A+ 220-702 Sections 4 - 6
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Where are System files located?
- Variable - %systemroot% or %windir%
- 2000 - C:\Winnt
- XP/Vista/7 - C:\Windows
Where are Fonts located?
- 2000 - C:\Winnt\Fonts
- XP/Vista/7 - C:\Windows\Fonts
Where are Program files located?
- Variable - %programfiles%
- 2000/XP - C:\Program Files
- Vista/7 - C:\Program Files and C:\Program Files (x86) (on 64-bit systems only)
Where are User files located?
- Variable - %userprofile%
- 2000/XP - C:\Documents and Settings\username
- Vista/7 - C:\Users\username
Where are Temporary files (per user) located
- Variable - %temp% or %tmp%
- 2000/XP - C:\Documents and Settings\username\Local Settings\Temp
- Vista/7 - C:\Users\username\AppData\Local\Temp
NTFS Permission Facts
- Read: View folder details and attributes. View file attributes; open a file.
- Write: Change folder or file data and attributes.
- List Folder Contents: Includes all Read actions and adds the ability to view a folder's contents.
- Read & Execute: Includes all Read actions and adds the ability to run programs.
- Modify: Includes all Read & Execute and Write actions and adds the ability to add or delete files.
- Full Control: Includes all other actions and adds the ability to take ownership of and change permissions on the folder.
- Permissions can be allowed or denied. Denied permissions always override allowed permissions
- In XP, you can mark a folder as private. This removes all users from the access control list except for the owner who retains Full Control.
Ownership (files and folders)
- Every object, including files and folders, has an owner.
- The owner is typically the user who created the file.
- Administrators have the Take Ownership right to all objects
Share your media files with vista/7
- When you choose to share your media files:
- Network users are given read access to the Pictures, Music, and Videos folders in your user profile.
- Media is streamed to the other computers, but files cannot be copied.
- You can customize which computers have access, as well as the file types which you want to share.
To switch between simple and advanced file and folder sharing:
- XP - edit Folder Options.
- Vista/7 - use the [Advanced Sharing...] button.
- Prior to Windows XP, only advanced sharing was available.
net use command and switches
- net use by itself lists the current connected shared folders and drive letters.
- net use F: \\Wrk1\shared2 maps drive letter F: to a specific shared folder.
- net use * \\Wrk1\shared2 maps the next available drive letter to the shared folder.
- The /persistent:yes switch reconnects the connection at each subsequent logo
Ethernet standards/Cable type
- 10BaseT requires Cat3 or higher.
- 100BaseTX and 1000BaseT require Cat5 or higher.
- 10GBaseT requires Cat5e or higher.
- The letter T identifies twisted pair cables; the letters F, S, L, and E are used for fiber optic.
- Maximum cable length: 100 meters for all standards
The subnet mask identifies which portion of the IP address is the network address, and which portion is the host address. Two devices on the same subnet must be configured with the same subnet mask.
The default gateway identifies the router to which communications for remote networks are sent.
Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)
- If a Windows client is configured to receive an IP address from a DHCP server, but cannot contact a DHCP server, it will automatically assign itself an IP address within the following range: 169.254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254 with the subnet mask 255.255.0.0
employs an access point
The original 802.11 specification operated in the 2.4 GHz range and provided up to 2 Mbps. Additional IEEE subcommittees have further refined wireless networking, resulting in the following standards:
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
- Stronger signal & increased speed802.11n allows up to 4 sending and 4 receiving radios. Going above 3x3 offers little practical return.
- Channel bonding (also called wide channel) combines two non-overlapping 20-MHz channels into a single 40-MHz channel, resulting in slightly more than double the bandwidth.
- The 5.75 GHz range has a total of 23 channels, with 12 of those non-overlapping. This allows for a maximum of 6 non-overlapping bonded channels.
- The 2.4 GHz range has a total of 11 channels, with 3 of those non-overlapping. This allows for a maximum of 1 non-overlapping channel. For this reason, channel bonding is typically not practical for the 2.4 GHz range.
