Chapter 7: Part II

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Author:
mariamandrussow
ID:
160456
Filename:
Chapter 7: Part II
Updated:
2012-06-29 00:38:22
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Cardiovascular
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Description:
Cardiovascular System
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  1. arteriosclerosis
    thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification of the arterial walls
  2. atherosclerosis
    buildup of fatty substances within the walls of arteries
  3. atheromatous plaque
    a swollen area within the lining of an artery-caused by fatty build up
  4. thrombus
    a stationary blood clot
  5. embolus
    a moving clot in the bloodstream-causing obstruction where it lodges.
  6. stenosis
    narrowing of a part, condition of
  7. constriction
    compression of a part
  8. occlusion
    pluggin; obstruction or a closing off
  9. ischemia
    • decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
    • to hold back blood
  10. perfusion deficit
    a lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by: narrowing, occlusion, etc.
  11. infarct
    • to stuff
    • a localized area of necrosis (tissue death) caused by ischemia as a result of occlusion of a blood vessel.
  12. angina pectoris
    • chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to the heart muscle.
    • can be caused by the narrowing of the coronary arteries
  13. aneurysm
    a widening;bulging of the wall of the heart, the aorta, or an artery- caused by congenital defect or acquired weakness
  14. claudiction
    • to limp; pain in a lib while walking that subsides after rest
    • caused by inadequate blood supply
  15. diaphoresis
    profuse sweating
  16. heart murmur
    • abnormal sound from the heart
    • produced by defects in the chambers or valves
  17. palpitation
    pounding, skipping or racing heartbeat (subjective experience)
  18. vegetation
    • to grow
    • abnormal growth of the tissue around a valve, generally as a result of an infection
  19. arrhythmia
    dysrhythmia
    irregularity or loss of rhythm of a heartbeat
  20. bradycardia
    slow heart rate (less than 60 bpm)
  21. tachycardia
    fast heart rate (more than 100 bpm)
  22. arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD)
    • degenerative condition of the arteries
    • thickening of the inner lining, loss of elasticity, and susceptibility to a rupture
    • often in smokers or elderly
  23. bacterial endocarditis
    bacterial inflammation-affecting the endocardium or the heart valves
  24. cardiac tamponade
    • compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac-due to pericarditis or trauma
    • this will cause the rupture of a blood vessel within the heart
  25. cardiomyopathy
    disease of the heart muscle
  26. congenital anomaly of the heart
    malformations of the heart present at birth
  27. congestive heart failure (CHF)
    • failure of the L ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body.
    • resulting in congestion in the lungs-causing edema in lower portions of the body
    • aka: left ventricle failure
  28. coronary artery disease (CAD)
    • affects arteries of the heart; causing reduced flow of blood/delivery of oxygen/nutrients to the myocardium
    • atherosclerosis is the main cause
  29. hypertension (HTN)
    persistently high blood pressure
  30. essential (primary) hypertension
    • high blood pressure attributed to no single cause
    • Risks: smoking, obesity, high salt & cholesterol, hereditary
  31. secondary hypertension
    high blood pressure caused by the affects of another disease
  32. mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
    protrusion of the cusps of the mitral valve back in the the left atrium during ventricular contraction-resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
  33. myocardial infraction (MI)
    • heart attack
    • death of myocardial tissue (infraction) due to loss of blood flow (ischemia) as a result of an occulsion (plugging) of a coronary artery
    • symptoms: pain the chest/shoulders, shorness of breath, diaphoresis and nausea
  34. myocarditis
    • inflammation of the myocardium
    • often due to a viral or bacterial infection
  35. pericarditis
    inflammation of the pericardium
  36. phlebitis
    inflammation of a vein
  37. rheumatic heart disease
    damage to heart muscle and valves by rheumatic fever (streptococcal infection)
  38. thrombophlebitis
    inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
  39. varicose vein
    abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves-most often seen in the legs
  40. deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
    formation of a clot in a deep vein (usually the femoral or iliac)

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