Am Ex Test 3
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London Economic Conference
66 nations met hoping to organize a coordinated national attack on the global depression. Wanted to stabalize values of various nation's currency and rates at which it can be exchanged. Conference collapsed when Roosevelt decided it was everyman for himself and send noone.
Recognition for the Russians
Roosevelt formally recognized the Soviet Union in 1933. He was motivated by hope of trade with Soviet Russia as well as by the desire to bolster the Soviet Union as a friendly counterweight to the possible threat of German power in Europe and Japanese Power in Asia.
Good Neighbor Policy
Roosevelt was eager to line up the Latin Americans to help defend the Western Hemispher. Providing only consultation and non-intervention.
Rome-Berlinee Axis - 1936
Alliance of Facist Italy (Musilini) and Nazi Germany (Hitler) "The Pact of Steel"
Johnson Debt Default Act
Prevented the debt dodging nations from borrowing furtehr from the US (defaulting debtors after WWI)
Neutrality Acts of 1935, 36, 37
When the President proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restirctions would automatically go into effect; no American may: legally sail on a beligerant ship, sell or transport munitions to a beligerant or make loans to a beligerant. Specifically tailored to keep the Nation out of conflict.
The Spanish - Civil War
The Dress Rehearsal for WWII - The major outside powers involved (Germany, Italy, USSR) used it as essentially a testing ground for their weapons and tactics, and to size each other up.
Roosevelt's speech calling for "positive endeavors to quarantine the aggressors" presumably by economic embargoes.
- Conference was held in Munich in September 1938. the Western European democracy, unprepared for fwar betrayed Czechoslovakia to Germany when they consented to the sharing of Sudetenland. It was hoped that concessions at the conference table would Slake Hitler's thirst for power and bring peace in our time. Hitler agreed that the Sudetenland is the last territorial claim I have to make in Europe.
- Appeasement - turned out to be surrender to the installment plan. Six months later, Hitler erased the rest of Czechoslovakia from the map, contrary to his vow.
Hitler - Stalin Pact
The soviet union signed a non-aggression treaty with Hitler. The pact meant that the Nazi-German leader now had a green light to make war on Poland and the Western Democracies, without fear of the Soviet Union.
Neutrality Act of 1939
Cash and carry sell of American war materials to the Europeans on a Cash and Carry basis. Also permited Roosevelt to proclaim areras as danger zones where merchant ships would be forbidden. Improved economic position because it is favored European democracies over dictators (China/Japan)
Roosevelt's speech calling for "positive endeavors" to "quarantine" the aggressors. Presumably by economic embargoes.
"The night of broken glass" November 9, 1938. Goebbles prompted the ransak of more than 7,000 Jewish shops and almost all of the country's synagogs. At least 91 Jews lost their lives, and about 3,000 were sent to consentration camps.
Committee to Defend America
Supporterrs of aid to Britain "Defend America by aiding the allies".
Destroyers for Bases Deal
Roosevelt agreed to transfer Great Britain, 50, old model four funnel destroyers left over from WWII. In return, the British agreed to give 8 valuable defense base sites, stretching from Newfoundland to South America. These bases were given to the US for 99 years.
Hitler considered this an unofficial declaration of war - An act Further to promote the Defense of the US . a device to keep the nation out of war rather than drag it in. The underlying concept was to send guns, not sons, or billions not bodies. America would be the arsenal of democracy. It would send limitless supplies of arms to victims of aggression, who in turn would finish the job and keep the war on their side of the Atlantic.. Used weapons would be returned to the US when the war ended.
Plow Under Every 4th Boy
Germany Attacks Russia
June 22, 1941 - Hitler launched a devastating attack on the Soviet Union. Stalin had balked t dominate German control of the Balkans.
- Eight points accepted by Roosevelt and Churchill and the Soviet Union later that year.
- - Opposed imperialistic annexations the charter promised no territorial changes contrary to the wishes of the inhabitants.
- - Right of the people to choose their own form of government and to regain the governments by dictators.
- - Declared disarmament and a peace of security, pending a permanent system of general security.
