bio chem #4

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bio chem #4
2012-07-10 18:45:50

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  1. In the cyclic form, the anomeric carbon is attached to two oxygens. When the ring is cleaved, every carbon must...
    have one oxygen.
  2. formula for finding the # of steroisomers is...
    • # =2^n
    • n=number of chiral carbons
  3. A sugar with a 5-membered ring is called a
  4. A linear carbohydrate with a carboxyl group at the second carbon from the end is a(an)
  5. Which of the following is an anomeric pair?

    D-glucose and D-fructose

    D-glucose and L-glucose
    alpha-D-glucose and beta-L-glucose
    linear D-glucose and cyclic D-glucose
    alpha-D-glucose and beta-D-glucose
    alpha-D-glucose and beta-D-glucose
  6. In the beta anomeric ring form, the CH2OH extending from the ring at the high-numbered end is on the ___ side relative to the ___ extending from the ring at the low-numbered end.
    • Same
    • OH
  7. The "last" carbon in a sugar is the carbon furthest from the C=O group. The D carbon in biological sugars is always which carbon?
    the second last carbon in the chain
  8. The oxygen atom missing from deoxyribose in DNA is attached to carbon # ___ in ribose.
  9. All D sugars are dextrorotatory.
    (true or false)
  10. An example of two different configurations is
    alpha vs. beta anomers
  11. An example of two related conformations is...
    boat vs chair
  12. An enantiomer of a carbohydrate has ___ chiral carbon(s) inverted. An epimer has ___ chiral carbon(s) inverted.
    • all (enantiomer)
    • one (epimer)
  13. In the standard Fischer projection of a linear sugar, all the carbons are in line and run from the C=O aldehyde or ketone at the top to the CH2OH at the bottom. Groups at the sides extend towards the ___ .
  14. In hyaluronate, every other glucose has its -CH2OH group (extending from the high-numbered end of the ring) converted into a ___ group.
    COO- (carboxylate anion)
  15. The process by which alpha and beta forms interconvert is called..
  16. The C=O group in a linear sugar is at the ___ numbered end.
  17. Ribose and deoxyribose, found in RNA and DNA, are ___ rings.
  18. When you open a sugar, the ring O becomes a(an) ___ at the ___ numbered end.
    • OH
    • high
  19. Stable ring sizes in carbohydrates have ___ ring atoms.
    5 or 6
  20. Sugars with two -CH2OH groups extending from the ring were formed from a(an)
  21. A tetrose is a sugar with 4 carbons ___ .
  22. Aldose and ketose distinguish between the two major classes of..
  23. Aldose functional group
  24. ketose functional group
    ketone group at the 2nd carbon from the top
  25. ____ sugars do not occur in biology
  26. Sugars with three, four, five or six carbons are called ...
    trioses, tetroses, pentoses and hexoses
  27. ____ non chiral carbons in ketoses
  28. ____non chiral carbons in aldoses
  29. The C=O group is always on the __ carbon in aldoses
  30. The ____________ numbered carbon is used for comparision with the central carbon of glyceraldehyde.
  31. Every carbon is attached to ____ attached oxygen.
    one and only one oxygen. Never 2, never none.
  32. The total number of difcatalferent kinds of forms is given be the equation...
    # forms = 2^n (n=# of asymmetric carbons)
  33. Enantiomers are..
    mirror images (all asymmetric carbons inverted in symmetry
  34. Diastereomers are..
    mirror images when some, not all, asymmetric carbons are inverted
  35. Epimers are..
    two molecules that differ by configuration at only one asymmetric carbon
  36. epimerase
    An enzyme which catalyzes conversion between the R and S configurations at one specific carbon
  37. when the ring is formed, the carbonyl groups reacts with...
    a hydrozyl group further down the chain
  38. The partially positive ________ of the carbonyl, joins to the partially negative _______ of the hydroxyl group.
    carbon; oxygen
  39. The partially negative ________ of the carbonyl, joins to the partially positive _______ of the hydroxyl group.
    oxygen; hydrogen
  40. in ring formation, the orignal carbon oxygen is changed into...
    a hydroxyl oxygen
  41. in ring formation, the orignal hydroxyl oxygen is changed to...
    the ring oxygen
  42. During ring opening, the O will become...
    an OH at the high numbered end
  43. During ring opening, the OH will become..
    a C=O group in the linear form
  44. anomers are...
    two froms due to mutorotation (alpha and beta)
  45. Interconversion between the alpha and beta forms is called...
  46. If the CH2OH and the OH are on the same sides of the ring then the ring is...
    Beta = "Buddies"
  47. If the CH2OH and the OH are on different sides of the ring, then the ring is...
    alpha = "antagonists"
  48. furanose
    a sugar with a five-membered ring (4 carbons, 1 oxygen)
  49. pyranose
    a sugar with a six-membered ring (5 carbons, 1 oxygen)
  50. the formula giving size of the interior angle in a regular polygon is..
    (n-2) x (180/n)
  51. the optimal intermediate size for organic molecules is..
    5-membered and 6-membered rings
  52. Rings become less and less probable with...
    increasing size
  53. small rings have unfavorable...
    bond angle strain
  54. large rings have unfavorable..
    intramolecular collisions
  55. The ring oxygen becomes part of hydroxyl group at the _____ numbered end of the linear structure
  56. Anomeric carbon
    the C of the C=O group in the linear form
  57. The six membered ring of pyranoses is not...
  58. in the boat and chair conformations, all bulky bases are
  59. ________ is the only hexose that can adopt differnet conformations with minimal steric hindrance.
  60. In hyaluronic acid, the high numbered CH2OH is oxidized to ________ to make D-glucuronate
  61. In second glucose, the OH group is replaced by _______ to make glucosamine
  62. In the third glucose, the NH2 group is acetylated with the attached _______ to make N-acetyl-D-glucosammine.
  63. In DNA, a phosphate group is added to the ....
    C5 OH
  64. The C1 OH group in DNA is replaced by...
    a sidechain base (A,C,T or G)
  65. to make DNA an oxygen is removed from...
    the C2
  66. The C3 OH is linked to the __ phosphate in the next nucleotide in the chain.
  67. The C5 and C3 oxygens lie on opposite sides of the ribose ring to ...
    minimize steric crowding in the polymer chain.
  68. The "food-storage" polymers (starch and glycogen) utilize ___ anomers and adopt a ___ conformation.
    • alpha
    • helix
  69. The structure-providing polymers (cellulose and chitin) utilize ___ anomers and adopt a ___ hydrogen-bonded conformation.
    • beta
    • sheet
  70. The structures of the carbohydrate portions of human blood-group antigens are best described as..
    hetero oligosaccharides
  71. The bond between two sugars in a disaccharide is an ether link and is called a ___ bond.
  72. When proteins span the outer membrane of cells and also are glycosylated, the carbohydrate faces the...
    outside of the cell
  73. Cellulase is an enzyme which digests cellulose. It is made by...
  74. D amino acids are not incorporated into proteins translated from mRNA on a ribosome. However they do occur in nature. An example is :
    bacterial cell walls
  75. The "food storage" homopolymers in plants and humans are ___ and ___ respectively.
    • starch (plants)
    • glycogen (humans)
  76. The homopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is ___ .
  77. The enzyme that efficiently breaks down glycogen into glucose in response to adrenalin attacks at numerous ___ ends in glycogen, which is a ___ polymer.
    • non-reducing
    • branched
  78. Gram negative bacteria have their peptidoglycan cell wall....
    buried between two membranes.
  79. Which of the following is a heteropolysaccharide?

