Exam 2: Lower Extremity Handout Part 1

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Exam 2: Lower Extremity Handout Part 1
2012-06-30 13:03:16
anatomy lower extremity

review of lower extremity handout for exam 2
Show Answers:

  1. Which bone is a common source of bone for grafting?
  2. When a long piece of the fibula has been removed for grafting, how does this affect movement?
    • walking, running, and jumping can be normal
    • does not affect leg/foot function 
  3. Why would free vascularized fibulae be used to restore skeletal integrity to upper and lower extremities?
    • congenital bone defects
    • replace segments of bone following trauma or excision of malignant tumor
  4. Does the missing piece of bone from the fibula regenerate?
  5. Why does the missing piece of fibula not regenerate
    periosteum and nutrient artery are generally removed w/ piece of bone so graft will remain alive when transplanted
  6. What causes paralysis of tibialis anterior?
    injury of common peroneal nerve or deep peroneal nerve
  7. What occurs when the tibialis anterior is paralyzed?
    foot drops
  8. What does foot drop mean?
    foot falls into plantar flexion when it is raised off ground
  9. What are shin splints?
    • painful condition of anterior compartment of the leg
    • anterior tibial mm swell
  10. What causes shin splints?
    • vigorous and/or lengthy exercise
    • sudden overuse of anterior tibial mm.
    • not warming up adequately or cooling down sufficiently 
  11. What type of person is likely to develop pain in anterior part of legs after long walks?
    sedentary people
  12. What happens when anterior tibial mm. swell from sudden overuse?
    reduce blood flow to muscles
  13. When shin splints occur what might happen if use of the mm. is continued?
  14. What affect does pressure have on the swollen mm.?
    painful and tender to pressure
  15. Is inflammation, strain, or rupture of tendo calcaneus common?
  16. What is another name for tendo calcaneus?
    calcaneal (Achilles) tendon
  17. How do injuries to the tendo calcaneus occur?
    • durring running
    • games requiring quick starts
    • person stumbles or is startled causing them to jump or suddenly run    
  18. Does injury to tendo calcaneus occur more commonly in young or older people?
  19. What is the result of complete rupture of the tendo calcaneus?
    • abrupt pain in posterior aspect of leg
    • unable to use extremity
    • lump or increase in prominence of calf occurs
    • foot dorsiflexes to greater extent than normal
    • unable to plantarflex foot against resistance  
  20. With a complete rupture of the tendo calcaneus, why does a lump or increase in prominence of the calf occur?
    shortening of triceps surae muscle
  21. Which muscles make up the triceps surae muscle?
    gastrocnemius and soleus
  22. What is the ankle reflex (ankle jerk)?
    twitch of triceps surae muscle
  23. How is the ankle reflex tested?
    striking tendo calcaneus with reflex hammer
  24. Where is the reflex center for the ankle reflex?
    in S1 and S2 segments of spinal cord
  25. What is "tennis leg"?
    • painful calf injury
    • partial tearing of medial belly of gastrocnemius at or near musculotendinous junction
  26. What causes tennis leg?
    overstretching muscle by concomitant full extension of knee and dorsiflextion of ankle joint
  27. The gastrocnemius is one of a few muscles with only one source of:
    blood supply
  28. What provides blood supply to the gastrocnemius?
    sural arteries
  29. The sural arteries supplying the gastrocnemius are branches from which artery?
  30. Do the sural arteries anastomosis with other arteries?
    no, except by capillaries
  31. What happens if one branch of the sural arteries is blocked?
    part supplied by it dies
  32. Which arteries supply the soleus muscle?
    • sural arteries
    • branches from peroneal artery 
  33. Inflammation and swelling of tendo calcaneus/cancaneal bursa=
    calcaneal bursitis
  34. Calcaneal bursitis is fairly common in who?
    long distance runners
  35. What causes calcaneal bursitis?
    excessive friction on bursa as tendo calcaneus contiuously slides over it
  36. When standing, the venous return of the leg depends largely on what?
    muscular activity, esp. of triceps surae muscle
  37. What improves the efficiency of the "calf pump"?
    tight stocking of deep fascia covering the mm
  38. What happens to blood when calf muscles contract?
    blood is pumped superiorly in deep vein
  39. What normally prevents blood from flowing into the superficial veins?
    valves in perforating veins
  40. What happens if the valves in perforating veins become incompetent?
    blood is forced into superficial veins during contraction of triceps surae musces and by hydrostatic pressure when straining or standing
  41. What are distended perforating and superficial veins called?
    varicose veins