Japanese bombers winging in from aircraft carriers attacked Hawaii without warning on December 7, 1941. 3,000 casualties, aircraft destroyed. While the roll call in the senate was one vote short, Germany and Italy declared war on December 11, 1941. The challenge was accepted by a unanimous vote of the house and senate.
WWII Axis Powers
Germany (the most deadly and equipped), Italy (poor military leadership and no equipment) Japan (infantry based)
WWII Allied Powers
US, France, Great Britain, Russia
The primary focus was to "get Germany first". If Germany was knocked out first by the ABC-1, then combined Allied Forces could be concentrated on Japan.
- June 4th - The Japanese sought to seize Midway Island so that
- it could easily launch assaults on Pearl Harbor. Admiral Nimitz directed the carrier force. japanese broke off action after losing 4 vitally important carriers.
By passing some of the most heavily fortified ports, capturing nearby islands, setting up air fields, then neutralizing the enemy bases through heavy bombing.
Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill... Agreements were reached on broad plans, especially those for launching soviet attacks on germany from the east simultaneously with prospective Allied assault from the west.
Roosevelt met with Winston Churchill and agreed to stop the Pacific War, invade Sicily, increase pressure on Italy, and insist upon unconditional surrender of the enemy.
- Day - (June 6, 1944) - Allied invasion of Normandy (surprise attack)
- - Air assault landing with 24,000 British, American, Canadian and Free French Troops.
- - Amphibious landings of allied infantry and armored divisions
- - Commander was Dwight Eisenhower
- - 195,700 troops/5,000 ships
VE (Victory in Europe)
Date the German government surrendered unconditionally
Truman met with Stalin and the British leadership and issued a stern ultimatim to Japan, surrender or be destroyed.
Development of an atomic device - Major General Leslie Groves was the director of the project. - US, UK and Canada were involved in the project.
VJ - Victory Day in Japan
August 9, 1945 after two atomic bombs (Little Boy and Fat Man) were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Bretton Woods Conference
established the Interanational Monetary Fund, International Bank For Reconstructing, and Development and General Agreement in Tarriffs and Trade.
- -it opened on april 25, 1945 in NYC
- -It was a successor to the old league of nations but varied in significant ways such as:
- 1- more realistically provided that no member of the security council dominated by the big 5 powers could have action taken against it without its consent
- 2- it was more about cooperation rather than conflict
- 3- the senate approved it with no problems with a vote of 89 to 2 while the league of nations could not get a 2/3 senate vote
- - it also helped preserve peace and created many organizations such as the United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization, and World Health Organization
I would focus mostly on what differed from the league of nations. That seems to me the main focus in the chapter.
Supplied fuel and fuel to the citizens of West Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin.
Kennan - this concept held that Russia was relentlessly expanssionary. This was a policy to prevent expansion of terrorism.
Provided economic and military aid to Greece and Turkey because they were threatened by communism. It was the start of a contaiment policy to stop Soviet expansion and it was a major step in beginning the Cold War.
European Recovery Program large scale American program to aid Europe where US gave monetary support to help rebuild European economies after WWII in order to prevent the spread of communism.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization - alliance of coutries from North America and Europe. Developed a system of collective defense - mutual defense in response to the attack of an external party.
Even a slight relaxattion of America's guard was an invitation to communist aggression. The invasion prompted a massive expansion of the American Military (3.5 million men) under the direction of General McAurther.
fired when he publically disputed Truman regarding the Korean War. NSC - 68 quadrupled defense spending.
the world after WWII was divied into2 camps, the US and the Soviet (democracy vs communism)
US and the Soviet Union after WWII were the two stronges military powers.
Cold War - Three Major Interpretations
- Traditional (the war was Russia's fault)
- Revisionists (the war was America's)
- Post-Revisionists -Both were responsible)
Russia caused the Cold War. Russa went back on promises made at wartime summit meetings. Refusal to compromise England and Germany.
The Cold War was the US fault for use of the Atomic Bomb. Democracy. US wouldn't lend money to the Russians
Both were to blame. The US did not utilze her advantages with Russia propert=ly and there is alwasys a shade of grey.
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