Exam 4

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  1. solution
    homogenous mixture in which all the material  is in the same state
  2. water is a polar substance
    • • an individual water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms bonded to an oxygen atom in a bent (V-shaped) structure. 
    • • the oxygen atom in each O–H covalent bond attracts the electrons more strongly than the H atom
    • • O & H nuclei don't share the electrons equally
    • – hydrogen atoms are electron-poor compared with a neutral hydrogen (charge 0) atom; have a partial positive charge, indicated by the symbol +1 
    • – oxygen atom = more electron-rich than a neutral oxygen atom & has a partial negative charge, indicated by the symbol 2- 
    • • Unequal distribution of charge creates a polar bond; makes them good solvents for ionic compounds
    • • Individual cations and anions are called hydrated 
    • ions
  3. electrolyte (3 types)
    • any compound that can form IONS when dissolved in water

    • 1) strong: constituent ions dissociate completely, producing aqueous solns that conduct electricity well
    • 2) weak: produce few ions in soln; conduct electricity less well
    • 3) nonelectrolytes: dissolve in water as neutral molecules; have NO effect on conductivity
  4. Ionic Equations: there are three ways to write reactions in aqueous solutions
    molecular equation: show ALL reactants and products in molecular or ionic form

    total ionic equation: show the ions & molecules as they exist IN SOLUTION

    net ionic equation: shows ions that PARTICIPATE in reaction and removes spectator ions; spectator ions DO NOT participate in the reaction
  5. exchange reactions (2 types)
    • 1) single displacement reactions: one element displaces another from a compound
    • AB + C --> AC + B

    2) metathesis reactions (AB+CD--> AD+BC)

    • - precipitation: products = insoluble substance which preciptates from soln as a solid...ex.
    • Pb(NO3)2(aq)+2 KI(aq)→PbI2(s)+2KNO3(aq)
    • net: Pb2+(aq)+2I-(aq) → PbI2(s)

    • - acid-base neutralization: products = salt & water...ex.
    • NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq)→ NaCl(aq)+ H2O(l)
    • net: OH-(aq) + H+(aq) → H2O(l)

    • - gas formation: usally reaction of metal carbonates...ex.
    • MgCO3(s)+2HCl(aq)→2Mg(Cl)2(aq)+ H2O(l) + CO2(g)
  6. condensation reactions (& the reverse, cleavage reactions)
    • 1) combination reactions (condensation): more than one reactant, ONE product
    • A + B --> AB 

    • 2) decomposition reactions (cleavage): single reactant, MORE than 1 product
    • AB --> A + B
  7. redox (oxidation-reduction reactions)
    electrons are transferred between reactants; oxidation numbers of SOME elements change; at least 1 element must increase & one MUST decrease in oxidation #

    - single displacement rxns are ALWAYS redox reactions
  8. Soluble Salts
    • • (mostly) any salts with Na+, K+, NH4+
    • • aka salts with Alkali Metals (Group I) or   NH4+ ARE soluble
  9. 100 J in
    1 kJ
  10. Salts with Cl-, Br- & I- (aka the halogens):
    • are soluble EXCEPT WITH CATIONS:
    • -Ag+ (silver)
    • -Hg 2+ (mercury)
    • -Pb 2+ (lead)

    - so halides = mostly soluble except for those with silver, mercury or lead in them
  11. Compounds containing silver ions are:
    Compounds containing silver ions are INSOLUBLE except silver nitrate (AgNO3)
  12. Internal Energy of a chemical system depends on (3)
    • •number of particles
    • •type of particles
    • •temperature
  13. compounds containing F- are mostly:
    SOLUBLE

    • EXCEPTIONS: those with
    • -Mg 2+
    • -Ca 2+
    • -Sr 2+
    • -Ba 2+
    • -Pb 2+

    AKA all alkali earth metals EXCEPT Be 2+
  14. compounds containing SO4 2- are mostly:
    SOLUBLE

    • except those with
    • -Ca 2+
    • -Sr 2+
    • -Ba 2+
    • -Pb 2+

    • -just...lead holds on TIGHT, most are insoluble
    • -and alkali earth metals from Ca down
  15. Ba(OH)2 is
    SOLUBLE
  16. INSOLUBLE COMPOUNDS (7)
    1) carbonates (CO3 2-)

    2) phosphates (PO4 3-)

    3) oxalates (C204 2-)

    4) chromates (CrO4 2-)

    5) metal sulfides (S 2-)

    6) metal hydroxides (OH-)

    7) metal oxides (metal+O something)

    • *don't forget, metals are the elements on the left and middle of the periodic table
    • -love, your mother

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Author:
mse263
ID:
160506
Filename:
Exam 4
Updated:
2012-07-01 22:53:31
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Chem 131
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