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All true flies that we will discuss in the class Insecta are of the order:
All adult flies, excep __ have a pair of well developed wings located midway on the body at the mesothoracic area.
What kind of Microfilaria can be found in the skin of bovine?
This a microfilaria found in the skin of equine.
__ mentioned only that it is famous for genetic research since birth is given to mature larvae ready to pupate quickl, so new born is seen and recorded every 10-12 days
Family Muscidae- Glossina (tsetse flies)
What is the Family Sarcophagidae?
What is the family Calliphoridae?
What is the "american screwworm"?
What is the lifecycle of the Cochliomyia hominovorax?
- 1. female lays eggs on wounds or moist tissue
- 2. eggs hatch in one day, and maggots feed
- 3. larvae fall off host and pupate in 5-7 days
- 4. adults emerge in 1-3 weeks and reproduce
- 5. female commence to lay eggs
"old world screw worm"
__ was reported infecting a dog located in Norwell, Massachusetts on November 1, 2007. It came to Boston via Singapore
Chrysomya bezzian "old world screw worm"
__ and __ adult flies lack mouthparts (vestigal) and thus cannot feed, thus they live only long enough to breed and deposit their eggs near the host
Hypodermatidae and Gastrophilus
What is life cycle of Hypodermatidae (Hypoderma lineatum)?
- 1. hypoderma lineatum eggs or larvae is consumed orally, the larvae penetrates the intestines, and migrates for 5 months accumlating in the area of the esophagus
- 2. larvae spends 3 months around the esophagus
- 3. larvae migrate to the subcutaneous tissues of the back, open breathing holes and molt twice
- 4. larvae (now called Grubs) mature, enlarge breathing holes, escape and fall to the ground to pupate
- 5. Adult flies emerge and reproduce to lay eggs
What is lifecycle of Hypogermatidae (Hypoderma bovis)?
- eggs are laid on cow's skin and they hatch
- the larvae burrow into the skin and begin migration for an unsure time period but accumulate around the spinal cord
- after an uncertain time the larvae move to the back of the cow to punch holes in the hide for air, molt at least 2 more times, escape falling to the ground and pupate
- adult flies emerge and being to reproduce and lay egg
What happens if grubs are accidentally ruptured?
they can release histamine like chemical resulting in vascular collapse, shock and death
What is the treatment for hypdermatidea?
Ivomec and/or any organophosphate chemical prior to entry of bot
What are the 2 parasties that spend entire year on the host?
What is the lifecycle for Oestrus ovis "Sheep Nasal Fly"
- 1st stage deposited in the nostril of sheep
- the larvae crawls into the nasal passage
- molts occur in the nasal passages in a few weeks & the bots crawls out and drops to the ground to pupate
- Adults emerge in 4 to 6 weeks, mate, lay eggs, die
- if weather is bad, 1st stage remain
What is the lifecycle of Cuterebra palpebrae?
- eggs are laid along rabbit trails
- animal runs by picking up eggs and molts
- larvae crawls to moist area and penetrates
- larvae will stay in self-limiting area for weeks
- larvae will emerge, metamorphosis occurs and flys
- males and females breed laying eggs along runs
__ is one of the most common and distrubing of the cyclorrhaphas that we see in veterinary medicine
Family Cuterebra-- Cuterebra palpebrae
__ these external parasites spend most if not all of their lives in the hairs or feathers of their host, with transmission almost entirely by meanns of host contact
What are the two orders of lice?
Mallophaga or Anoplura
What is apart of the Anaplura order?
sucking lice: larger, more pathogenic, slower moving
What is apart of the Order Mallophage?
Biting/chewing lice :mouth is mandible like parts, hurt more painful
The lifecycle of lice is an incomplete metamorphosis, what is it?
- eggs (known as louse eggs or nite) must have feathers or hairs to attach to
- eggs hatch into tiny replicas of the adult lice
- several molts occur with minor changes
Lice are very host specific, and generally spend their entire life on the host or they die; exception is __ clings to the clothing instead of the body hairs during feeding.
What is the old name for Pediculus corporis?
Pediculus hemonus hemonus
What is epidemic Typhus? and when was it found in the US?
rickettsial diease, seen during hurrican allison when people couldn't shower
Lice belonging to dogs, coyotes & wolves Mallophaga
lice belonging dogs and coyotes Mallophaga
lice belonging to cats, bobcats, large cats Mallophaga
lice belonging to dogs, foxes, coyotes, rabbits, ferrets, wolves and cats (Anoplura)
there are three things that produce pathogenic pruritus (3)
- food allergies
- sarcoptic mange
Fleas are vectors of :
Bubonic plague (bacteria, yersina petisi) Endemic Typhys (Rickettsia prowazeki) Dipylidium caninum (tapes), Anoplocephala, Dipetalonema reconditum
__ in fleas occurs after a blood meal
flea eggs can be laid on or off the host (true or false)
Egg to egg can be as little as 16 days under ideal temperature __ and humidity __
65-80 F and 70%
Flea larvae feed on __ and flea ceves which contains digestive blood giving the developmental larvae a reddish coloration
__ species of fleas, only two or three will effect our domestic animals
What are the two or three fleas that effect domestic animals?
- Ctenocephalides canis/felis
- Pulex irritans
Egg production beings within __ after the females have taken their first meals almost immediately after acquireing a host.
What is lifecycle of Ctenocephalidea?
