# Cumulative Review 1.txt

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 Author: Maki6tu ID: 160415 Filename: Cumulative Review 1.txt Updated: 2012-08-02 15:21:10 Tags: Review Folders: Description: Review Show Answers:

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1. Relationship of static friction and sliding object base area
Independent. There is none.
2. Relationship of kinetic friction and speed over time. (tension and friction forces are constant)
The coefficient of kinetic friction is always lower than that of static friction. Therefore there is a net accelerating force on the block once it starts to slide making speed increase linearly with time.
3. What accounts for N2's boiling point being lower than O2's?
N2 has a lower molecular weight than does O2.
4. As distance increases between transmitter and receiver of sound, wavelength...
Increases
5. Speed relationship between radio and sound waves.
Sound waves travel more slowly.
6. If wavelength decreases, then the object making the sound is...
Getting closer.
7. Pressure in a liquid is proportional to...
Liquid density and depth
8. The pH at the equivalence point of a titration is equal to...
The pH of the salt solution formed.
9. Equivalent mass (equivalent weight)
The mass of an acid that yields one mole of hydrogen ions.

or

The mass of a base that reacts with one mole of hydrogen ions.
10. Calculating mole fraction
The mole fraction is the number of moles of chemical in question divided by the total number of moles for all other species in solution.

mf of A =
11. Partial pressure
Divide the total pressure by number of molecules (including coefficients).

CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O

(maybe products only?)
12. Empirical formula from grams.
Figure out number of moles. Number of moles equals subscript unless it can be reduced. (e.g. 2:4:2 = 1:2:1)
13. Fundamental wavelengths
Open pipe wavelength is 2 times the length of the pipe.

Pipe diameter doesn't matter.
14. (Photoelectric effect) When the number of photons increases...
The number of electrons ejected increases.

Electron energy is based on the energy of the photon.
15. Calculating power dissipated as heat in a resistor
The square of the current (I) times the resistance (R).
16. (Photoelectric effect) Increasing the frequency of each photon...
Increases the speed of the ejected electron.
17. Fusion (phase changes) definition
Melting
18. Plane mirror characteristic
Produces an image behind its plane at a distance equal to the distance of the object being reflected.
19. Equivalent of [H+]
H3O+
20. The autonomic nerve fibers that directly innervate the heart to cause cardiac slowing are:
Parasympathetic motor fibers
21. Amine vs. Amide
• Amine
• Amide
22. Glucagon function
Stimulates gluconeogenisis and release of glucose into the blood.
23. Effect of an impurity on melting points
Slightly lowers and broadens the temperature range of melting.
24. Ether
25. Ester
26. Ketone
27. Relationship between the colon and the appendix
They are connected in such a way that contents may move freely between them.
28. Two aspects of fungal spores
Metabolically inactive

Haploid
29. Cells included in an inflammatory response
• T cells
• B cells
• Other leukocytes
30. Saponification
Saponification is hydrolysis of an ester.
31. Bacterial replication
Fission
32. Organs involved in menstrual cycle
Hypothalamus

