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Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Father of microbiology. Found animalcules using a microscope that he made.
Identifying a bacteria by its appearance, including gram stain and culturing.
Father of Clinical Microbiology
Isolated microbes from dead rats and injected them into healthy rats. He then found the microbes in the rats he infected.
Increase in number of cells
- Used by most prokaryotes to accomplish cell growth.
- The DNA starts out tightly coiled, it replicates, then pulls to opposite sides of the bacterium. The growth of a new cell wall begins to separate the bacterium, the new cell wall fully develops, resulting in the complete split. The new daughter cells have tightly coiled DNA, ribosomes and plasmids.
AKA doubling time.
Time required for a population of microbial cells to double.
Highly variable depending on many factors.
One parent to two daughters
Name the Five Appendage Types and their functions
(the appendages can have multiple functions)
Pili-for genetic exchange-can transmit AB resistance.
Flagella out in different directions
Flagella at one end. Also called monotrichius
Several flagella at one end.
Ampohitrichius (he did not mention this in class)
Flagella at both ends
When flagella turn backwards
Forward movement of flagella
Movement to or from a chemical source
Movement to or from a light source
Bacteria, Archea (no membrane bound organelles)
from before nucleus
Larger, with nucleus, mitochondria
(algae, fungi, protozoa)
human cells are Eukaryotic
What are the 4 shapes of protein?
Macromolecule made of amino acids. Buiding blocks are amino acids, of which there are twenty common types.
Made of an amine group
The R section (that sticks out) determines what type of protein it is.
Shapes can be alpha helix, beta sheet, tertiatry is jumbled. Quarternary is two or more chains combined.
Macromolecule with nucleotide
Macromolecule with sugars
Macromolecule with fatty acids, glycerol
Key processes of life (molecular)
DNA replication, DNA transcription, RNA translation
Discovered the double helix.
Enzymes super-coil the double helix
What recognizes something that is not us?
The immune system.
Telomeres are made of repeating sequences of TTAGGG on one strand of DNA bound to AATCCC on the other strand. It has been compared to the plastic ends of shoelaces.
Telomeres shorten over time, which contributes to aging.
Protein inside of cell which DNA coils around
6 feet fits into the nuceus
Put on the old DNA group during replication to identify it.
Restriction Modification System
Cuts a DNA strand if it is foreign. Protects bacteria from viruses.
an enzyme that puts methyl groups on
What is the first genome mapped and when?
Thermophilus influenzai, mapped in 1995, is a large circular DNA
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing while the final mature RNA product of a gene is being generated
Open reading frame in DNA sequence for synthesis of protein
Transcribed DNA code for protein syntheses
transfer RNA-adapter molecules in protein synthesis
Ribosomal RNA- structural and catalytic components of the ribosome and ribonucleoprotein
Lipopolysaccharide (outer surface of gram negative) outer membrane. There is a different type of sugar for each type of cell
Lipoteichoic acid (gram positive cell has thick layer of peptidoglycan)
A toxin which activates the immune system
Gram stain vs. phylogy
Appearance vs. genetics
PCR stands for what?
Who discovered it?
How is it done?
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Discovered by Kary Mullis. Repeatedly heat and cool DNA to make copies, primers (short pieces of DNA) are added.
Automated sequencing of DNA by the chain termination method; each of four different chain terminating bases has its own specific fluorescent tag.
As the labelled DNA molecules are separated, the fluorescent label is excited by a UV source, and the identity of the base terminating the molecule is identified by the wavelength of the emitted light.
Ribosome Database Program
Webiste with database of all identified DNA
Three Domains of Life
Bacteria, Archerae, Eukaryote
The complement system helps or “complements” the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear pathogens from an organism. It is part of the innate immune system that is not adaptable and does not change over the course of an individual's lifetime.
Extravasationn of Leukocytes
- Neutrophils extravasate from blood vessels to the site of tissue injury or infection during the innate immune response. It catches, eats and shows the others what it caught.
