Principles Of Mechanical Ventilation

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Author:
charlieoverton
ID:
160486
Filename:
Principles Of Mechanical Ventilation
Updated:
2012-06-29 11:45:02
Tags:
Respiratory Therapy Ventilation
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Description:
Chpter One, Clinical Application for Mechanical Ventilation David W. Chang
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  1. Air flow obstruction in the airways primarily affected by length siiize and patency of the airway, endotracheal tube, and ventilator circuit
    Airway Resistance (RAW)
  2. Formula for RAW
    (Peak-Plateau)/Flow
  3. Normal Airway Resistance value
    0.6 and 2.4 cm H20/L/sec at a flow rate of 30 L/min
  4. Biggest contributor to increased airway resistance
    internal diameter of the ET tube
  5. _________ may result if the patient is unable to overcome the airway resistance by increasing the work of breathing.
    Hypoventilation
  6. As a result of _____________, patients with chronic airway obstruction may develop highly compliant lung parenchyma and use a breathing pattern that is deeper but slower.
    chronic air trapping
  7. Patients with __________ breath more shallowly but faster since air flow resistance is not the primary disturbance in these patients.
    restrictive lung disease
  8. Occurs when the patients minute ventilation cannot keep up with CO2 production.
    Failure of the lungs to eliminate carbon dioxide.  Without supplemental oxygen, it leads to hypoxemia.
    Ventilatory Failure
  9. Failure of the heart and lungs to provide adequate oxygenation for metabolic needs
    Oxygenation Failure
  10. The degree of lung expansion (volume change) per unit of pressure change(work of breathing)
    Lung Complience
  11. Cstat Formula
    TV/(Plateau-PEEP)
  12. Cdyn Formula
    VT/(peak-PEEP)
  13. Stiff Lungs
    high work of breathing
    refractory hypoxemia
    reduced functional residual capacity
    restrictive lund disorder
    low volumes
    Low minute ventilation

    Increase RR to Compensate         
    Low Compliance
  14. I.E. Emphysema

    Gas exchange process impaired
    incomplete exhalation
    destruction of lung tissue
    chronic air trapping
    enlargement of terminal and respiratory bronchioles
    conditions that increase patient's functional residual capacity
    obstructive lung defect
    air flow obstruction
    incomplete exhalation
    poor gas exchange
          
    Low Compliance
  15. No airflow
    reflects the elastic resistance of the lung and chest wall 
    Static Compliance
  16. measured when airflow is present
    airway resistance is a critical factor in the measurement of        compliance 
    reflects nonelastic airway resistance as well as the elastic properties of the lung and chest wall. 
    Dynamic Compliance
  17. In conditions where the airflow resistance is increased (such as with bronchospasm)
    PIP is increased Dynamic Compliance is decreased while the Plateau pressure and static compliance  (these two are directly related) stays unchanged

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