Pituitary

Ovary
33. Integumentary system components
Hair, nails, skin, and oil and sweat glands.
34. Integumentary system functions
Thermoregulation, protection, environmental sensory input, excretion, innate immunity, blood reservoir, vitamin D synthesis.
35. Epidermis
36. Dermis
Contains blood vessels, hair follicles, sebaceous glands (oil), sudoriferous glands (sweat), and nerve endings. The dermis is a connective tissue.
37. Musculoskeletal system functions
Body movement, support and stabilization, generation of heat, and maintenance of homeostasis.
38. Skeletal muscle characteristics
Voluntary, striated, and multinucleated.
39. Sarcomere diagram
40. Arrival of the Action Potential
The neuromuscular junction between a skeletal muscle and a motor nerve can ONLY USE ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh) AS THE NEUROTRANSMITTER. The action potential spreads along the sarcolemma and down specialized T-tubules that dive deep into the muscle cell, causing the release of Ca2+.
41. Contraction
• -The default low-energy position for myosin heads is bent. ATP is used to force, or "cock", these myosin heads into a high-energy, straight position.
• -After the "power stroke", ATP binds to the mysoin head again, releasing it from the actin filament.
42. Ca2+ level for contraction
High
43. Ca2+ level for relaxation
Low
44. Effect on sarcomere when no ATP is present
Myosin heads cannot detach from actin and the muscle will remain in a contracted position. (Rigor mortis)
45. Effect on sarcomere when no Ca2+ is present
We do not get rigor, but the inability to contract (a.k.a. "flaccidity")
46. The strength of a contraction depends on:
• 1) Number of motor units being used
• 2) Size of the motor units being used
• 3) Frequency of action potentials (i.e. stimulation)
47. Skeletal muscle important features
• Skeletal muscles store large amounts of glycogen; they also require a lot of oxygen and thus have their own oxygen storage molecule, myoglobin, which is capable of holding one O2 molecule.
• Also mature (differentiated) skeletal muscles are frozen in Go phase and do not divide (similar to neurons)
48. Cardiac muscle characteristics
• Involuntary, striated, one nucleus.
• Unlike skeletal muscles, cardiac cells continue dividing after differentiation.
49. Cardiac muscle contraction mech.
Does contain sarcomeres and uses the same sliding filament mechanism as skeletal muscle.
50. Smooth muscle characteristics
Involuntary, non-striated, one nucleus.
51. Smooth muscle contraction mech.
Smooth muscle is NOT arranged in sarcomeres. Therefore it does not contain troponin. Uses a calcium cascade mechanism instead.
52. Bone functions
Support, protection, movement, mineral storage (calcium and phosphate), energy storage (as fat in the marrow), and blood cell formation.
53. Osteocytes
Mature bone cells surrounded by a mineral matrix.
54. Osteoclasts
Bone cells that break down and resorb bone matrix, releasing the component minerals (Ca2+ and P) back into the blood.
55. Osteoblasts
Immature bone cells that secrete collagen, organic compounds, and minerals forming a bone matrix around themselves. Once they are completely enclosed by matrix, they differentiate into osteocytes.
56. Anatomy of long bone
Two epiphyses (bulbous ends) cushioned by cartilage; the ends are filled with spongy bone and the shaft in between is made of compact bone; the center is a hollow cavity filled with yellow bone marrow.
57. Hydroxyapatite
A compound of calcium, phosphate, and hydroxide. It is the mineral matrix responsible for a bone's strength and is the form in which most all of the body's calcium is stored.
58. Cartilage
• A connective tissue made of collagen.
• No perfusion or innervation
• Found in appendages such as the nose and ears, at the ends of the long bones, between vertebrae, at the rib-sternum (sternocostal) joints, etc.
59. Types of joints
• 1) Fibrous (skull bones)
• 2) Cartilaginous (ribs and sternum)
• 3) Synovial (knee, elbow, etc.)
60. Sperm
Spermatozoa are produced by the testicles in the seminiferous tubules and stored and nurtured in the epididymis. They are a SINGLE, HAPLOID cell consisting of a head (cell body) and tail (flagellum). They contain lots of mitochondria.
61. Ejaculation pathway
Sperm leave the epididymis via the vas deferens. The vas deferens arches back up into the pelvis and then back towards the penis. Along this path seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral gland (a.k.a. Cowper's gland) all secrete various lubricants and nutrients into the ejaculate.
62. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) location of synthesis
Anterior pituitary
63. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) class
Peptide and water-soluble
64. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) function
Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release stress hormones called "glucocorticoids".
65. Luteinizing hormone (LH) location of synthesis
Anterior pituitary
66. Luteinizing hormone (LH) class
Peptide and water-soluble
67. Luteinizing hormone (LH) function
Surge in LH causes ovulation; stimulates the secretion of the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone.
68. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) location of synthesis
Anterior pituitary
69. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) class
Peptide and water-soluble
70. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) function
Stimulates growth of the follicle during menstrual cycle and production of sperm.
71. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) location of synthesis
Anterior pituitary
72. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) class
Peptide and water-soluble
73. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) function
Stimulates release of T3/T4 from the thyroid.
74. Human Growth hormone (hGH) location of synthesis
Anterior pituitary
75. Human Growth hormone (hGH) class
Peptide and water-soluble
76. Human Growth hormone (hGH) function
Stimulates growth throughout the body.
77. Prolactin location of synthesis
Anterior pituitary
78. Prolactin class
Peptide and water-soluble
79. Prolactin function
Stimulates milk production in the breasts.
80. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) location of synthesis
Posterior pituitary
81. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) class
Peptide and water-soluble
82. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) function
Causes the collecting duct of the kidney to become highly permeable to water, concentrating the urine.
83. Oxytocin location of synthesis
Posterior pituitary
84. Oxytocin class
Peptide and water-soluble
85. Oxytocin function
Stimulates contractions during childbirth and milk secretion during nursing.
86. Parathyroid hormone location of synthesis
Parathyroid
87. Parathyroid hormone class
Peptide and water-soluble
88. Parathyroid hormone function
Increases blood calcium by stimulating proliferation of osteoclasts, uptake of Ca2+ in the gut, and reabsorption of Ca2+ in the kidney.
89. Insulin location of synthesis
Pancreas
90. Insulin class
Peptide and water-soluble
91. Insulin function
Stimulates uptake and storage of glucose from the blood.
92. Glucagon location of synthesis
Pancreas
93. Glucagon class
Peptide and water-soluble
94. Glucagon function
Stimulates gluconeogenisis and release of glucose into the blood.
95. Calcitonin location of synthesis
Thyroid
96. Calcitonin class
Peptide and water-soluble
97. Calcitonin function
Decreases blood calcium by inhibiting osteoclasts.
98. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) location of synthesis
Egg/placenta
99. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) class
Peptide and water-soluble
100. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) function
Prevents degeneration of the corpeus luteum, maintaining pregnancy.
101. Aldosterone location of synthesis
102. Aldosterone class
Steroid and lipid-soluble
103. Aldosterone function
Increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion at the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct; net increase in salts in the plasma, increasing osmotic potential and subsequently blood pressure.
104. Cortisol location of synthesis
105. Cortisol class
Steroid and lipid-soluble
106. Cortisol function
A stress hormone; increases gluconeogenesis in the liver and thus blood glucose levels; stimulates fat breakdown.
107. Testosterone location of synthesis
108. Testosterone class
Steroid and lipid-soluble
109. Testosterone function
Stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics and closing of epiphyseal plates.
110. Estrogen location of synthesis
111. Estrogen class
Steroid and lipid-soluble
112. Estrogen function
Stimulates female sex organs; causes LH surge in menstruation.
113. Progesterone location of synthesis
114. Progesterone class
Steroid and lipid-soluble
115. Progesterone function
Stimulates growth and maintenance of uterus during pregnancy.
116. Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) location of synthesis
Thyroid
117. Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) class
Tyrosine derivative and lipid-soluble
118. Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) function
Increases basal metabolic rate, affecting metabolism.
119. Epinephrine & Norepinephrine location of synthesis
120. Epinephrine & Norepinephrine class
Tyrosine derivative and water-soluble
121. Epinephrine & Norepinephrine function
Cause responses almost identical to a sympathetic nervous system response (fight or flight).
122. Hormones that are peptides and water-soluble
ACTH, LH, FSH, TSH, hGH, Prolactin, ADH, Oxytocin, Parathyroid Hormone, Insulin, Glucagon, Calcitonin, hCG
123. Hormones that are steroids and lipid-soluble
Aldosterone, Cortisol, Testosterone, Estrogen, Progesterone
124. Hormones that are tyrosine derivatives
Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, T3, T4
125. Site of lipid synthesis
Endoplasmic reticulum
126. Site of lipid metabolism
Mitochondria
127. Structure of mitochondrion
128. Where cilia is exclusively found in humans
• -Respiratory System (lungs)
• -Nervous System (ependymal cells)
• -Reproductive System (fallopian tubes)
129. Cell cycle
130. Where DNA is found
Nucleus. DNA cannot leave and is only found here. There is however a small amount found in the mitochondria.
131. Nucleolus
Site of rRNA transcription and ribosome assembly.
132. Rough ER
Covered with ribosomes; all proteins not bound for the cytosol are made here.
133. Smooth ER
Lipid synthesis and modification. NOT LIPID METABOLISM.
134. Golgi Apparatus
Cellular "post office;" organize, package, modify, excrete, etc.
135. Mitochondria
Have their own DNA with variations to the nuclear genetic code passed through the maternal line only.

