Cumulative Review 1.txt

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  1. Relationship of static friction and sliding object base area
    Independent. There is none.
  2. Relationship of kinetic friction and speed over time. (tension and friction forces are constant)
    The coefficient of kinetic friction is always lower than that of static friction. Therefore there is a net accelerating force on the block once it starts to slide making speed increase linearly with time.
  3. What accounts for N2's boiling point being lower than O2's?
    N2 has a lower molecular weight than does O2.
  4. As distance increases between transmitter and receiver of sound, wavelength...
  5. Speed relationship between radio and sound waves.
    Sound waves travel more slowly.
  6. If wavelength decreases, then the object making the sound is...
    Getting closer.
  7. Pressure in a liquid is proportional to...
    Liquid density and depth
  8. The pH at the equivalence point of a titration is equal to...
    The pH of the salt solution formed.
  9. Equivalent mass (equivalent weight)
    The mass of an acid that yields one mole of hydrogen ions.


    The mass of a base that reacts with one mole of hydrogen ions.
  10. Calculating mole fraction
    The mole fraction is the number of moles of chemical in question divided by the total number of moles for all other species in solution.

    mf of A = Image Upload
  11. Partial pressure
    Divide the total pressure by number of molecules (including coefficients).

    CH4 + 2O2 Image Upload CO2 + 2H2O

    (maybe products only?)
  12. Empirical formula from grams.
    Figure out number of moles. Number of moles equals subscript unless it can be reduced. (e.g. 2:4:2 = 1:2:1)
  13. Fundamental wavelengths
    Open pipe wavelength is 2 times the length of the pipe.

    Pipe diameter doesn't matter.
  14. (Photoelectric effect) When the number of photons increases...
    The number of electrons ejected increases.

    Electron energy is based on the energy of the photon.
  15. Calculating power dissipated as heat in a resistor
    The square of the current (I) times the resistance (R).
  16. (Photoelectric effect) Increasing the frequency of each photon...
    Increases the speed of the ejected electron.
  17. Fusion (phase changes) definition
  18. Plane mirror characteristic
    Produces an image behind its plane at a distance equal to the distance of the object being reflected.
  19. Equivalent of [H+]
  20. The autonomic nerve fibers that directly innervate the heart to cause cardiac slowing are:
    Parasympathetic motor fibers
  21. Amine vs. Amide
    • Amine
    • Image Upload
    • Amide
    • Image Upload
  22. Glucagon function
    Stimulates gluconeogenisis and release of glucose into the blood.
  23. Effect of an impurity on melting points
    Slightly lowers and broadens the temperature range of melting.
  24. Ether
    Image Upload
  25. Ester
    Image Upload
  26. Ketone
    Image Upload
  27. Relationship between the colon and the appendix
    They are connected in such a way that contents may move freely between them.
  28. Two aspects of fungal spores
    Metabolically inactive

  29. Cells included in an inflammatory response
    • T cells
    • B cells
    • Other leukocytes
  30. Saponification
    Image UploadSaponification is hydrolysis of an ester.
  31. Bacterial replication
  32. Organs involved in menstrual cycle


