Height of object in inches x 27.8 (25.4) / mils read = range in yards (meters)
Lead Formula for moving targets
Time of flight (sec) x Speed of target (fps) = Lead from center-mass in feet (full value lead)
Basic Wind Formula
Range (y/100) x wind velocity / Constant = MOA hold
.223 Constant = 10
.308 constant= 15
Conversion of MOA to Mil
MOA Value / 3.438 = Mil Value
Mil Click Value @ 100m
1 click = .1 mil = 1 centimeter
number of radians in a circle
6.2832
convert MOA to MILS
moa (0.2909) = Mils
Wind Formula (MOA)
Range (hundreds) X Wind (MPH) / Constant (15) =
Wind Adjustmrent (MOA's)
*Adjust answer commensurate with the value of the wind
Convert MOA hold to mils
MOA / 3.5 = mil hold
1 meter = ? yards
1.0936
1 yard = ? meters
0.9144
1 mil = ? MOA
3.4377
1 MOA = ? mils
0.2909
Deterministic Variables
variables that can be measured and accounted for (ex; gravity drop, spin drift)
Non-deterministic variables
variables that cannot be directly measured and affect the trajectory of the bullet (ex; wind, different muzzle velocities
accuracy
the measure of how close your shots are to the center of the target
precision
how tightly the shots are grouped together.
point blank range
the distance between a firearm and a target of a given size such that the bullet in flight is expected to strike the target without adjusting the elevation of the firearm
Attributes that determine BC
Weight
Cross sectional area
Form Factor
12" measeurements on the human body (3)
-top of the head to the collarbone
-bottom of chin to center mass
-shoulder to elbow
To convert centimeters to inches
multiply the inches by 2.54
To convert inches to centimeters
multiply the inches by 0.3937
four target indicators
1. Visual
2. Auditory
3. Tactile
4. Olfactory
Kinetic Energy is proportionate to what two bullet characteristics?
mass and velocity
Lag Time
The difference between time of flight and time of flight in a vacuum
Lag time equation
T-lag=tof-tof (vac)
Wind deflection is directional proportionate to?
lag time and crosswind speed
wind delfection formula
WD= Ws(Tlag)
Lag Time is affected by two things the shooter has control over:
BC and muzzle velocity
What determines the wind sensativity if a bullet?
Muzzle velocity and BC
wind gradient
the variation of wind speed with height above ground
(the higher you go the faster the wind, therefore you should consider the maximum ordinate of the round when factoring in wind deflection)
wind gradient
the tendency for wind to move faster farther off the ground
point forward flight
means that the nose of the bullet is always pointed straight into the oncoming airflow like a weather vane.
in order to get better at hitting targets, you must........
....understand what causes us to miss targets.
precision is expressed by shooters as:
group size
Accuracy is....
centering the group or shot
Conversion formula for MPH to FPS:
MPH (1.4667) = FPS
Moving Target Formula for Lead in Feet
TOF (sec) x Target Speed (fps)=Lead (Feet)
Moving Target Formula for Lead in inches
TOF(sec)xTarget Speed(fps)x12= Lead (inches)
Convert Mils to MOA:
Mils x 3.4=MOA
1 centimeter = how many millimeters?
10
one centimeter = inches?
.4
(.3937)
Convert centimeters to inches formula
multiply inches by 2.54
one inch = ? centimeters
2.54
convert inches to centimeters formula
multiply inches by .4
(.3937)
1 yard = ? meters
.9144
100 yards = ? meters
91.44
convert yards to meters formula
multiply yards by .9144
1 meter = ? yards
1.0936
A primer is made up of three components:
1. mixture
2.cup
3. Anvil
Parallax
the apparent shift in anobjects position when you look at it from a different vantage
Cadaveric Spasm
The momentary convulsion or spasm in which the suspect's muscles tighten suddenly
Caliber
-The diameter of the lands in a rifle barrel
-the diameter of a bullet expressed as a decimal fraction of an inch
cannelure
the crimping groove around a bullet
Density Altitude is a function of:
temperature
elevation
barometric pressure
False hide
used to distract susepct from actual shooting position
Four types of Hostage Rescue (most to least desirable)
Negotiations
Open Air Takedown
Vehicle Assault
Stronghold Assault
Four Basic Hostage Taaker profiles
Mentally ill
Domestic disturbance
Criminal
Terrorist
Four types of deployment on HR
Opposite Corners
L -Shape
V-Shape
Side by Side
Three parts of the brain stem
Mid Brain
Pons
Medullla Oblongata
Target Speed for: (fps)
Slow Patrol:
Fast Patrol:
Slow Walk:
Fast Walk:
Run:
Slow Patrol: 1fps
Fast Patrol: 2fps
Slow Walk: 4fps
Fast Walk: 6fps
Run: 10-12fps
Formula: convert lead in feet to inches
Lead in Feet x 12 = lead in inches
Convert lead in inches to Mils formula:
lead in inches / range (yards/100)
-------------------------------------- =Mil Lead
3.6
Formula for target that is moving INTO the wind
Target lead + wind hold = Total Lead
Formula for target that is moving WITH the wind
Target lead - wind hold = total lead
Three methods of engaging moving targets
Tracking
Trapping
Snap shot
1 circle = how many:
-degrees
-mils
-minutes
360 degrees
6400 mils
21600 moa
Target Indicator
Anything that the Sniper does or fails to do that will reveal his position, presence, or passage to the enemy.