Place of lipid metabolism.

Theory suggests they evolved from aerobic prokaryotes in symbiosis with a eukaryotic cell.
136. Lysosome
• pH of 5
• Digests cell parts
• Fuses with phagocytotic vesicles
• Participates in cell death (apoptosis)
• Forms by budding off from the Golgi
137. Peroxisome
• Self-replicates
• Detoxifies chemicals
• Participates in lipid metabolism
138. Tubulin
A protein that is the main constituent of microtubules.
139. Cytoskeleton
Microscopic network of filaments that give shape to cells.
140. Spindle Apparatus
Segregates chromosomes during cell division.
141. Actin and Myosin
Filaments in muscle that provide movement.
142. Eukaryotic Flagella
Whipping motion; microtubules made of tubulin.
143. Prokaryotic Flagella
Spinning/rotating motion; simple helices made of flagellin.
144. Tight Junctions
Water-proof barriers
145. Gap Junctions
Tunnels allowing exchange
146. Desmosomes
Strongest cellular junction but are not watertight barriers.
147. Types of membrane transport
• Diffusion
• Facilitated Diffusion
• Active Transport
• Secondary Active Transport
148. Phospholipids
Major component of all cell membranes that form lipid bilayers. Most phospholipids contain a diglyceride.
149. Integral Protein
A protein molecule or protein assembly permanently attached in a biological membrane.
150. Transport Proteins
Transport substances such as molecules and ions across the membrane, within the cell, or can be involved in vesicular transport.
151. Cholesterol
Organic chemical substance classified as a waxy steroid of fat. Essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes and is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity.
152. Receptor Proteins
Signal-receiving molecules embedded in the cell wall.
153. Exocytosis
The release of cellular substances contained in cell vesicles by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the plasma membrane and release of the contents to the exterior of the cell.
154. Endocytosis
Incorporation of substances into a cell by phagocytosis or pinocytosis.
155. Phagocytosis
Cell eating
156. Pinocytosis
Cell drinking
157. To calculate ∆S
Srxn = S(products) - S(reactants)

• Increase in entropy or disorder = +∆S
• Decrease in entropy or increase in order = –∆S
158. Colligative properties
• 1. Depends on number of particles not mass.
• 2. Raises bp and lowers fp (antifreeze)
159. A loss in weight from heating a solution occurs because...
Volatile components are released.
160. Calculating energy lost to Ffriction
Energy dissipated by frictional force is equal to the force they are exerting times the distance over which they exert that force.
161. Coherent definition (light)
Coherent light are light waves that are "in phase" with one another.
162. Diffuse definition (light)
Light waves are widely divergent or scattered.
163. An alpha glucose ring differs from a beta glucose ring at...
The C-1 carbon
164. Nearsighted problem and correction
Image is in front of the retina.

Divergent lens for correction.
165. Carbonyl, C=O (IR absorbance)
1700 sharp, deep
166. Alcohol, OH (IR absorbance)
3300 broad, separate from CH
167. Saturated Alkane, CH (IR absorbance)
2800 sharp, deep
168. Carboxylic Acid, OH (IR absorbance)
3000 broad, overlaps CH
169. Amine, NH (IR absorbance)
170. Amide, NH (IR absorbance)
171. Nitriles, CN (IR absorbance)
2250 sharp, deep
172. Specific Gravity formula
SG = Dsubstance/DH2O

D = density
173. Taxonomy classifications and levels
• Domain
• Kingdom
• Phylum
• Class
• Order
• Family
• Genus
• Species
174. Gram Positive Characteristics
• Stain purple (high amount of peptidoglycan retains dye)
• Very thick cell walls
• Form endospores
• Single cell membrane.
175. Gram Negative Characteristics
• Stain pink (bc the relatively low amount of peptidoglycan)
• Relatively thin cell wall
• Do NOT form endospores
• Contain two cell membranes (inside and outside of the cell wall)
176. The ways for bacterial gene exchange
Transformation: take up DNA from surroundings.

