The axial Skeleton
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consists of bones that lie around the longitudinal axis of the human body. skull bones hyoid bone, ribs, sternum, and bones of the vertebral column.
Types of bones: long bones
- have greater length then width, consist of a schaft and a variable number of extremities, and are slightly curved for strength.
- ex: femur, tibia and fibula(leg bones) humerous (arm) ulna and radious (forearm bone)
are some-what cubed shape and are nearly equal in length and width. They consist of spongy bone tissue
ex: wrist bone and ankle bones
- ex: sternum, ribs
- are generally thin and composed of two nearly parallel plates of compact bone tissue enclosing a layer of spongy bone tissue
have complex shapes and cannot be grouped into any of the previous categories,
develop in certain tendons where there is considerable friction, tension and physical stress such as the palms and soles.
are small bones located in sutures(immovable joints in adults) between certain cranial bones
bone surface markings
- structural features adapted to a certian function.
- two kinds: 1) depressions and openings - which allow the passage of sft tissue (blood vessels and nerves) or form joints. 2) processes - projections or outgrowths that either help form joints or serve as attachment points for connective tissue
rests of on the superior end of the vertebrea column. The bones are grouped into two categories; the facial bones and cranial bones
Cranial bones: Frontal bones
forms the forehead, the roofs of the orbits (eye socket) and most of the anterior part of the cranial floor.
Cranial bones: Supraorbital margin
above the eye sockets. Forms the roof of the orbit and the floor of the cranial cavity
Cranial bones: Parietal Bones
On either side of the Frontal bones; the two greater protions of the sides and roof of the cranial cavity. Contains mains protrusions and depressions that allow blood flow
Cranial bones: Temporal bones
these paired bones are on either side of the parietal bones.
Cranial bones: Zygomatic arch
lower section of the temporal bone attaches to the zygomatic bone to make this arch
Cranial bones: External auditory meatus
ear canal that directs soundwaves into the ear. Found in the temporal bone
Cranial bones: Mastoid process
is a rounded projection of the mastoid portion of the temporal bone. Posterior and interior to the external auditory meatus. It is the point of attachment for several neck muscles
Cranial bones:Internal auditory meatus
is the opening through which the facial nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve pass.
Cranial bones: Occipital bone
forms the posterior part and most of the base of the cranium. attached to the Parietal bone
Cranial bones: Foramen Magnum
the inferior part of the brain connects with the spinal cord within this foramen and the vertebral and spinal arteries also pass through it.
Cranial bones: occipital condyles
oval processes with convex surfaces on either side of the foramen magnum, aritculate with depressions on the first cervical vertebra (atlas)
Cranial bones: sphenoid bone
lies at the middle part of the base of the skull. Keystone of the cranial floor because it articulates with all the other cranial bones, holding them together.
Cranial bones: Optic foramen
holds the eye. canal through which the optic nerve and opthalmic artery pass into the orbit
Cranial bones: Ethmoid bone
- is sponge like in appearance and is located on the midline in the anteriorpart of the cranial floor medial to the orbits.
- major supporting structure of the nasal cavity
Cranial bones: superior and middle conchae
they greatly increase the vascular and mucous membrane surface area in the nasal cavity, which warms and moistens inhaled air before it passes into the lungs
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