  33. Integumentary system components
    Hair, nails, skin, and oil and sweat glands.
  34. Integumentary system functions
    Thermoregulation, protection, environmental sensory input, excretion, innate immunity, blood reservoir, vitamin D synthesis.
  35. Epidermis
    Made of avascular, dead, keratinized cells.
  36. Dermis
    Contains blood vessels, hair follicles, sebaceous glands (oil), sudoriferous glands (sweat), and nerve endings. The dermis is a connective tissue.
  37. Musculoskeletal system functions
    Body movement, support and stabilization, generation of heat, and maintenance of homeostasis.
  38. Skeletal muscle characteristics
    Voluntary, striated, and multinucleated.
  39. Sarcomere diagram
    Image Upload
  40. Arrival of the Action Potential
    The neuromuscular junction between a skeletal muscle and a motor nerve can ONLY USE ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh) AS THE NEUROTRANSMITTER. The action potential spreads along the sarcolemma and down specialized T-tubules that dive deep into the muscle cell, causing the release of Ca2+.
  41. Contraction
    • -The default low-energy position for myosin heads is bent. ATP is used to force, or "cock", these myosin heads into a high-energy, straight position.
    • -After the "power stroke", ATP binds to the mysoin head again, releasing it from the actin filament.
  42. Ca2+ level for contraction
  43. Ca2+ level for relaxation
  44. Effect on sarcomere when no ATP is present
    Myosin heads cannot detach from actin and the muscle will remain in a contracted position. (Rigor mortis)
  45. Effect on sarcomere when no Ca2+ is present
    We do not get rigor, but the inability to contract (a.k.a. "flaccidity")
  46. The strength of a contraction depends on:
    • 1) Number of motor units being used
    • 2) Size of the motor units being used
    • 3) Frequency of action potentials (i.e. stimulation)
  47. Skeletal muscle important features
    • Skeletal muscles store large amounts of glycogen; they also require a lot of oxygen and thus have their own oxygen storage molecule, myoglobin, which is capable of holding one O2 molecule.
    • Also mature (differentiated) skeletal muscles are frozen in Go phase and do not divide (similar to neurons)
  48. Cardiac muscle characteristics
    • Involuntary, striated, one nucleus.
    • Unlike skeletal muscles, cardiac cells continue dividing after differentiation.
  49. Cardiac muscle contraction mech.
    Does contain sarcomeres and uses the same sliding filament mechanism as skeletal muscle.
  50. Smooth muscle characteristics
    Involuntary, non-striated, one nucleus.
  51. Smooth muscle contraction mech.
    Smooth muscle is NOT arranged in sarcomeres. Therefore it does not contain troponin. Uses a calcium cascade mechanism instead.
  52. Bone functions
    Support, protection, movement, mineral storage (calcium and phosphate), energy storage (as fat in the marrow), and blood cell formation.
  53. Osteocytes
    Mature bone cells surrounded by a mineral matrix.
  54. Osteoclasts
    Bone cells that break down and resorb bone matrix, releasing the component minerals (Ca2+ and P) back into the blood.
  55. Osteoblasts
    Immature bone cells that secrete collagen, organic compounds, and minerals forming a bone matrix around themselves. Once they are completely enclosed by matrix, they differentiate into osteocytes.
  56. Anatomy of long bone
    Two epiphyses (bulbous ends) cushioned by cartilage; the ends are filled with spongy bone and the shaft in between is made of compact bone; the center is a hollow cavity filled with yellow bone marrow.
  57. Hydroxyapatite
    A compound of calcium, phosphate, and hydroxide. It is the mineral matrix responsible for a bone's strength and is the form in which most all of the body's calcium is stored.
  58. Cartilage
    • A connective tissue made of collagen.
    • No perfusion or innervation
    • Found in appendages such as the nose and ears, at the ends of the long bones, between vertebrae, at the rib-sternum (sternocostal) joints, etc.
  59. Types of joints
    • 1) Fibrous (skull bones)
    • 2) Cartilaginous (ribs and sternum)
    • 3) Synovial (knee, elbow, etc.)
  60. Sperm
    Spermatozoa are produced by the testicles in the seminiferous tubules and stored and nurtured in the epididymis. They are a SINGLE, HAPLOID cell consisting of a head (cell body) and tail (flagellum). They contain lots of mitochondria.
  61. Ejaculation pathway
    Sperm leave the epididymis via the vas deferens. The vas deferens arches back up into the pelvis and then back towards the penis. Along this path seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral gland (a.k.a. Cowper's gland) all secrete various lubricants and nutrients into the ejaculate.
  62. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) location of synthesis
    Anterior pituitary
  63. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) class
    Peptide and water-soluble
  64. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) function
    Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release stress hormones called "glucocorticoids".
  65. Luteinizing hormone (LH) location of synthesis
    Anterior pituitary
  66. Luteinizing hormone (LH) class
    Peptide and water-soluble
  67. Luteinizing hormone (LH) function
    Surge in LH causes ovulation; stimulates the secretion of the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone.
  68. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) location of synthesis
    Anterior pituitary
  69. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) class
    Peptide and water-soluble
  70. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) function
