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External 2
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  1. All true flies that we will discuss in the class Insecta are of the order:
    Diptera
  2. Diptera means...
    "two winged"
  3. All adult flies, excep __ have a pair of well developed wings located midway on the body at the mesothoracic area.
    Hippobascidae
  4. What kind of Microfilaria can be found in the skin of bovine?
    Onchocerca gutterosa
  5. This a microfilaria found in the skin of equine.
    Onchocerca cervicalis
  6. __ mentioned only that it is famous for genetic research since birth is given to mature larvae ready to pupate quickl, so new born is seen and recorded every 10-12 days
    Family Muscidae- Glossina (tsetse flies)
  7. What is the Family Sarcophagidae?
    Flesh flies
  8. What is the family Calliphoridae?
    Blow flies
  9. What is the "american screwworm"?
    Cochliomyia hominovorax
  10. What is the lifecycle of the Cochliomyia hominovorax?
    • 1. female lays eggs on wounds or moist tissue
    • 2. eggs hatch in one day, and maggots feed
    • 3. larvae fall off host and pupate in 5-7 days
    • 4. adults emerge in 1-3 weeks and reproduce
    • 5. female commence to lay eggs
  11. "old world screw worm"
    Chrysomya bezzian
  12. __ was reported infecting a dog located in Norwell, Massachusetts on November 1, 2007. It came to Boston via Singapore
    Chrysomya bezzian "old world screw worm"
  13. __ and __ adult flies lack mouthparts (vestigal) and thus cannot feed, thus they live only long enough to breed and deposit their eggs near the host
    Hypodermatidae and Gastrophilus
  14. What is life cycle of Hypodermatidae (Hypoderma lineatum)?
    • 1. hypoderma lineatum eggs or larvae is consumed orally, the larvae penetrates the intestines, and migrates for 5 months accumlating in the area of the esophagus
    • 2. larvae spends 3 months around the esophagus
    • 3. larvae migrate to the subcutaneous tissues of the back, open breathing holes and molt twice
    • 4. larvae (now called Grubs) mature, enlarge breathing holes, escape and fall to the ground to pupate
    • 5. Adult flies emerge and reproduce to lay eggs
  15. What is lifecycle of Hypogermatidae (Hypoderma bovis)?
    • eggs are laid on cow's skin and they hatch
    • the larvae burrow into the skin and begin migration for an unsure time period but accumulate around the spinal cord
    • after an uncertain time the larvae move to the back of the cow to punch holes in the hide for air, molt at least 2 more times, escape falling to the ground and pupate
    • adult flies emerge and being to reproduce and lay egg
  16. What happens if grubs are accidentally ruptured?
    they can release histamine like chemical resulting in vascular collapse, shock and death
  17. What is the treatment for hypdermatidea?
    Ivomec and/or any organophosphate chemical prior to entry of bot
  18. What are the 2 parasties that spend entire year on the host?
    • Gastrophillus
    • Hypoderma
  19. What is the lifecycle for Oestrus ovis "Sheep Nasal Fly"
    • 1st stage deposited in the nostril of sheep
    • the larvae crawls into the nasal passage
    • molts occur in the nasal passages in a few weeks & the bots crawls out and drops to the ground to pupate
    • Adults emerge in 4 to 6 weeks, mate, lay eggs, die
    • if weather is bad, 1st stage remain
  20. What is the lifecycle of Cuterebra palpebrae?
    • eggs are laid along rabbit trails
    • animal runs by picking up eggs and molts
    • larvae crawls to moist area and penetrates
    • larvae will stay in self-limiting area for weeks
    • larvae will emerge, metamorphosis occurs and flys
    • males and females breed laying eggs along runs
  21. __ is one of the most common and distrubing of the cyclorrhaphas that we see in veterinary medicine
    Family Cuterebra-- Cuterebra palpebrae
  22. __ these external parasites spend most if not all of their lives in the hairs or feathers of their host, with transmission almost entirely by meanns of host contact
    Lice
  23. What are the two orders of lice?
    Mallophaga or Anoplura
  24. What is apart of the Anaplura order?
    sucking lice: larger, more pathogenic, slower moving
  25. What is apart of the Order Mallophage?
    Biting/chewing lice :mouth is mandible like parts, hurt more painful
  26. The lifecycle of lice is an incomplete metamorphosis, what is it?
    • eggs (known as louse eggs or nite) must have feathers or hairs to attach to
    • eggs hatch into tiny replicas of the adult lice
    • several molts occur with minor changes
  27. Lice are very host specific, and generally spend their entire life on the host or they die; exception is __ clings to the clothing instead of the body hairs during feeding.