Transduction: genes transfered via virus

Conjugation: sex pilus (other bacteria)
177. Primary, secondary, etc. in O-Chem
Depends on how many are actually bonded to the atom in question.
178. pH of blood
Just over 7 in a healthy individual.

Goes up with excess O2 and down with excess CO2.
179. Blood flow through heart

• (VC) Vena cavae
• (RA) Right atrium
• (RV) Right ventricle
• (PA) Pulmonary artery
• Lungs
• (PV) Pulmonary vein
• (LA) Left atrium
• (LV) Left ventricle
• (A) Aorta
• Body organs
• Right atrium again
180. Thickness of ventricular walls
Left ventricular wall is thicker and generates higher pressure upon contraction.
181. Liver and pancreas are parts of what system?
Digestive
Stores bile produced by the liver that digests hydrophobic fats (e.g. triglycerides)
183. Medium needed to culture viruses
Tissue culture.

Intact cells with all intracellular mechanisms still functioning are needed.
184. Linear motion (distance, acceleration, time) aka displacement formula
X = 1/2at2
185. Torricelli's (velocity, gravity/acc., height/distance)
v = √(2gh)
186. Universal gravitation (force, two masses)
F = Gmm/r2
187. Force equation
F = ma
188. Ideal gas law
PV = nRT
189. Kinetic energy
KE = 1/2mv2
190. Gravitational potential energy (near earth)
PE = mgh
191. Elastic potential energy
PE = 1/2kx2
192. Electric potential energy
193. Potential energy stored by a capacitor
PE = 1/2cv2

• c - capacitance
• v - voltage
194. Force for a ramp
Fmachine = mg(h/d)

• h - vertical height
• d - length of ramp (hypotenuse)
195. Force for a lever
Fmachine = mg(L1/L2)

L1 and L2 refer to the lever arms for the mass and the applied force, respectively. (What does this sentence mean?)
196. Force for a pulley
Fmachine = mg/(# of vertical ropes directly lifting the mass)
197. Force for hydraulic lifs
• Fmachine = mg(h1h2)
• Fmachine = mg(A1A2)

• Where h1 and h2 refer to the distance traveled by the large plunger and the small plunger, respectively.
• Where A1 and A2 refer to the cross-sectional areas of the small plunger and large plunger, respectively.
198. Power formulas
• P = ∆E/t
• P = W/t
• P = Fdcos/t
• Pinstantaneous = Fvcos

Units - Watts (J/s)
199. Speed of a wave

• frequency - occurences per (time)
• wavelength - crest to crest or trough to trough
200. Circumferance
C = 2πr
201. Energy of a photon
202. Acceleration down a slope
a = gsin
203. Conservation of momentum (linear)
vfinal = vinitial(minitial/mfinal)
204. Calculating coefficient of friction
On a plane:

Ffriction = µmg

On a slope:

Ffriction = µmgcos
205. Buoyant force
FB = fluidvobjectg
206. Relationship between frequency, wavelength, and speed of a wave. (light and sound)
207. Wave beats wavelength
Wavelength = speed (c for light) / frequency of beat
208. Glomerulus
A tuft of capillaries situated within a Bowman's capsule at the end of the renal tubule in the kidney that filters waste products from the blood and initiates urine formation.
209. Bowman's Capsule
The structure surrounding the glomerulus.
210. Proximal Convoluted Tubule
• Is responsible for the reabsorption of glucose, amino acids, various ions, and water.
• Sodium is actively transported, chloride follows passively by electrical attraction, and water follows the salt out of the proximal tubule.
211. Descending Loop of Henle
Is permeable to water.
212. Ascending Loop of Henle
• Na+ is actively transported out and Cl follows due to electrical attraction.
• Impermeable to water.
213. Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
Located next to each glomerulus, it is involved in the secretion of renin and EPO in response to blood pressure changes.
214. Distal Convoluted Tubule
Reabsorbs Na+ through coupled secretion of H+ or K+. Requires the presence of aldosterone. Plays an important role in acid-base balance.
215. Collecting Duct
As the collecting ducts pass through the hypertonic renal medulla, water leaves by osmosis and is carried away in surrounding capillaries.

