.
  79. Random assignment
     Allocation ofsubjects to either an experimental or acontrol group.
  80. Random selection
     Type of selection inwhich each subject has an equal,independent chance of being selected.
  81. Sampling 
    The process of selecting asubset from a larger population.
  82. Sampling frame
    A list of all elements ina population.
  83. Simple random sampling
    Simple random sampling Method ofselecting subjects for a sample, inwhich every subject has an equalchance of being chosen.
  84. Snowball sampling .
    Snowball sampling Type of nonprobabilitysampling that relies on subjectsidentifying other subjects with similarcharacteristics.
  85. Stratified random sampling
    Stratified random sampling Type ofrandom sampling in which thepopulation is divided intosubpopulations, or strata, on the basisof one or more variables, and a simplerandom sample is drawn from eachstratum.
  86. Systematic sampling
    Systematic sampling Type of samplingin which every kth (where “k” is someconvenient number) member of thepopulation is selected into the sample.
  87. Target population
    Target population Population for whichstudy outcomes are intended.Although the intended (target)population is usually evident, havingaccess to members of this population(accessible) can be difficult.
  88. Construct validity
    Construct validity Extent to which aninstrument or test measures anintended hypothetical concept orconstruct.
  89. Content validity
    Content validity Extent to which aninstrument or test measures anintended content area.
  90. Continuous variable
    Continuous variable Variable that takeson an infinite number of differentvalues presented on a continuum.
  91. Criterion-related validity
    Criterion-related validity Extent towhich an instrument or test measuresa particular concept compared with acriterion.
  92. Cronbach’s alpha (coefficient alpha)
    Cronbach’s alpha (coefficient alpha)Widely used index of the extent towhich a measuring instrument isinternally stable.
  93. Dichotomous variable
    Dichotomous variable A nominalvariable that consists of twocategories.
  94. Instrument
    Instrument A device, piece ofequipment, or paper-and-pencil testthat measures a concept or variable ofinterest.
  95. Interval level of measurement
    Interval level of measurement Level ofmeasurement characterized by aconstant unit of measurement orequal distances between points on ascale.
  96. Measurement
    Measurement The assignment ofnumerical values to concepts,according to well-defined rules.
  97. Nominal level of measurement
    Nominal level of measurement Lowestlevel of measurement, which consistsof assigning numbers as labels forcategories. These numbers have nonumerical interpretation
  98. Operational definition
    Operational definition A definitionthat assigns meaning to a variable andthe terms or procedures by which thevariable is to be measured.
  99. Ordinal level of measurement
    Ordinal level of measurement Level ofmeasurement that yields rank-ordereddata.
  100. Psychometric evaluation 
    Psychometric evaluation Evaluatingproperties of reliability and validity inrelation to instruments being used tomeasure a particular concept orconstruct.
  101. Ratio level of measurement
    Ratio level of measurement Highestlevel of measurement, characterized byequal distances between scores havingan absolute zero point.
  102. Reliability
    Reliability Value that refers to theconsistency with which an instrumentor test measures a particular concept.Different ways of assessing reliabilityinclude test-retest, internalconsistency, and interrater.
  103. Test-retest reliability
    Test-retest reliability An approach toreliability examining the extent towhich scores are consistent over time.
  104. Validity
    Validity Value that refers to the accuracywith which an instrument or testmeasures what it is supposed tomeasure. Different types of validityinclude content, criterion, andconstruct.
  105. Close-ended questionnaire
    Close-ended questionnaire Type offormat in which subjects are askedto select an answer from severalchoices.
  106. Instrument
    Instrument A device, piece ofequipment, or paper-and-pencil testthat measures a concept or variable ofinterest.
  107. Interview schedule
    Interview schedule List of topics or anopen-ended questionnaire administeredto subjects by a skilled interviewer.Sometimes referred to as an interviewguide.
  108. Likert scale
    Likert scale Sometimes referred to as asummative scale. Respondents areasked to respond to a series ofstatements that reflect agreement ordisagreement. Most Likert scalesconsist of five scale points, designatedby the words, “strongly agree,”“agree,” “undecided,” “disagree,” and“strongly disagree.”
  109. Open-ended questionnaire
    Open-ended questionnaire Type offormat in which subjects are asked toprovide specific answers.
  110. Q Methodology
    Q Methodology Sorting techniqueused to characterize opinions,attitudes, or judgments of individualsthrough comparative rank ordering.
  111. Questionnaire
    Questionnaire A structured surveythat is self-administered orinterviewer-administered.
  112. Response set bias
    Response set bias The tendency forsubjects to respond to items on aquestionnaire in a way that does notreflect the real situation accurately.
  113. Semantic differential scale
    Semantic differential scale Set of scales,using pairs of adjectives that reflectopposite feelings.
  114. Scale
    Scale A set of numerical valuesassigned to responses that representthe degree to which respondentspossess a particular attitude, value, orcharacteristic.
  115. Survey
    Survey A method of collecting data todescribe, compare, or explainknowledge, attitudes, or behaviors.