    Pediculus coorporis
  28. What is the old name for Pediculus corporis?
    Pediculus hemonus hemonus
  29. What is epidemic Typhus? and when was it found in the US?
    rickettsial diease, seen during hurrican allison when people couldn't shower
  30. Lice belonging to dogs, coyotes & wolves Mallophaga
    trichodectes canis
  31. lice belonging dogs and coyotes Mallophaga
    heterodoxus spiniger
  32. lice belonging to cats, bobcats, large cats Mallophaga
    felicola subrostrata
  33. lice belonging to dogs, foxes, coyotes, rabbits, ferrets, wolves and cats (Anoplura)
    Linognathus setosus
  34. there are three things that produce pathogenic pruritus (3)
    • fleas
    • food allergies
    • sarcoptic mange
  35. Fleas are vectors of :
    Bubonic plague (bacteria, yersina petisi) Endemic Typhys (Rickettsia prowazeki) Dipylidium caninum (tapes), Anoplocephala, Dipetalonema reconditum
  36. __ in fleas occurs after a blood meal
    Copulation
  37. flea eggs can be laid on or off the host (true or false)
    true
  38. Egg to egg can be as little as 16 days under ideal temperature __ and humidity __
    65-80 F and 70%
  39. Flea larvae feed on __ and flea ceves which contains digestive blood giving the developmental larvae a reddish coloration
    sebum
  40. __ species of fleas, only two or three will effect our domestic animals
    1500
  41. What are the two or three fleas that effect domestic animals?
    • Ctenocephalides canis/felis
    • Pulex irritans
  42. Egg production beings within __ after the females have taken their first meals almost immediately after acquireing a host.
    24-48 hours
  43. What is lifecycle of Ctenocephalidea?
    • white egg (laid on ground on body) - hatch 3 week
    • Yellowish white larvae- molt 1 week
    • reddish brown larvae- molt 1 week (feeds on feces)
    • opaque white larvae- 1 week, spin cocoon
    • cocoon will erupt in 2 weeks and produce pupa
    • pupa- rest 2 weeks and mature
    • adult- will live off and on the host for 6 months
  44. cocoon spins when:
    life is threatened, can last for a year
  45. Three conditions that mean death to egg & larvae:
    • 1. water- they will actually drown
    • 2. light- bright sun light
    • 3. humidity below 50% (altitidues about 5,000)
  46. What is the family belong to cochroachs?
    Blasttidea
  47. What is the order of the beetles
    Coleoopters
  48. What is the importance of beetles?
    • they are intermediate host for spirocerca lupi
    • egg-coprophage beetle-faculative host-host (dog)- penetrate stomach wall-arterial system-esophagus
  49. What does the class Arachnida include?
    • spiders
    • scorpions
  50. What does the order Acarina include?
    ticks and mites
  51. What are characteristics of larval stages of ticks and mites?
    • 1. 3 pari of legs
    • 2. nymphs and adults have 4 pair of legs
    • 3. head, thorax and abdomen are fused
    • 4. antenna and mandibles are not present
    • 5. moth parts are covered by false head (capitulum)
  52. What is suborder Metastigmata?
    all of the ticks
  53. Family Ixodidae
    hard ticks
  54. Family Argasidae
    Soft tick
  55. Life cycle of ticks
    • egg
    • six legged larva "seed tick"
    • eight legged larvae "nymph"
    • eight legged larvae- mature form- sexually mature
  56. Characteristics of Ixodid ticks:
    • 1. shield or scutum covers the entire dorsal surface
    • 2. capitulum (head pieces) projects anteriorly
  57. __ this type of tick completes both molts common to the Ixodid tick without leaving its host. Ex. Boophilus annulatus "Texas Fever"
    one host tick
  58. __ seed tick larvae will molt to the nymph, nymph will drop off 1st host, molt to Adult, and then the Adult will located to the 2nd host
    two host tick
  59. __ larvae drops to molt to Nymph, Nymph find a 2nd host, nymph drops off 2nd host to molt to adult, adult then locates on the 3rd host
    three host tick
  60. __ and __ host ticks can transmit interstadially (can transmit disease in all stages)
    two and three host
  61. __ like other one host ticks utilize transovarial transmission, as such the diease etiology (Babesia bigemina) is transmitted to her progeny by way of her ovaries
    Boophilus annulatus
  62. __ is a three host tick whose larvae and nymps engorge on dogs.