    Stimulates growth of the follicle during menstrual cycle and production of sperm.
  71. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) location of synthesis
    Anterior pituitary
  72. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) class
    Peptide and water-soluble
  73. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) function
    Stimulates release of T3/T4 from the thyroid.
  74. Human Growth hormone (hGH) location of synthesis
    Anterior pituitary
  75. Human Growth hormone (hGH) class
    Peptide and water-soluble
  76. Human Growth hormone (hGH) function
    Stimulates growth throughout the body.
  77. Prolactin location of synthesis
    Anterior pituitary
  78. Prolactin class
    Peptide and water-soluble
  79. Prolactin function
    Stimulates milk production in the breasts.
  80. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) location of synthesis
    Posterior pituitary
  81. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) class
    Peptide and water-soluble
  82. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) function
    Causes the collecting duct of the kidney to become highly permeable to water, concentrating the urine.
  83. Oxytocin location of synthesis
    Posterior pituitary
  84. Oxytocin class
    Peptide and water-soluble
  85. Oxytocin function
    Stimulates contractions during childbirth and milk secretion during nursing.
  86. Parathyroid hormone location of synthesis
  87. Parathyroid hormone class
    Peptide and water-soluble
  88. Parathyroid hormone function
    Increases blood calcium by stimulating proliferation of osteoclasts, uptake of Ca2+ in the gut, and reabsorption of Ca2+ in the kidney.
  89. Insulin location of synthesis
  90. Insulin class
    Peptide and water-soluble
  91. Insulin function
    Stimulates uptake and storage of glucose from the blood.
  92. Glucagon location of synthesis
  93. Glucagon class
    Peptide and water-soluble
  94. Glucagon function
    Stimulates gluconeogenisis and release of glucose into the blood.
  95. Calcitonin location of synthesis
  96. Calcitonin class
    Peptide and water-soluble
  97. Calcitonin function
    Decreases blood calcium by inhibiting osteoclasts.
  98. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) location of synthesis
  99. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) class
    Peptide and water-soluble
  100. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) function
    Prevents degeneration of the corpeus luteum, maintaining pregnancy.
  101. Aldosterone location of synthesis
    Adrenal cortex
  102. Aldosterone class
    Steroid and lipid-soluble
  103. Aldosterone function
    Increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion at the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct; net increase in salts in the plasma, increasing osmotic potential and subsequently blood pressure.
  104. Cortisol location of synthesis
    Adrenal cortex
  105. Cortisol class
    Steroid and lipid-soluble
  106. Cortisol function
    A stress hormone; increases gluconeogenesis in the liver and thus blood glucose levels; stimulates fat breakdown.
  107. Testosterone location of synthesis
  108. Testosterone class
    Steroid and lipid-soluble
  109. Testosterone function
    Stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics and closing of epiphyseal plates.
  110. Estrogen location of synthesis
  111. Estrogen class
    Steroid and lipid-soluble
  112. Estrogen function
    Stimulates female sex organs; causes LH surge in menstruation.
  113. Progesterone location of synthesis
  114. Progesterone class
    Steroid and lipid-soluble
  115. Progesterone function
    Stimulates growth and maintenance of uterus during pregnancy.
  116. Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) location of synthesis
  117. Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) class
    Tyrosine derivative and lipid-soluble
  118. Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) function
    Increases basal metabolic rate, affecting metabolism.
  119. Epinephrine & Norepinephrine location of synthesis
    Adrenal medulla
  120. Epinephrine & Norepinephrine class
    Tyrosine derivative and water-soluble
  121. Epinephrine & Norepinephrine function
    Cause responses almost identical to a sympathetic nervous system response (fight or flight).
  122. Hormones that are peptides and water-soluble
    ACTH, LH, FSH, TSH, hGH, Prolactin, ADH, Oxytocin, Parathyroid Hormone, Insulin, Glucagon, Calcitonin, hCG
  123. Hormones that are steroids and lipid-soluble
    Aldosterone, Cortisol, Testosterone, Estrogen, Progesterone
  124. Hormones that are tyrosine derivatives
    Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, T3, T4
  125. Site of lipid synthesis
    Endoplasmic reticulum
  126. Site of lipid metabolism
  127. Structure of mitochondrion
    Image Upload
  128. Where cilia is exclusively found in humans
    • -Respiratory System (lungs)
    • -Nervous System (ependymal cells)
    • -Reproductive System (fallopian tubes)
  129. Cell cycle
    Image Upload
  130. Where DNA is found
    Nucleus. DNA cannot leave and is only found here. There is however a small amount found in the mitochondria.
  131. Nucleolus
    Site of rRNA transcription and ribosome assembly.
  132. Rough ER
    Covered with ribosomes; all proteins not bound for the cytosol are made here.
  133. Smooth ER
    Lipid synthesis and modification. NOT LIPID METABOLISM.
  134. Golgi Apparatus
    Cellular "post office;" organize, package, modify, excrete, etc.
  135. Mitochondria
    Have their own DNA with variations to the nuclear genetic code passed through the maternal line only.