B cells-why called B cells?
A component of which immune system?
To what do they bind?
Two main functions?
What do they eventually develop into?
B cells are an essential component of the adaptive immune system. B cells, which are the precursors of plasma cells,
are characterized by the presence of a B-cell receptor able to bind specifically an antigen.
Their principal functions are to make antibodies against antigens, perform the role of antigen-presenting cells (APCs)
and eventually develop into memory B cells after activation by antigen interaction.
T cells-why called T cells, play a role in what type of immunity?
T cells or T lymphocytes play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocytes by the presence of a T cell receptor (TCR) on the cell surface. They are called T cells because they mature in the thymus.
- T celll on the right, platelet in the center, RBC on the left.
Lymph nodes are garrisons of B, T and other immune cells.
Cells of immune system (eight)
- They act as messengers between the innate and adaptive immunity.
- Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the surface to other cells of the immune system.
Monocytes (MØ) do what two things?
- Monocytes are a type of white blood cell and are part of the innate immune system
(1) replenish resident macrophages and dendritic cells under normal states, and
(2) in response to inflammation signals, monocytes can move quickly (approx. 8-12 hours) to sites of infection in the tissues and divide/differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells to elicit an immune response.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), also spelled haematopoietic stem cells, are multipotent stem cells that give rise to all the blood cell types.
Nurse cells are specialized macrophages residing in the bone marrow that assist in the development of red blood cells. They absorb the nuclei of immature red blood cells and help the red blood cells mature.
In the bone marrow, immature red blood cells (erythroblasts) can be seen grouped in a cluster around a nurse cell. Like an animal feeding a bunch of babies.
The primary function of thymocytes is the generation of T lymphocytes (T cells).
Passive acquired immunity
Breast Milk, immunization
Seven Different shapes of bacteria
Spirillum=rod like s shape
Stalk-like a corn dog stalk and hypha
Pleomorphic-lacking a distinct shape
- An opsonin is any molecule that targets an antigen for an immune response. It pokes a hole in the pathogen.
PRM are looking for PAMPs
Part of the innate immine system. It involves recgonition and ingestion.
Pattern Recognition Molecules on phagocytes are searching for Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns.
An epitope is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells.
IgD-Functions as an antigen receptor in B cells that have not been exposed to antigens. It has been shown to activate basophils and mast cells to produce antimicrobial factors
.IgG-In its four forms, provides the majority of antibody-based immunity against invading pathogens .
IgE-Binds to allergens and triggers histamine release from mast cells and basophils, and is involved in allergy. Also protects against parasitic worms
IgM -Expressed on the surface of B cells. Eliminates pathogens in the early stages of B cell mediated (humoral) immunity before there is sufficient IgG. Pentavelent-can bind up to 10 epitopes.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large Y-shaped protein produced by B-cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target, called an antigen. Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (a structure analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival).
IgG-In its four forms, provides the majority of antibody-based immunity against invading pathogens .
IgA-found in saliva, tears and breast milk. Prevents colonization of pathogens
Five different types of antibodies
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
- On top is the monomer, IgD, IgE, IgG
2nd is Dimer IgA
- 3rd is Pentamer IgM
The smaller of the two types of polypeptide chains in an antibody molecule. A light chain consists of an antigen-binding portion with a variable amino acid sequence, and a constant region with an amino acid sequence that is relatively unchanging.
- The larger of the two types of polypeptide chains in an immunoglobulin molecule. A heavy chain consists of an antigen-binding portion having a variable amino acid sequence, and a constant region that is different for each class of imunoglobulin.
MHC1 is endogenous, goes with 8, killer.. Works on cancer and mutations.
MHC2 exogenous, goes with 4, helper.
Natural Killer Cells
A lymphocyte that fights off viral infections and tumors without evident antigenic specificity.
Three functions of membrane
Just a couple more pictures to look at because I like them.