    Dermacentor variablis
  63. __ larvae, nymph, and adults all engorge on dogs
    Rhipicephallus sanguinius
  64. What is the Etiology or Piroplasmosis/Babesiosis?
    A protozoan of the Order Sporozoa and the Genus Babesia, utilize the erythrocyte to parasitize and multiply by binary fission, moving in 2, 4, 8 etc.
  65. What is the intermediate host for Piroplasmosis/Babesiosis?
    Genus boophilus
  66. What is the mode of transmission for Piroplasmosis/Babesiosis?
    Transovarial/intrauterine
  67. What are some symptoms of Piroplasmosis/Babesiosis?
    anemia due to early death of rbc, producing jaudice/icterus
  68. What are some names assocatied with Bovine Babesiosis?
    Texas Fever, Tick Fever, Texas Cattle Fever, Texas Tick Fever...etc
  69. What is the Etiology for bovine Babesiosis?
    Babesia bigemina
  70. What is the Etiology for Equine Babesiosis?
    • Babesia caballi- horses, mules and donkeys
    • Babesia equi- above and zebras
  71. What is the intermediate host for Bovine and Equine Babesiosis/Piroplasmosis?
    Boophilus annulatus
  72. What is the etiology for Canine Babesiosis/Piroplasmosis?
    • Babesia canis- most common in US
    • Babesia gibsoni- Australia & Europe
  73. What is the intermediate host for Canine Babesiosis/Piroplasmosis?
    Rhipicephalus sanquineus "Brown dog tick" 3 host tick
  74. Animals that have been __ have a reduced ability to produce lymphocytes and thus antibodies to combat infections.
    Splenectomized
  75. What is the etiology of Rocky Mountain Spotted fever?
    Rickettsia rickettsii
  76. What is the intermediate host for Rickettsia rickettsii?
    • Dermacentor andersoni (wood tick)
    • Dermacentor variablis
  77. __ utilize 2 and 3 host ticks so they are actively engaged in interstadially transmission
    Rickettsia
  78. What is the Etiology for Coxiella?
    Coxiella burnetti
  79. What is the Disease name for Coxiella burnetti?
    Q fever
  80. What is the intermediate host(s) for Coxiella burnetti?
    • Dermacentor andersoni
    • Dermacentor occidentalis
    • Rhipicephalus sanquineus
    • Otobius megnini (spider tick)
  81. What is the Etiology for Cowdria?
    Cowdria ruminatium
  82. What is the disease name for Cowdria ruminatium?
    Heartwater?
  83. What is the characteristic symptom for Cowdria ruminatium?
    Hydropericarium "cardiac tympanade"
  84. What is the intermediate host for Cowdria ruminatium?
    Amblyomma
  85. What is the etiology for Ehrlichia?
    Ehrilichia canis (in WBC & RBC)
  86. What is the disease name for Ehrlichia canis?
    Viet Nam diesease
  87. What is the intermediate host for Ehrlichia canis?
    Rhipicephalus sanquineu
  88. What is the suborder Metastigmata?
    ticks
  89. What is the suborder Mesostigmata?
    Mites
  90. What is the suborder Astigmata
    Mites
  91. Suborder Prostigmata?
    Mites
  92. What is a stigma?
    it is a respiratory pore in the middle of the body
  93. __ are mites of birds and noncompanion beast
    Family Railletidae
  94. including the free-living species, there have been more than __ species of mites described world-wide, this compared to only 3,000 species of mosquitos
    30,000
  95. of the 30,000 mites about __ species of mites are recognized as being the cause of health-related problems in man and animals
    250
  96. (family Railletiadae)-- harmless in ear of cattle
    Raillietia auris
  97. (family Railletiadae) lungs of monkeys
    Pneumonyssus simicola
  98. (family Railletiadae) nasal and paranasal sinuses of dogs. Epistaxis and sneezing
    Pneumonyssus caninum
  99. (family Railletiadae) adult mite can survive for extended periods of time in bird nest and chicken houses.
    Dermanyssus gallinae
  100. (family Railletiadae) rodents, snakes, and birds
    Ornithonyssus species
  101. __ have long legs in the anterior portion of the body and are more "ticklike" in appearance than other mites
    Ornithonyssus species
  102. __ infects both domestic and wild birds, the long whiplike chelicerae of the Ornithonyssus and postions of the anus differentiate Ornithonyssus
    Dermanyssus gallinae

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