# Quals- Robinson 1

 The flashcards below were created by user sandygoldie1 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. correlation the type (positive or negative) and degree of relationshipbetween 2 variables. Does not prove causation. standard deviation-  average distance that cases within adistribution of scores vary from the mean standard scores- these describe individual statistics/testscores in relation to the bell curve normal curve/ bell curve is a graphical representation of a normal distribution. For anything you measure, results across a large population distribute themselves symmetrically. In a normal distribution, the mean median and mode are all equal and the distribution is symmetrical acrossthe mean (one half mirrors hte other). The tails are asymptotic in that they come closer and closer to the horizontal axis, but never touch. 68% fall withinone SD. 95%fall within 2 SD's and 99% fall within 3 SD's. (Internal percentages= 34%, 13.5%, 2%). skewed right=positively skewed and is caused by extreme scoresat the high end that pull the mean higher than the median (midpoint). skewed left is opposite. significance z score- an expression of an individual score in a way thatconforms to standard deviation units. For example, 1.5 is one and a half standard deviation units above the mean and -.25 is one-quarter of a standard deviation units below the mean. These are useful in comparing scores across different settings , testing situations and tests. T score- o  sometimes called a McCall T is a standard score resultingfrom a z score transformation T= z(10)+50. The advantage= eliminates negativenumbers or fractions. mean arithmatic average. measure of central tendency median midpoint. the number in the middle of a distribution (15numbers, this would be the 8th in order)a measure of central tendency mode the most frequently occurring number in adistribution. measure of central tendency range distance between highest and lowesta measure of  variability variance how far apart numbers are (how spread out they arefrom the mean) Standard Error of measurement (SEM)- These are found in standardized tests and are a measure of how much observed scores vary from a true score. The smaller the SEM= the more reliable the test. 3 ways to describe a distribution of a set of scores: central tendency, shape variability 3 measures of central tendency- mean, medianmode concurrent validity- established by comparison with another test or measure of the same criteria. content validity  is subjective. for example, does the testfairly cover what was taught or what experts agree content is appropriate for measurement correlation coefficient-  identifies numerically the relationship between 2 variables (from -1 to 1 with midpoint of 0 that means nocorrelation) formative evaluation- evaluation aimed at guiding the nextinstructional step norm-referenced test- results interpreted relative to thesuccess rate of other test takers criterion-referenced test- results interpreted relative to #of test items  answered correctly,without reference to the success of other test takers. pilot study- used to identify strengths and weaknesses of a tool or process so that they might be revised for future use. summative evaluation- aimed at summarizing a segment of achievement (at the end of instruction) (ie, generating a grade or other symbol of achievement) reliability how dependable the test is. The consistencywith which something is accomplished. validity accuracy. Does the test measure what it says itmeasures. variability one of three ways to describe a set of scores. Answers the question "How wide are the differences between the scores?" These can include range, standard deviation and variance. Authorsandygoldie1 ID160627 Card SetQuals- Robinson 1 DescriptionQualifying Exams Robinson- Terms for Research (blue) Updated2012-07-01T13:25:33Z Show Answers