The axial Skeleton

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  1. Axial skeleton
    consists of bones that lie around the longitudinal axis of the human body. skull bones hyoid bone, ribs, sternum, and bones of the vertebral column. 
  2. Types of bones: long bones
    • have greater length then width, consist of a schaft and a variable number of extremities, and are slightly curved for strength.
    • ex: femur, tibia and fibula(leg bones) humerous (arm) ulna and radious (forearm bone)  
  3. short bones
    are some-what cubed shape and are nearly equal in length and width.  They consist of spongy bone tissue

    ex: wrist bone and ankle bones 
  4. flat bones
    • ex: sternum, ribs
    • are generally thin and composed of two nearly parallel plates of compact bone tissue enclosing a layer of spongy bone tissue 
  5. Irregulae bones
    have complex shapes and cannot be grouped into any of the previous categories,

    ex: vertebrea 
  6. Sesamoid bones
    develop in certain tendons where there is considerable friction, tension and physical stress such as the palms and soles.
  7. Sutural bones
    are small bones located in sutures(immovable joints in adults) between certain cranial bones
  8. bone surface markings
    • structural features adapted to a certian function. 
    • two kinds: 1) depressions and openings - which allow the passage of sft tissue (blood vessels and nerves) or form joints. 2) processes -  projections or outgrowths that either help form joints or serve as attachment points for connective tissue
  9. The Skull
    rests of on the superior end of the vertebrea column.  The bones are grouped into two categories; the facial bones and cranial bones
  10. Cranial bones: Frontal bones
    forms the forehead, the roofs of the orbits (eye socket) and most of the anterior part of the cranial floor.
  11. Cranial bones: Supraorbital margin
    above the eye sockets. Forms the roof of the orbit and the floor of the cranial cavity
  12. Cranial bones: Parietal Bones
    On either side of the Frontal bones; the two greater protions of the sides and roof of the cranial cavity.  Contains mains protrusions and depressions that allow blood flow
  13. Cranial bones: Temporal bones
    these paired bones are on either side of the parietal bones.  
  14. Cranial bones: Zygomatic arch
    lower section of the temporal bone attaches to the zygomatic bone to make this arch
  15. Cranial bones: External auditory meatus
    ear canal that directs soundwaves into the ear.  Found in the temporal bone
  16. Cranial bones: Mastoid process
    is a rounded projection of the mastoid portion of the temporal bone.  Posterior and interior to the external auditory meatus.  It is the point of attachment for several neck muscles
  17. Cranial bones:Internal auditory meatus
    is the opening through which the facial nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve pass. 
  18. Cranial bones: Occipital bone
    forms the posterior part and most of the base of the cranium. attached to the Parietal bone
  19. Cranial bones: Foramen Magnum
    the inferior part of the brain connects with the spinal cord within this foramen and the vertebral and spinal arteries also pass through it.  
  20. Cranial bones: occipital condyles
    oval processes with convex surfaces on either side of the foramen magnum, aritculate with depressions on the first cervical vertebra (atlas) 
  21. Cranial bones: sphenoid bone
    lies at the middle part of the base of the skull. Keystone of the cranial floor because it articulates with all the other cranial bones, holding them together.
  22. Cranial bones: Optic foramen
    holds the eye.  canal through which the optic nerve and opthalmic artery pass into the orbit
  23. Cranial bones: Ethmoid bone
    • is sponge like in appearance and is located on the midline in the anteriorpart of the cranial floor medial to the orbits.
    • major supporting structure of the nasal cavity 
  24. Cranial bones: superior and middle conchae
    they greatly increase the vascular and mucous membrane surface area in the nasal cavity, which warms and moistens inhaled air before it passes into the lungs
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The axial Skeleton
2012-06-30 00:43:36
axial Skeleton

The axial Skeleton
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