  116. Visual analogue scale Type of scalethat measures subjective phenomena
    Visual analogue scale Type of scalethat measures subjective phenomena Visual analogue scale Type of scalethat measures subjective phenomena asked to mark a point on the lineindicating the amount of thephenomenon experienced atthat time.
  117. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Aparametric procedure used to testwhether there is a difference amongthree group means.
  118. Chi-square
    Chi-square A nonparametric procedureused to assess whether a relationshipexists between two nominal levelvariables; symbolized as x2.
  119. Correlation
    Correlation A measure that defines therelationship between two variables.
  120. Descriptive statistics
    Descriptive statistics Statistics thatdescribe and summarize data.
  121. Homogeneity of variance
    Homogeneity of variance Situation inwhich the dependent variables do notdiffer significantly between or amonggroups.
  122. Inferential statistics
    Inferential statistics Statistics thatgeneralize findings from a sample to apopulation.
  123. Level of confidence
    Level of confidence Probability level inwhich the research hypothesis isaccepted with confidence. A 0.05 levelof confidence is the standard amongresearchers.
  124. Mean
    Mean A measure of central tendencycalculated by summing a set of scoresand dividing the sum by the totalnumber of scores; also called theaverage.
  125. Measures of central tendency
    Measures of central tendencyDescriptive statistics that describe thelocation or approximate center of adistribution of data.
  126. Measures of dispersion
    Measures of dispersion Descriptivestatistics that depict the spread orvariability among a set of numericaldata.
  127. Median
    Median A measure of central tendencythat represents the middle score in adistribution.
  128. Mode
    Mode The score or value that occursmost frequently in a distribution; ameasure of central tendency usedmost often with nominal-level data.
  129. Negative correlation
    Negative correlation Correlation inwhich high scores for one variable arepaired with low scores for the othervariable.
  130. Outlier
    Outlier Data point isolated from otherdata points; extreme score in a data set.
  131. Parameter
    Parameter Numerical characteristic of apopulation (e.g., population mean,population standard deviation).
  132. Positive correlation
    Positive correlation Correlation inwhich high scores for one variable arepaired with high scores for the othervariable, or low scores for one variableare paired with low scores for theother variable.
  133. Probability
    Probability Likelihood that an eventwill occur, given all possibleoutcomes.
  134. Range
    Range A measure of variability that isthe difference between the lowest andhighest values in a distribution.
  135. Robust Referring
    Robust Referring to results fromstatistical analyses that are close tobeing valid even though the researcher does not rigidly adhere to assumptionsassociated with parametric procedures.
  136. Skewed distribution
    Skewed distribution A distribution ofscores with a few outlyingobservations in either direction.
  137. Standard deviation (SD)
    Standard deviation (SD) The mostfrequently used measure of variability;the distance a score varies from themean.
  138. Symmetrical distribution
    Symmetrical distribution Adistribution of scores in which themean, median, and mode are all thesame.
  139. t-test
    t-test A popular parametric procedurefor assessing whether two groupmeans are significantly different fromone another.
  140. Variance
    Variance Measure of variability, which isthe average squared deviation fromthe mean.
  141. Extraneous variable
    Extraneous variable Any variable that isnot directly related to the purpose ofthe study but that may affect thedependent variable; sometimes termedintervening or confounding variables.
  142. Internal validity
    Refers to whether theindependent variable made a difference.
  143. Paradigm
    Organizing framework thatcontains a set of assumptions or valuesthat underlie how scientists viewreality, truth, and research.
  144. Qualitative research
     Research directedat the discovery of meaning ratherthan cause and effect.
  145. Quantitative research
    Research directedat the discovery of relationships andcause and effect. Methods used arebased on the scientific method ofinquiry
  146. Randomized clinical trial (RCT)
    Aprospective study evaluating theeffectiveness of an intervention/treatment in a large sample ofpatients. Essential features of aclinical trial include use of anexperimental and control group,randomization, blinding of patientsand health-care providers, andsufficient sample sizes.
  147. Research design
     Set of guidelines bywhich a researcher obtains answers toquestions.
  148. Single-blinded study
     Treatmentassignment (to either experimental orcontrol group) is unknown topatients.
  149. Bracketing
     Identification of anyprevious knowledge, ideas, or beliefsabout the phenomenon underinvestigation.
  150. Category
    Category Type of concept that isusually used for a higher level ofabstraction.
  151. Coding
    Coding Process by which data areconceptualized.
  152. Confirmability
    Confirmability Method used toestablish the scientific rigor ofphenomenological research. It hasthree elements: auditability, credibility,and fittingness. Auditability requiresthe reader to be able to follow theresearcher’s decision path and reach a similar conclusion. Credibilityrequires that the phenomenologicaldescription of the lived experience berecognized by people in the situationas an accurate description of their ownexperience. Fittingness requires thatthe phenomenological description isgrounded in the lived experience andreflects typical and atypical elementsof the experience.
  153. Constant comparative method of dataanalysis
    Constant comparative method of dataanalysis Form of qualitative dataanalysis that categorizes units ofmeaning through a process ofcomparing incident to incident untilconcepts emerge.