    Place of lipid metabolism.

    Theory suggests they evolved from aerobic prokaryotes in symbiosis with a eukaryotic cell.
  136. Lysosome
    • pH of 5
    • Digests cell parts
    • Fuses with phagocytotic vesicles
    • Participates in cell death (apoptosis)
    • Forms by budding off from the Golgi
  137. Peroxisome
    • Self-replicates
    • Detoxifies chemicals
    • Participates in lipid metabolism
  138. Tubulin
    A protein that is the main constituent of microtubules.
  139. Cytoskeleton
    Microscopic network of filaments that give shape to cells.
  140. Spindle Apparatus
    Segregates chromosomes during cell division.
  141. Actin and Myosin
    Filaments in muscle that provide movement.
  142. Eukaryotic Flagella
    Whipping motion; microtubules made of tubulin.
  143. Prokaryotic Flagella
    Spinning/rotating motion; simple helices made of flagellin.
  144. Tight Junctions
    Water-proof barriers
  145. Gap Junctions
    Tunnels allowing exchange
  146. Desmosomes
    Strongest cellular junction but are not watertight barriers.
  147. Types of membrane transport
    • Diffusion
    • Facilitated Diffusion
    • Active Transport
    • Secondary Active Transport
  148. Phospholipids
    Major component of all cell membranes that form lipid bilayers. Most phospholipids contain a diglyceride.
  149. Integral Protein
    A protein molecule or protein assembly permanently attached in a biological membrane.
  150. Transport Proteins
    Transport substances such as molecules and ions across the membrane, within the cell, or can be involved in vesicular transport.
  151. Cholesterol
    Organic chemical substance classified as a waxy steroid of fat. Essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes and is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity.
  152. Receptor Proteins
    Signal-receiving molecules embedded in the cell wall.
  153. Exocytosis
    The release of cellular substances contained in cell vesicles by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the plasma membrane and release of the contents to the exterior of the cell.
  154. Endocytosis
    Incorporation of substances into a cell by phagocytosis or pinocytosis.
  155. Phagocytosis
    Cell eating
  156. Pinocytosis
    Cell drinking
  157. To calculate ∆S
    Srxn = S(products) - S(reactants)

    • Increase in entropy or disorder = +∆S
    • Decrease in entropy or increase in order = –∆S
  158. Colligative properties
    • 1. Depends on number of particles not mass.
    • 2. Raises bp and lowers fp (antifreeze)
  159. A loss in weight from heating a solution occurs because...
    Volatile components are released.
  160. Calculating energy lost to Ffriction
    Energy dissipated by frictional force is equal to the force they are exerting times the distance over which they exert that force.
  161. Coherent definition (light)
    Coherent light are light waves that are "in phase" with one another.
  162. Diffuse definition (light)
    Light waves are widely divergent or scattered.
  163. An alpha glucose ring differs from a beta glucose ring at...
    The C-1 carbon
  164. Nearsighted problem and correction
    Image is in front of the retina.

    Divergent lens for correction.
  165. Carbonyl, C=O (IR absorbance)
    1700 sharp, deep
  166. Alcohol, OH (IR absorbance)
    3300 broad, separate from CH
  167. Saturated Alkane, CH (IR absorbance)
    2800 sharp, deep
  168. Carboxylic Acid, OH (IR absorbance)
    3000 broad, overlaps CH
  169. Amine, NH (IR absorbance)
    3300 broad, shallow
  170. Amide, NH (IR absorbance)
    3300 broad, deep
  171. Nitriles, CN (IR absorbance)
    2250 sharp, deep
  172. Specific Gravity formula
    SG = Dsubstance/DH2O

    D = density
  173. Taxonomy classifications and levels
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  174. Gram Positive Characteristics
    • Stain purple (high amount of peptidoglycan retains dye)
    • Very thick cell walls
    • Form endospores
    • Single cell membrane.
  175. Gram Negative Characteristics
    • Stain pink (bc the relatively low amount of peptidoglycan)
    • Relatively thin cell wall
    • Do NOT form endospores
    • Contain two cell membranes (inside and outside of the cell wall)
  176. The ways for bacterial gene exchange
    Transformation: take up DNA from surroundings.