- white egg (laid on ground on body) - hatch 3 week
- Yellowish white larvae- molt 1 week
- reddish brown larvae- molt 1 week (feeds on feces)
- opaque white larvae- 1 week, spin cocoon
- cocoon will erupt in 2 weeks and produce pupa
- pupa- rest 2 weeks and mature
- adult- will live off and on the host for 6 months
cocoon spins when:
life is threatened, can last for a year
Three conditions that mean death to egg & larvae:
- 1. water- they will actually drown
- 2. light- bright sun light
- 3. humidity below 50% (altitidues about 5,000)
What is the family belong to cochroachs?
What is the order of the beetles
What is the importance of beetles?
- they are intermediate host for spirocerca lupi
- egg-coprophage beetle-faculative host-host (dog)- penetrate stomach wall-arterial system-esophagus
What does the class Arachnida include?
What does the order Acarina include?
ticks and mites
What are characteristics of larval stages of ticks and mites?
- 1. 3 pari of legs
- 2. nymphs and adults have 4 pair of legs
- 3. head, thorax and abdomen are fused
- 4. antenna and mandibles are not present
- 5. moth parts are covered by false head (capitulum)
What is suborder Metastigmata?
all of the ticks
Life cycle of ticks
- six legged larva "seed tick"
- eight legged larvae "nymph"
- eight legged larvae- mature form- sexually mature
Characteristics of Ixodid ticks:
- 1. shield or scutum covers the entire dorsal surface
- 2. capitulum (head pieces) projects anteriorly
__ this type of tick completes both molts common to the Ixodid tick without leaving its host. Ex. Boophilus annulatus "Texas Fever"
one host tick
__ seed tick larvae will molt to the nymph, nymph will drop off 1st host, molt to Adult, and then the Adult will located to the 2nd host
two host tick
__ larvae drops to molt to Nymph, Nymph find a 2nd host, nymph drops off 2nd host to molt to adult, adult then locates on the 3rd host
three host tick
__ and __ host ticks can transmit interstadially (can transmit disease in all stages)
two and three host
__ like other one host ticks utilize transovarial transmission, as such the diease etiology (Babesia bigemina) is transmitted to her progeny by way of her ovaries
__ is a three host tick whose larvae and nymps engorge on dogs.
__ larvae, nymph, and adults all engorge on dogs
What is the Etiology or Piroplasmosis/Babesiosis?
A protozoan of the Order Sporozoa and the Genus Babesia, utilize the erythrocyte to parasitize and multiply by binary fission, moving in 2, 4, 8 etc.
What is the intermediate host for Piroplasmosis/Babesiosis?
What is the mode of transmission for Piroplasmosis/Babesiosis?
What are some symptoms of Piroplasmosis/Babesiosis?
anemia due to early death of rbc, producing jaudice/icterus
What are some names assocatied with Bovine Babesiosis?
Texas Fever, Tick Fever, Texas Cattle Fever, Texas Tick Fever...etc
What is the Etiology for bovine Babesiosis?
What is the Etiology for Equine Babesiosis?
- Babesia caballi- horses, mules and donkeys
- Babesia equi- above and zebras
What is the intermediate host for Bovine and Equine Babesiosis/Piroplasmosis?
What is the etiology for Canine Babesiosis/Piroplasmosis?
- Babesia canis- most common in US
- Babesia gibsoni- Australia & Europe
What is the intermediate host for Canine Babesiosis/Piroplasmosis?
Rhipicephalus sanquineus "Brown dog tick" 3 host tick
Animals that have been __ have a reduced ability to produce lymphocytes and thus antibodies to combat infections.
What is the etiology of Rocky Mountain Spotted fever?
What is the intermediate host for Rickettsia rickettsii?
- Dermacentor andersoni (wood tick)
- Dermacentor variablis
__ utilize 2 and 3 host ticks so they are actively engaged in interstadially transmission
What is the Etiology for Coxiella?
What is the Disease name for Coxiella burnetti?
What is the intermediate host(s) for Coxiella burnetti?
- Dermacentor andersoni
- Dermacentor occidentalis
- Rhipicephalus sanquineus
- Otobius megnini (spider tick)
What is the Etiology for Cowdria?
What is the disease name for Cowdria ruminatium?
What is the characteristic symptom for Cowdria ruminatium?
Hydropericarium "cardiac tympanade"
What is the intermediate host for Cowdria ruminatium?
What is the etiology for Ehrlichia?
Ehrilichia canis (in WBC & RBC)
What is the disease name for Ehrlichia canis?
Viet Nam diesease
What is the intermediate host for Ehrlichia canis?
What is the suborder Metastigmata?
What is the suborder Mesostigmata?
What is the suborder Astigmata
What is a stigma?
it is a respiratory pore in the middle of the body
__ are mites of birds and noncompanion beast
including the free-living species, there have been more than __ species of mites described world-wide, this compared to only 3,000 species of mosquitos
of the 30,000 mites about __ species of mites are recognized as being the cause of health-related problems in man and animals
(family Railletiadae)-- harmless in ear of cattle
(family Railletiadae) lungs of monkeys
(family Railletiadae) nasal and paranasal sinuses of dogs. Epistaxis and sneezing
(family Railletiadae) adult mite can survive for extended periods of time in bird nest and chicken houses.
(family Railletiadae) rodents, snakes, and birds
__ have long legs in the anterior portion of the body and are more "ticklike" in appearance than other mites
__ infects both domestic and wild birds, the long whiplike chelicerae of the Ornithonyssus and postions of the anus differentiate Ornithonyssus
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