  154. Essences
    Essences Elements or structured unitsthat give an understanding of thelived experience.
  155. Ethnography
    Ethnography A qualitative researchapproach developed by anthropologists,involving the study and descriptionof a culture in the natural setting.The researcher is intimately involvedin the data collection process andseeks to understand fully how lifeunfolds for the particular cultureunder study.
  156. Field work
    Field work An anthropological researchapproach that involves prolongedresidence with members of the culturethat is being studied. Field notes arewritten as detailed descriptions ofresearchers’ observations, experiences,and conversations in the “field”(research setting).
  157. Grounded theory
    Grounded theory Discovery of atheory from data that have beensystematically obtained throughresearch.
  158. Lived experience
    Lived experience The focus ofphenomenology. It consists ofeveryday experiences of an individualin the context of normal pursuits. It iswhat is real and true to the individual
  159. Memos
    Memos Write-up of ideas about codesand their relationships as they occurto the researcher while coding.
  160. Participant observer
    Participant observer A technique inanthropological field work. It involvesdirect observation of everyday life instudy participants’ natural settings andparticipation in their lifestyle andactivities to the greatest extent possible
  161. Phenomenology
    Phenomenology A philosophy andresearch method that explores anddescribes everyday experience as itappears to human consciousness inorder to generate and enhance theunderstanding of what it means to behuman. Phenomenology limitsphilosophical inquiry to acts ofconsciousness.
  162. Purposive sampling
    Purposive sampling Selecting andinterviewing participants who haveactually lived and experienced thephenomena of interest.
  163. Saturation
    Saturation Point when data collectionis terminated because no newdescription and interpretations ofthe lived experience are coming fromthe study participants.
  164. Symbolic interaction
    Symbolic interaction Theoreticalorientation to qualitative research;focus is on the nature of socialinteraction among individuals.
  165. Theoretical sampling
    Theoretical sampling Process used indata collection that is controlled bythe emerging theory; researchercollects, codes, and analyzes the data.
  166. Abstract
    Abstract A brief summary of a researchstudy; usually includes the purpose methods, and findings of a study.
  167. Clinical significance
    Clinical significance Findings that havemeaning for patient care in theabsence or presence of statisticalsignificance.
  168. Generalizability
    Generalizability Extent to whichresearch findings can be generalizedbeyond the given research situation toother settings and subjects; also calledexternal validity.
  169. Limitations
    Limitations Aspects of a study that arepotentially confounding to the mainstudy variables.
  170. Query letter
    Query letter Letter written to an editorto determine the level of interest inpublishing a research report.
  171. Refereed journal
    Refereed journal A journal that usesexpert peers in specified fields toreview and determine whether aparticular manuscript will bepublished.
  172. Research report
    Research report A document thatsummarizes the key aspects of a researchstudy; usually includes the purpose,methods, and findings of a study.
  173. Statistical significance
    Statistical significance The extent towhich the results of an analysis areunlikely to be the effect of chance.
  174. Research critique
    Research critique Criticalevaluation of a piece of reportedresearch.
  175. Research review
    Research review Identification andsummary of major findings andcharacteristics of a study.
  176. ACP Journal Club
    ACP Journal Club The ACP JournalClub summarizes and interprets thebest evidence of one recent study orreview article from traditionaljournals, based on the criteriaprovided by the practitioner.
  177. Agency for Healthcare Research andQuality (AHRQ)
    Agency for Healthcare Research andQuality (AHRQ) The AHRQ haspromoted EBP through theestablishment of 12 Evidence-BasedPractice Centers (EPCs). These EPCsare responsible for developingevidence guidelines and technologyassessments on various clinical topics.
  178. The Cochrane Database of SystematicReviews
    The Cochrane Database of SystematicReviews One of the most populardatabases is The Cochrane Library,which reviews and summarizesindividual clinical trials and systematic reviews from more than 100 medicaljournals.
  179. Evidence-based medicine (EBM)
    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) Theconscientious, explicit, and judicioususe of current best evidence in makingdecisions about the care of individualpatients. The practice of EBM meansintegrating individual clinicalexpertise with the best availableexternal clinical evidence fromsystematic research.
  180. Evidence-based practice (EBP)
    Evidence-based practice (EBP) Theconscientious, explicit, and judicioususe of theory-derived, research-basedinformation in making decisionsabout care delivery to individualsor groups of patients and inconsideration of individual needsand preferences.
  181. InfoPOEMS
    InfoPOEMS Info-POEMS (Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters) is adatabase similar to the ACP JournalClub and it reviews and providescommentary on recent articles.
  182. MD Consult
    MD Consult A database that providesfull-text access to textbooks, journalarticles, practice guidelines, patienteducation handouts, and drugawareness.
  183. Meta-analysis
    Meta-analysis A statistical method thattakes the results of many studies in aspecific area, and synthesizes theirfindings to draw conclusionsregarding the state of the science inthe area of focus.
  184. National Guideline Clearinghouse
    National Guideline ClearinghouseThis Clearinghouse provides acollection of evidence-based clinicalpractice guidelines.