    Transduction: genes transfered via virus

    Conjugation: sex pilus (other bacteria)
  177. Primary, secondary, etc. in O-Chem
    Depends on how many are actually bonded to the atom in question.
  178. pH of blood
    Just over 7 in a healthy individual.

    Goes up with excess O2 and down with excess CO2.
  179. Blood flow through heart
    Image Upload

    • (VC) Vena cavae
    • (RA) Right atrium
    • (RV) Right ventricle
    • (PA) Pulmonary artery
    • Lungs
    • (PV) Pulmonary vein
    • (LA) Left atrium
    • (LV) Left ventricle
    • (A) Aorta
    • Body organs
    • Right atrium again
  180. Thickness of ventricular walls
    Left ventricular wall is thicker and generates higher pressure upon contraction.
  181. Liver and pancreas are parts of what system?
  182. Gallbladder function
    Stores bile produced by the liver that digests hydrophobic fats (e.g. triglycerides)
  183. Medium needed to culture viruses
    Tissue culture.

    Intact cells with all intracellular mechanisms still functioning are needed.
  184. Linear motion (distance, acceleration, time) aka displacement formula
    X = 1/2at2
  185. Torricelli's (velocity, gravity/acc., height/distance)
    v = √(2gh)
  186. Universal gravitation (force, two masses)
    F = Gmm/r2
  187. Force equation
    F = ma
  188. Ideal gas law
    PV = nRT
  189. Kinetic energy
    KE = 1/2mv2
  190. Gravitational potential energy (near earth)
    PE = mgh
  191. Elastic potential energy
    PE = 1/2kx2
  192. Electric potential energy
    Image Upload
  193. Potential energy stored by a capacitor
    PE = 1/2cv2

    • c - capacitance
    • v - voltage
  194. Force for a ramp
    Fmachine = mg(h/d)

    • h - vertical height
    • d - length of ramp (hypotenuse)
  195. Force for a lever
    Fmachine = mg(L1/L2)

    L1 and L2 refer to the lever arms for the mass and the applied force, respectively. (What does this sentence mean?)
  196. Force for a pulley
    Fmachine = mg/(# of vertical ropes directly lifting the mass)
  197. Force for hydraulic lifs
    • Fmachine = mg(h1h2)
    • Fmachine = mg(A1A2)

    • Where h1 and h2 refer to the distance traveled by the large plunger and the small plunger, respectively.
    • Where A1 and A2 refer to the cross-sectional areas of the small plunger and large plunger, respectively.
  198. Power formulas
    • P = ∆E/t
    • P = W/t
    • P = FdcosImage Upload/t
    • Pinstantaneous = FvcosImage Upload

    Units - Watts (J/s)
  199. Speed of a wave
    Image Upload

    • frequency - occurences per (time)
    • wavelength - crest to crest or trough to trough
  200. Circumferance
    C = 2πr
  201. Energy of a photon
    Image Upload
  202. Acceleration down a slope
    a = gsinImage Upload
  203. Conservation of momentum (linear)
    vfinal = vinitial(minitial/mfinal)
  204. Calculating coefficient of friction
    On a plane:

    Ffriction = µmg

    On a slope:

    Ffriction = µmgcosImage Upload
  205. Buoyant force
    FB = Image Uploadfluidvobjectg
  206. Relationship between frequency, wavelength, and speed of a wave. (light and sound)
    Image Upload
  207. Wave beats wavelength
    Wavelength = speed (c for light) / frequency of beat
  208. Glomerulus
    A tuft of capillaries situated within a Bowman's capsule at the end of the renal tubule in the kidney that filters waste products from the blood and initiates urine formation.
  209. Bowman's Capsule
    The structure surrounding the glomerulus.
  210. Proximal Convoluted Tubule
    • Is responsible for the reabsorption of glucose, amino acids, various ions, and water.
    • Sodium is actively transported, chloride follows passively by electrical attraction, and water follows the salt out of the proximal tubule.
  211. Descending Loop of Henle
    Is permeable to water.
  212. Ascending Loop of Henle
    • Na+ is actively transported out and Cl follows due to electrical attraction.
    • Impermeable to water.
  213. Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
    Located next to each glomerulus, it is involved in the secretion of renin and EPO in response to blood pressure changes.
  214. Distal Convoluted Tubule
    Reabsorbs Na+ through coupled secretion of H+ or K+. Requires the presence of aldosterone. Plays an important role in acid-base balance.
  215. Collecting Duct
    As the collecting ducts pass through the hypertonic renal medulla, water leaves by osmosis and is carried away in surrounding capillaries.

