# Quals- Robinson 1

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1. correlation
• the type (positive or negative) and degree of relationship
• between 2 variables. Does not prove causation.
2. standard deviation-
•  average distance that cases within a
• distribution of scores vary from the mean
3. standard scores-
• these describe individual statistics/test
• scores in relation to the bell curve
4. normal curve/ bell curve
• is a graphical representation of a normal distribution. For anything you measure, results across a large population distribute themselves symmetrically. In a normal distribution, the mean median and mode are all equal and the distribution is symmetrical across
• the mean (one half mirrors hte other). The tails are asymptotic in that they come closer and closer to the horizontal axis, but never touch. 68% fall within
• one SD. 95%fall within 2 SD's and 99% fall within 3 SD's. (Internal percentages= 34%, 13.5%, 2%). skewed right=positively skewed and is caused by extreme scores
• at the high end that pull the mean higher than the median (midpoint). skewed left is opposite.
5. significance
6. z score-
• an expression of an individual score in a way that
• conforms to standard deviation units. For example, 1.5 is one and a half standard deviation units above the mean and -.25 is one-quarter of a standard deviation units below the mean. These are useful in comparing scores across different settings , testing situations and tests.
7. T score-
• o  sometimes called a McCall T is a standard score resulting
• from a z score transformation T= z(10)+50. The advantage= eliminates negative
• numbers or fractions.
8. mean
arithmatic average. measure of central tendency
9. median
• midpoint. the number in the middle of a distribution (15
• numbers, this would be the 8th in order)
• a measure of central tendency
10. mode
• the most frequently occurring number in a
• distribution.
• measure of central tendency
11. range
• distance between highest and lowest
• a measure of  variability
12. variance
• how far apart numbers are (how spread out they are
• from the mean)
13. Standard Error of measurement (SEM)-
These are found in standardized tests and are a measure of how much observed scores vary from a true score. The smaller the SEM= the more reliable the test.
14. 3 ways to describe a distribution of a set of scores:
15. central tendency,
• shape
• variability
16. 3 measures of central tendency-
• mean,
• median
• mode
17. concurrent validity-
18. established by comparison with another
test or measure of the same criteria.
19. content validity
•  is subjective. for example, does the test
• fairly cover what was taught or what experts agree content is appropriate for measurement
20. correlation coefficient-
•  identifies numerically the relationship between 2 variables (from -1 to 1 with midpoint of 0 that means no
• correlation)
21. formative evaluation-
evaluation aimed at guiding the nextinstructional step
22. norm-referenced test-
results interpreted relative to thesuccess rate of other test takers
23. criterion-referenced test-
results interpreted relative to #of test items  answered correctly,without reference to the success of other test takers.
24. pilot study-
used to identify strengths and weaknesses of a tool or process so that they might be revised for future use.
25. summative evaluation-
aimed at summarizing a segment of achievement (at the end of instruction) (ie, generating a grade or other symbol of achievement)
26. reliability
• how dependable the test is. The consistency
• with which something is accomplished.
27. validity
• accuracy. Does the test measure what it says it
• measures.
28. variability
one of three ways to describe a set of scores. Answers the question "How wide are the differences between the scores?" These can include range, standard deviation and variance.

## Card Set Information

 Author: sandygoldie1 ID: 160627 Filename: Quals- Robinson 1 Updated: 2012-07-01 13:25:33 Tags: Qualifying Exams Robinson Folders: Description: Qualifying Exams Robinson- Terms for Research (blue) Show Answers:

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