802.1x authentication uses usernames and passwords, certificates, or devices such as smart cards. 802.1x authentication requires the configuration of an authentication server. Use 802.1x authentication on large, private networks.
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
- WEP was designed to provide wireless connections with the same security as wired connections.
- Key values short. easy to capture
- Note: When using WEP, use open authentication. Using shared key authentication with WEP uses the key that is used for encryption for authentication as well. This use exposes the key to additional attacks, making WEP more susceptible to being compromised.
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
- Deployed in 2003, based on 802.11i.
- Uses TKIP for encryption.
- WPA-PSK, WPA Personal and WPA Enterprise
Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) or 802.11i
- Deployed in 2005 802.11i real deal
- Built on RSN (Robust Secure Networks)
- Uses AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) as the encryption method
- Requires special hardware for performing encryption.
- Pre-shared Key and and 802.1x (Enterprise)
- Can use dynamic keys or pre-shared keys
Standard that describes how modems work to send digital data over the analog phone lines.
Public Switched Telephone Network
Plain Old Telephone Service
Integrated Services Digital Network
- Requires different cable
- (23) 64 Kbps B channels for data transmission and (1) 64 Kbps D channel for connection control
- Often called 23B + 1D.
Integrated Services Digital Network
- 3 channels - (2) 64-Kbps B (bearer) channes and (1) 16-Kbps D (delta) channel for connection control.
- Often called 2B + 1D.
Cellular connection speeds
- 2G - 14.4 Kbps
- EDGE - 400-1,000 Kbps
- 3G - 2 Mbps or higher w/ simultaneous voice and data.
- 4G - (WiMAX) 3-8 Mbps with over 100Mb posible.
- Small Office/Home Office network
- wired, wireless or both
- Has a single Internet connection that is shared by all hosts.
- Uses a single subnet.
- Uses a workgroup networking model
- Network address translation is a protocol that allows for multiple computers to share the single IP address used on the Internet.
- Associates a port number with each private IP address
- 2.4 GHz frequency range, 79 channels, 3 Mbps
- Class 3 - 1 meter
- Class 2 - 10 meters (most common)
- Class 1 - 100 meters
- Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
- Sending mail (Use by Microsoft Outlook for receiving mail from an Exchange server.)
- SMTP uses port 25, or port 465 when used with SSL.
- Internet Message Access Protocol
- Messages remain on the remote mail server and are not automatically downloaded to a client system.
- IMAP is for receiving mail needs SMTP for sending mail.
- IMAP uses port 143, or port 993 when used with SSL.
- Post Office Protocol 3
- Part of the TCP/IP protocol suite
- Messages are downloaded and deleted on the server
- POP3 is for receiving mail needs SMTP for sending mail
- POP3 uses port 110, or port 995 when used with SSL
- File Transfer Protocol
- Protocol of the TCP/IP suite
- FTP uses port 21 for connection requests and port 20 for data transfers.
- Uses the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to ensure that all data is received without errors.
- Trivial FTP
- Uses the UDP (User Datagram Protocol) for delivery; UDP is faster than TCP, but does not guarantee delivery.
FTP that uses SSL or TLS for security.
SCP and SFTP
Secure Copy Protocol and SSH File Transfer Protocol do not use FTP, but are alternative file copy protocols that include built-in security.
FTP that uses Secure Shell (SSH) to secure data transfers.
Resolves the IP address of a host name. It also displays other name resolution-related information such as the DNS server used for the lookup request.
- Shows current connections
- Shows incoming and outgoing connections
- Shows active sessions, ports, and sockets
- Single accessible storage area within a file system.
- A volume can encompass a single partition or span across multiple partitions
- Supported by all Windows versions
- used for removable media or partitions used on multiple OSs
- Maximum volume size of 32GB
- Maximum file size of 4GB.
- Larger partition size
- Smaller cluster sizes
- File and folder permissions
- Disk quotas
- Volume mount points
exFAT or FAT64
- Optimize storage for removable flash devices
- Vista/7 (XP via Update)
- Created to overcome 32GB/4Gb limits of FAT32 for Removabel media
- Limited permissions
- not supported for hard drives
- Use to modify the file system without reformatting and losing data.