The permeability of the collecting ducts to water is stimulated by antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

Urine is collected and moved into the renal pelvis and ureters.
216. Renal Pelvis
The funnel-shaped cavity of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter.
217. Ureter
The long narrow duct that conveys urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
218. Renal Plasma Clearance
Inulin is filtered but neither reabsorbed nor secreted. Its clearance is thus equal to the glomerular filtration rate.
219. Granular (juxtaglomerular cells) secrete _____ when there is a fall in _____ ion concentration.
Renin / Na+
220. If you took a drug that inhibited the reabsorbtion of Na+ in the PCT, you would:
Have an increased urine output
221. In the nephron glucose is...
Filtered, and reabsorbed, but not secreted.
222. Typically, as GFR increases, the [Na+] of the filtrate reaching the DCT will...
Increase
223. What would happen to the GFR if the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the fluid in the capsular space increased?
GFR would decrease
224. True or False: Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process.
False
225. Aldosterone causes...
Decreased urine output
226. During reabsorption, Na+ leaves the proximal tubule by means of...
Active transport
227. The majority of reabsorption occurs in the...
Proximal convoluted tubule
228. Functions of the kidney
• Release of hormones
• Maintenance of plasma pH
• Maintenance of plasma [electrolyte]
• Gluconeogenesis
229. In a patient who is dehydrated from vomiting and diarrhea, what is likely to be higher than normal in blood?
230. How do the kidneys respond to drop in blood pressure?
By activating the renin-angiotensin system. This increases the amount of sodium and water that is reabsorbed by the kidneys, therefore increasing blood volume and pressure.
231. The effect blood pressure on GFR
Higher pressure increased GFR or more filtrate.
232. Bond lengths from shortest to longest
Triple, double, single
233. Bond strengths from weakest to strongest
C-C, C=C, C=C
234. Bond stability from least stable to most
Triple, double, single.
235. Calculating formal charge
Formal charge = valence – assigned
236. Energy changes in forming and breaking bonds
Energy is always released when a bond is formed, and required when a bond is broken.
237. Heat of combustion trend
The less stable the bond, the greater will be the heat of combustion. The more stable the bond, the lower the heat of combustion.
238. Hückel's Rule
To determine aromaticity,

4n + 2 pi
239. To determine net equation
Remove spectator ions
240. Gibbs free energy equation
∆G = ∆Gf(products) – ∆Gf(reactants)
241. Keq
with coefficients as the exponents.
242. Volume of one mole of ideal gas
22.4L at STP

Virtually all gasses can be considered ideal at common temps and pressures.
243. Oxidation states are related to...
Electronegativity
244. What kind of compound is HCl?
Covalent
245. What phase are ionic compounds at room temp?
Solid
246. Which compounds conduct electricity in solution?
Ionic
247. The numerical value of what force is irrelevant when determining buoyant force?
Gravity
248. Phase diagram
• Sublimation - Solid to gas
249. Litmus paper color changes
• Red Blue in base
• Blue Red in acid

No color change either means it is in the opposite solution, or that the solution is neutral.
250. Metathesis reaction
251. Ksp concentration trends
The lower the value of Ksp is, the lower the concentrations of the cation and anion in an aqueous solution and the lower the solubility of the compound in water.
252. Which of the characteristics of sound (frequency, wavelength, intensity, speed) remains constant in still air?
Speed
253. Ohm's law in the cardiovascular system
P = CO x VR