    The permeability of the collecting ducts to water is stimulated by antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

    Urine is collected and moved into the renal pelvis and ureters.
  216. Renal Pelvis
    The funnel-shaped cavity of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter.
  217. Ureter
    The long narrow duct that conveys urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
  218. Renal Plasma Clearance
    Inulin is filtered but neither reabsorbed nor secreted. Its clearance is thus equal to the glomerular filtration rate.
  219. Granular (juxtaglomerular cells) secrete _____ when there is a fall in _____ ion concentration.
    Renin / Na+
  220. If you took a drug that inhibited the reabsorbtion of Na+ in the PCT, you would:
    Have an increased urine output
  221. In the nephron glucose is...
    Filtered, and reabsorbed, but not secreted.
  222. Typically, as GFR increases, the [Na+] of the filtrate reaching the DCT will...
  223. What would happen to the GFR if the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the fluid in the capsular space increased?
    GFR would decrease
  224. True or False: Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process.
  225. Aldosterone causes...
    Decreased urine output
  226. During reabsorption, Na+ leaves the proximal tubule by means of...
    Active transport
  227. The majority of reabsorption occurs in the...
    Proximal convoluted tubule
  228. Functions of the kidney
    • Release of hormones
    • Maintenance of plasma pH
    • Maintenance of plasma [electrolyte]
    • Gluconeogenesis
  229. In a patient who is dehydrated from vomiting and diarrhea, what is likely to be higher than normal in blood?
    ADH and aldosterone
  230. How do the kidneys respond to drop in blood pressure?
    By activating the renin-angiotensin system. This increases the amount of sodium and water that is reabsorbed by the kidneys, therefore increasing blood volume and pressure.
  231. The effect blood pressure on GFR
    Higher pressure increased GFR or more filtrate.
  232. Bond lengths from shortest to longest
    Triple, double, single
  233. Bond strengths from weakest to strongest
    C-C, C=C, C=C
  234. Bond stability from least stable to most
    Triple, double, single.
  235. Calculating formal charge
    Formal charge = valence – assigned
  236. Energy changes in forming and breaking bonds
    Energy is always released when a bond is formed, and required when a bond is broken.
  237. Heat of combustion trend
    The less stable the bond, the greater will be the heat of combustion. The more stable the bond, the lower the heat of combustion.
  238. Hückel's Rule
    To determine aromaticity,

    4n + 2 pi
  239. To determine net equation
    Remove spectator ions
  240. Gibbs free energy equation
    ∆G = ∆Gf(products) – ∆Gf(reactants)
  241. Keq
    Image Upload with coefficients as the exponents.
  242. Volume of one mole of ideal gas
    22.4L at STP

    Virtually all gasses can be considered ideal at common temps and pressures.
  243. Oxidation states are related to...
  244. What kind of compound is HCl?
  245. What phase are ionic compounds at room temp?
  246. Which compounds conduct electricity in solution?
  247. The numerical value of what force is irrelevant when determining buoyant force?
  248. Phase diagram
    • Image Upload
    • Sublimation - Solid to gas
  249. Litmus paper color changes
    • Red Image Upload Blue in base
    • Blue Image Upload Red in acid

    No color change either means it is in the opposite solution, or that the solution is neutral.
  250. Metathesis reaction
    AB+CD → AD+CB
  251. Ksp concentration trends
    The lower the value of Ksp is, the lower the concentrations of the cation and anion in an aqueous solution and the lower the solubility of the compound in water.
  252. Which of the characteristics of sound (frequency, wavelength, intensity, speed) remains constant in still air?
  253. Ohm's law in the cardiovascular system
    P = CO x VR

