Quals- Robinson 1

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  1. correlation
    • the type (positive or negative) and degree of relationship
    • between 2 variables. Does not prove causation.
  2. standard deviation-
    •  average distance that cases within a
    • distribution of scores vary from the mean
  3. standard scores-
    • these describe individual statistics/test
    • scores in relation to the bell curve
  4. normal curve/ bell curve
    • is a graphical representation of a normal distribution. For anything you measure, results across a large population distribute themselves symmetrically. In a normal distribution, the mean median and mode are all equal and the distribution is symmetrical across
    • the mean (one half mirrors hte other). The tails are asymptotic in that they come closer and closer to the horizontal axis, but never touch. 68% fall within
    • one SD. 95%fall within 2 SD's and 99% fall within 3 SD's. (Internal percentages= 34%, 13.5%, 2%). skewed right=positively skewed and is caused by extreme scores
    • at the high end that pull the mean higher than the median (midpoint). skewed left is opposite.
  5. significance
  6. z score-
    • an expression of an individual score in a way that
    • conforms to standard deviation units. For example, 1.5 is one and a half standard deviation units above the mean and -.25 is one-quarter of a standard deviation units below the mean. These are useful in comparing scores across different settings , testing situations and tests.
  7. T score-
    • o  sometimes called a McCall T is a standard score resulting
    • from a z score transformation T= z(10)+50. The advantage= eliminates negative
    • numbers or fractions.
  8. mean
    arithmatic average. measure of central tendency
  9. median
    • midpoint. the number in the middle of a distribution (15
    • numbers, this would be the 8th in order)
    • a measure of central tendency
  10. mode
    • the most frequently occurring number in a
    • distribution.
    • measure of central tendency
  11. range
    • distance between highest and lowest
    • a measure of  variability
  12. variance
    • how far apart numbers are (how spread out they are
    • from the mean)
  13. Standard Error of measurement (SEM)-
    These are found in standardized tests and are a measure of how much observed scores vary from a true score. The smaller the SEM= the more reliable the test.
  14. 3 ways to describe a distribution of a set of scores:
  15. central tendency,
    • shape
    • variability
  16. 3 measures of central tendency-
    • mean,
    • median
    • mode
  17. concurrent validity-
  18. established by comparison with another
    test or measure of the same criteria.
  19. content validity
    •  is subjective. for example, does the test
    • fairly cover what was taught or what experts agree content is appropriate for measurement
  20. correlation coefficient-
    •  identifies numerically the relationship between 2 variables (from -1 to 1 with midpoint of 0 that means no
    • correlation)
  21. formative evaluation-
    evaluation aimed at guiding the nextinstructional step
  22. norm-referenced test-
    results interpreted relative to thesuccess rate of other test takers
  23. criterion-referenced test-
    results interpreted relative to #of test items  answered correctly,without reference to the success of other test takers.
  24. pilot study-
    used to identify strengths and weaknesses of a tool or process so that they might be revised for future use.
  25. summative evaluation-
    aimed at summarizing a segment of achievement (at the end of instruction) (ie, generating a grade or other symbol of achievement)
  26. reliability
    • how dependable the test is. The consistency
    • with which something is accomplished.
  27. validity
    • accuracy. Does the test measure what it says it
    • measures.
  28. variability
    one of three ways to describe a set of scores. Answers the question "How wide are the differences between the scores?" These can include range, standard deviation and variance.
Card Set
Quals- Robinson 1
Qualifying Exams Robinson- Terms for Research (blue)
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