• p - blood pressure
• CO - cardiac output
• VR - vascular resistance
254. With O-Chem structures, the predominant conformation is also the _______ and has the _______ substituent in the _______ position.
most stable, largest, equatorial.
255. Allosteric Site
A site on a multi-subunit enzyme that is not the substrate binding site (not the active site) but that when reversibly bound by an effector induces a conformational change in the enzyme, altering its catalytic properties.
256. When saponifying a triacylglycerol, how many OH ions are required?
Three equivalents, because one OH ion is required to hydrolyze one ester linkage of a triacylglycerol molecule.
257. What digestive system substances are produced in the pancreas?
Several proteolytic enzymes, which are released into the small intestine and converted to their active forms of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase.
258. What is one characteristic that distinguishes eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic cells?
Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria.
259. From what germ layer does heart tissue differentiate?
Mesoderm
260. Where are sex-linked genetic traits found?
Either on a sex chromosome (X, Y) or on an autosome.
261. An inhibitor of microtubule reorganization prevents what?
Phagocytosis.

Phagocytosis requires that the cell change shape dramatically as is surrounds and engulfs large extracellular particles. This function relies on the microtubules to disassemble and reorganize. Inhibiting microtubule reorganization would therefore prevent phagocytosis.
262. How to determine the number of different possible gametes that can be formed by diploid organisms.
2n

Where n is the haploid number of chromosomes.Ex. AaBbCc has 3 haploid chromosomes and so 23 is 8
263. What occurs during mitosis but not during meiosis I?
The splitting of centromeres.One difference between these two mechanisms is during respective anaphases. During anaphase in mitosis, sister chromatids are pulled apart. During anaphase of meiosis I, homologous pairs are separated into two daughter cells. It is not until anaphase II in meiosis that the centromere is split.
264. Transcription of DNA into RNA occurs in the _______
Nucleus
265. Translation of RNA into proteins occurs in the _______
Cytoplasm.

This is done by ribosomes.
266. Sine 0˚
0
267. Sine 30˚
.5
268. Sine 45˚
.7
269. Sine 60˚
.9
270. Sine 90˚
1
271. Cosine 0˚
1
272. Cosine 30˚
.9
273. Cosine 45˚
.7
274. Cosine 60˚
.5
275. Cosine 90˚
0
276. Method for solving fractions, with a fraction in the denominator.
Multiply the top and bottom of the primary fraction, by the reciprocal of the fraction in the denominator. This will make the top a new fraction and the bottom one.

• Ex.
277. If you have 4/3 of an original quantity, then the final amount has...
Increased by 1/3
278. Thermodynamic
Whether or not a process or reaction can occur.
279. Kinetic
How fast or slow a process or rection can occur.
280. Exothermic energy coordinate diagram
281. Endothermic energy coordinate diagram
282. Convection
Fluid movement caused by the hotter portions of a fluid rising and the cooler portions of a fluid sinking.
• Electromagnetic waves emitted from a hot body into the surrounding environment.
• Light colors radiate and absorb less
• Dark colors radiate and absorb more
• Black Body Radiator - perfect theoretical radiator
284. Conduction
• Molecular collisions along a conduit
• Analogous to current flow through a wire or H2O through a pipe
285. Heat Capacity (definition)
The amount of energy (in Joules or Calories) a system can absorb per temperature unit (J/K or cal/˚C).
286. Heat Capacity (formula)
C = q/∆T
287. Specific Heat Capacity (definition)
Is for a given substance only and is defined as the heat capacity per unit mass.
288. Specific Heat Capacity (formula)
q = mc∆T
289. Specific Heat of Water
• 1.0 cal/g˚C
• or
• 4.18 J/g˚C
290. First Law of Thermodynamics
• ∆E = q + w
• Work done on the system (+)
• Work done by the system (–)
291. Second Law of Thermodynamics
• Heat cannot be changed completely into work in a cyclical process
• Entropy in an isolated system can never decrease
292. Third Law of Thermodynamics
Pure substances at absolute zero have an entropy of zero
293. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
Temperature exists

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