MedTerm.cardiovascular

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Author:
rswartout
ID:
160501
Filename:
MedTerm.cardiovascular
Updated:
2012-06-29 20:56:33
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Cardiovascular System
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Cardiovascular System
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  1. angi/o  vas/o  vascul/o
    vessel
  2. aort/o
    aorta
  3. arteri/o
    artery
  4. ather/o
    fatty (lipid) paste
  5. atri/o
    atrium
  6. cardi/o
    heart
  7. coron/o
    circle or crown
  8. my/o
    muscle
  9. pector/o  steth/o
    chest
  10. sphygm/o
    pulse
  11. thrombo
    clot
  12. ven/o  phleb/o
    vein
  13. varic/o
    swollen, twisted vein
  14. venricul/o
    ventricle (belly or pouch)
  15. atrium
    upper right and left chambers of the heart
  16. endocardium
    membrane lining the inner cavities of the heart
  17. epicardium
    membrane forming the outer layer of the heart
  18. interatrial septum
    partition between right and left atrium
  19. interventricular septum
    partition between right and left ventricle
  20. myocardium
    heart muscle
  21. pericardium
    protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers with fluid between
  22. parietal pericardium
    outer layer (parietal = pertaining to wall) partition
  23. pericardial cavity
    fluid-filled cavity between the pericardial layers
  24. visceral pericardium
    layer closest to the heart (visceral = pertaining to organ)
  25. ventricle
    lower right and left chanbers of the heart
  26. heart valves
    structures within the heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulate the one-way flow of blood
  27. aortic valve
    heart valve between the left ventricle and the aorta
  28. mitral or bucuspid valve
    heart valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle (cupis = point)
  29. pulminary semilunar valve
    heart valve opening from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery
  30. tricuspid valve
    valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
  31. valves of the veins
    valves located at intervals within the lining of veins, especially in the legs, which constrict with muscle action to move the blood returning to the heart
  32. arteries
    vessels that carry blood FROM the heart to the arterioles
  33. aorta
    large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system branching from the left ventricle.
  34. arterioles
    small vessels that reveive blood from the arteries
  35. capillaries
    tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
  36. venules
    small vessels that gather blood from capillaries into the veins
  37. veins
    vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules
  38. systemic sirculation
    circulation of blood throughout the body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
  39. coronary circulation
    circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue
  40. pulmonary circulation
    circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases.
  41. diastole
    to expand; perio in the cardiac cycle when blood enters the relaxed ventricles from the artria
  42. systole
    to contract; period in the cardiac cycle when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and pulmonary artery
  43. normotension
    normal blood pressure
  44. hypotension
    low blood pressure
  45. hypertension (HTN)
    persistently high blood pressure
  46. sinoatrial node (SA node)
    the pacemaker
  47. atrioventricular node (AV node)
     the amplifier to the pacemaker
  48. bundle of His
    neurological fibers, extending from the AV node to the right and left bundle branches, that fire the impulse from the AV node to the Purkinje fibers
  49. normal sinus rhythm (NSR)
    regular rhythm of the heart cycle stimulated by the SA node
  50. arteriosclerosis
    thickening, loss of elasticity and calcification (hardening) of the arterial walls
  51. atherosclerosis
    buildup of fatty substances within the walls of arteries
  52. atheromatous plaque
    a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the buildup of fat (lipids)
  53. thrombus
    a stationary blood clot
  54. embolus
    a clot carries in the bloodstream that obstructs when it lodges (embolus = a stopper)
  55. stenosis
    a condition of narrowing of a part
  56. constriction
    compression of a part
  57. occlusion
    plugging; obstruction or a closing off
  58. ischemia
     to hold back blood; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by the constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
  59. perfusion deficit
    a lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by narrowing, occlusion, etc.
  60. tnfarct
    to stuff; a localized area of necrosis caused by ischemia as a result of occlusion of a blood vessel
  61. angina petoris
    chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle often caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries
  62. angina
    to choke
  63. aneurysm
    a widening; bulging of the wall of the heart, the aorta, or an artery caused by congenital defect or acquired weakness.
  64. claudification
    to limp; pain in a limb (especiallt the calf) while walking that subsides after rest; it is caused by inadequate blood supply
  65. diaphoresis
    profuse sweating
  66. heart murmur
    an abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves
  67. palpitation
    subjective experience of pounding, skipping or racing heartbeats
  68. vegetation
    to grow; an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally a result of an infection such as bacterial endocarditis
  69. arrhythmia
    any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
  70. bradycardia
    slow heartbeat (< 60 bpm)
  71. tachycardia
    fast heart rate (>100 bpm)
  72. arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD)
    a degenerative condition of the arteries characterized by thickening of the inner lining, loss of elasticity and susceptibility to rupture - seem most often in the aged or smokers
  73. bacterial endocarditis
    a bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or the heart valves
  74. cardiac tamponade
    compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac as results from pericarditis or trauma, causing rusture of a blood vessel within the heart
  75. cardiomyopathy
    a general term for disease of the heart muscle
  76. congenital anomaly of the heart
    malformations of the heart present at birth
  77. anomaly
    irregularity
  78. tetralogy of Fallot
    an anomaly that consists of four defects: pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, malposition of the aorta and right ventricular hypertrophy - causes blood to bypass the pulmonary circulation so that deoxygenated blood goes into the systemic circulation, resulting in cyanosis
  79. ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    an opening in the septum separating the ventricles
  80. congestive heart failure (CHF)
    failure of the left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meed the demands of the body, resulting in a "bottleneck" of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins, cauing edema in lower portions of the body
  81. coronary artery disease (CAD)
    a condition affecting arteries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood and delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium - most often caused by atherosclerosis
  82. essential (primary) hypertension
    high blood pressure NOS
  83. secondary hypertension
    high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease
  84. mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
    protrusion or one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
  85. myocardial infarction (MI)
    heart attack; necrosis of myocardial tissue (infarction) owing to loss of blood flow (ischemia) as a result of an occlusion of a coronary artery.
  86. myocarditis
    inflammation of the myocardium most often cause by viral or bacterial infection
  87. pericarditis
    inflammation of the pericardium
  88. phlebitis
    inflammation of a vein
  89. pheumatic heart disease
    damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever (a streptococcal infection)
  90. throbophlebitis
    inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
  91. varicose veins
    abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves, most often seen in the legs
  92. deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
    formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body - occurring most often in the femoral and iliac veins
  93. auscultation
    a physical examination method of listening to sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope
  94. bruit
    noise; an abnormal heart sound caused by turbulence within - can also be in a vessel ex. the noise heart in an implanted vein used for dialysis
  95. electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
    an electrical picture of the hear trepresented by positive and negative deflections on a graph labeled with the letters P, Q, R, S, and T corresponding to events of the cardiac cycle.
  96. positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the heart
    use of nuclear isotopes and computed tomography techniques to produce profusion (blood flow) images and study the cellular metabolism of the heart; can be taken at rest of with stress.
  97. radiology
    xray imaging
  98. angiography
    an xray of a blood vessel after injection of contrast medium
  99. angiogram
    a record obtained by angiography

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