- To convert the C:\ drive to NTFS: convert C: /fs:ntfs
- Use primary and extended partitions
- 4 primary partitions, or 3 primary partitions and 1 extended partition.
- Only supports volumes made up of contiguous disk space.
- Store partition information in MBR partition table. only room for 4 entries, when extended partition is use one entry points to EBR (extended boot record). EBR is located within the extended partition, and contains information about the logical drives within the extended partition.
- Volumes on dynamic disks are like partitions and logical drives on basic disks.
- Support up to 128 volumes
- Support discontiguous disk space (Simple - 1 HD, Spanned - multi HD)
- You cannot install the operating system on a dynamic disk. You can, however, upgrade a basic disk containing the operating system to a dynamic disk after installation.
- Store partitioning information in a hidden database on all dynamic disks in the system.
- Folder that points to another partition
- The volume with the empty folder must be formatted with NTFS.
- Can create mount points on basic or dynamic volumes.
- The target partition must not have a drive letter.
To extend a volume...
- Means to add unallocated disk space to the volume.
- Basic volumes can only use contiguous unallocated space.
- Dynamic volumes can use non-contiguous unallocated space or another disk.
- Extended volume uses disk space on the same disk.
- Spanned volume uses disk space on a different disk.
- Provides an increase in performance.
- Does not provide fault tolerance.
- Requires a minimum of two disks.
- Has no overhead because all disk space is available for storing data.
- MirroringProvides fault tolerance for a single disk failure
- Does not increase performance.
- Requires two disks.
- Has a 50% overhead.
- RAID 1 is the most expensive fault tolerant system.
- Combines disk striping and parity for data redundancy
- Provides fault tolerance for a single disk failure.
- Provides an increase in performance for read operations.
- Write operations are slower with RAID 5 because of the time required to compute and write the parity information.
- Requires a minimum of three disks.
- Just a bunch of disks
- Not a RAID configuration
- Typically saved to the first disk until it is full, then additional data is saved to the second disk and so on.
- Disks used within the spanned volume can be of different sizes.
Disk Status Online/Healthy
Indicates that the disk is turned on and can be accessed. The Healthy status indicates that a volume on the disk is valid and has no errors.
Disk Status Formatting
Shows for volumes during the formatting process. After formatting, the status for the volume changes to Healthy.
Disk Status Unallocated
Shows for portions of a disk that have not been assigned to a partition or a volume.
Disk Status No Media
Shows for an optical or removable media drive that does not contain a valid disc.
Disk Status Initializing
Shows while a disk is being converted from a basic disk to a dynamic disk. After the conversion, the status for the volume changes to Healthy.
Disk Status Foreign
A dynamic disk that was created in one system and moved to another system. When you first add the disk to a different system, the partition information for the disk must be updated to reflect all dynamic disks in the current system. Import the disk to make it available in the new system.
Disk Status Not Initialized/Unknown
Indicates a disk without a valid master boot record or partition table (either missing or corrupt). To correct the problem, initialize the disk. If the partition table is invalid, use third party tools to try and recover the partition table.
Disk Status Online (Errors)
Indicates that I/O errors have been detected on a dynamic disk. To correct the problem, try reactivating the disk.
Disk Status Missing/Offline
Show when a dynamic disk has failed, been removed, or turned off.
Disk Status Failed
Shows for a volume that cannot be started, such as when the disk is damaged or the file system is corrupt. Make sure the disk is on, then try reactivating the volume. If that doesn't work, then you likely have data loss.
Disk Status Unreadable
Iindicates a hardware failure or I/O errors or other corruption, but might also be caused by a delay in reading the disk in Disk Management. Try rescanning the disk to see if the status changes; if not, troubleshoot the hardware or disk problem.
- chkdsk /f - automatically fix errors without scanning for bad sectors.
- chkdsk/r - scan and fix bad sectors and other errors.
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