    • p - blood pressure
    • CO - cardiac output
    • VR - vascular resistance
  254. With O-Chem structures, the predominant conformation is also the _______ and has the _______ substituent in the _______ position.
    most stable, largest, equatorial.
  255. Allosteric Site
    A site on a multi-subunit enzyme that is not the substrate binding site (not the active site) but that when reversibly bound by an effector induces a conformational change in the enzyme, altering its catalytic properties.
  256. When saponifying a triacylglycerol, how many OH ions are required?
    Three equivalents, because one OH ion is required to hydrolyze one ester linkage of a triacylglycerol molecule.
  257. What digestive system substances are produced in the pancreas?
    Several proteolytic enzymes, which are released into the small intestine and converted to their active forms of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase.
  258. What is one characteristic that distinguishes eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic cells?
    Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria.
  259. From what germ layer does heart tissue differentiate?
  260. Where are sex-linked genetic traits found?
    Either on a sex chromosome (X, Y) or on an autosome.
  261. An inhibitor of microtubule reorganization prevents what?

    Phagocytosis requires that the cell change shape dramatically as is surrounds and engulfs large extracellular particles. This function relies on the microtubules to disassemble and reorganize. Inhibiting microtubule reorganization would therefore prevent phagocytosis.
  262. How to determine the number of different possible gametes that can be formed by diploid organisms.

    Where n is the haploid number of chromosomes.Ex. AaBbCc has 3 haploid chromosomes and so 23 is 8
  263. What occurs during mitosis but not during meiosis I?
    The splitting of centromeres.One difference between these two mechanisms is during respective anaphases. During anaphase in mitosis, sister chromatids are pulled apart. During anaphase of meiosis I, homologous pairs are separated into two daughter cells. It is not until anaphase II in meiosis that the centromere is split.
  264. Transcription of DNA into RNA occurs in the _______
  265. Translation of RNA into proteins occurs in the _______

    This is done by ribosomes.
  266. Sine 0˚
  267. Sine 30˚
  268. Sine 45˚
  269. Sine 60˚
  270. Sine 90˚
  271. Cosine 0˚
  272. Cosine 30˚
  273. Cosine 45˚
  274. Cosine 60˚
  275. Cosine 90˚
  276. Method for solving fractions, with a fraction in the denominator.
    Multiply the top and bottom of the primary fraction, by the reciprocal of the fraction in the denominator. This will make the top a new fraction and the bottom one.

    • Ex.
    • Image Upload
  277. If you have 4/3 of an original quantity, then the final amount has...
    Increased by 1/3
  278. Thermodynamic
    Whether or not a process or reaction can occur.
  279. Kinetic
    How fast or slow a process or rection can occur.
  280. Exothermic energy coordinate diagram
    Image Upload
  281. Endothermic energy coordinate diagram
    Image Upload
  282. Convection
    Fluid movement caused by the hotter portions of a fluid rising and the cooler portions of a fluid sinking.
  283. Radiation
    • Electromagnetic waves emitted from a hot body into the surrounding environment.
    • Light colors radiate and absorb less
    • Dark colors radiate and absorb more
    • Black Body Radiator - perfect theoretical radiator
  284. Conduction
    • Molecular collisions along a conduit
    • Analogous to current flow through a wire or H2O through a pipe
  285. Heat Capacity (definition)
    The amount of energy (in Joules or Calories) a system can absorb per temperature unit (J/K or cal/˚C).
  286. Heat Capacity (formula)
    C = q/∆T
  287. Specific Heat Capacity (definition)
    Is for a given substance only and is defined as the heat capacity per unit mass.
  288. Specific Heat Capacity (formula)
    q = mc∆T
  289. Specific Heat of Water
    • 1.0 cal/g˚C
    • or
    • 4.18 J/g˚C
  290. First Law of Thermodynamics
    • ∆E = q + w
    • Work done on the system (+)
    • Work done by the system (–)
  291. Second Law of Thermodynamics
    • Heat cannot be changed completely into work in a cyclical process
    • Entropy in an isolated system can never decrease
  292. Third Law of Thermodynamics
    Pure substances at absolute zero have an entropy of zero
  293. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
    Temperature exists
Card Set:
Cumulative Review 1.txt
2012-08-02 19:21:10

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