    [glycogen, starch, cellulose, hyaluronate, chitin]
  80. Hyaluronate polymers generate high viscosity in eyeball jelly by virtue of...
    repulsion of like charges generating extended chains
  81. Hyaluronate consists of a dimer of two sugars (D-glucuronate and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) that repeats over and over. Hyaluronate is best described as a ___ .
    "regular" copolymer
  82. Enzymes coded by the genes of mammals are capable of digesting...
    homopolymers of alpha-glucose
  83. In proteins, O-linked sugars are attached to particular ___ sidecahins and N-linked sugars are attached to particular ___ sidechains.
    • alcohol (O)
    • amide (N)
  84. An example of a peptidoglycan is...
    bacterial cell walls
  85. The number of reducing ends in a disaccharide is...
    0 or 1
  86. The "structure-providing" homopolymers in plants and insects are ___ and ___ respectively.
    • cellulose (plants)
    • chitin (insects)
  87. The "universal donor" blood type is ___ . The "universal acceptor" blood type is ___ .
    • O negative (donor)
    • AB positive (acceptor).
  88. The most chemically reactive site on a carbohydrate is..
    the carbonyl group off the linear form of an aldose.
  89. The most chemically reactive site on a carbohydrate is called ...
    "the reducing end of a sugar"
  90. The most chemically reactive site on a carbohydrate is called the reducing end of a sugar because...
    it is capable of reducing a cupric Cu++ ion to cuprous Cu+
  91. The carbohydrate aldehyde group is ozidized to a...
    carboxylic acid...
  92. the anomeric C-OH site forms into the location of the...
    reducing end of the sugar
  93. monosaccharides combine by a __________ reaction
  94. when the monosaccahrides combine, two alochol groups combine to form an ____ and release a molecule of ______.
    • ether
    • water
  95. the ether bond between the two sugars in the disaccharide is called a ________bond
  96. in a polysaccharide, only an anomeric aldheyde-related carbon containing a free OH group can be a...
    potentially reactive reducing end.
  97. After formation of the glycosidic bond, no further ______ is possible at the galactose
  98. the reason for including both alpha and beta notations for both sugars is that...
    both anomeric carbons are permanently fixed by a glycosidic bond
  99. The letter "O" at the begining of a compound name inidicates....
    the ether-like glycosidic bond
  100. Standard orientation is written like...
    reducing end to the right
  101. ______ is the energy storage polymer of glucose found in plants
  102. starch is a homopolymer of glucoses with _______ links.
    1 -> 4
  103. in starch, each monomer (except for the final reducing end far at the right) is...
    locked into the alpha anomeric form
  104. Alpha amylose is another word for....
  105. the chain of alpha glucose anomers in starch tends to adopt a _______ conformation.
  106. The compact coil of starch is stored as starch ________.
  107. The starch helix is ______-handed.
    left handed
  108. alpha = ?
  109. The energy storage molecule in animals is....
  110. glycogen has a higehr degree of branching than.....
  111. glycogen is chemically very similar to...
  112. All glucose molecules have an  _______ at the C1 carbon in the linear form.
    aldehyde group
  113. ends that dont have anything attached to it yet are...
    chemically reactive reducing ends.
  114. there may only be one or no _______, never more than 1
    reducing ends
  115. _______ is a homopolymer of glucoses linked 1->4.
  116. the monomeric units of celluloses are the _____ anomer forms
  117. hydrogen bonding gives cellulose
    it's rigidity
  118. beta =?
  119. humans and other animals lack enzymes to digest the...
    beta glucose
  120. the rumen of cows contain bacteria that can...
    digest the beta glucose, humans can't
  121. beta-cellulase (enzymes that break down beta-glucose) are what type of enzymes?
    bacterial enzyme
  122. ____ is the biopolymer comprising the rigid exoskeleton of insects.
  123. Chitin is a homopolymer of ....
    beta anomers of glucose units.
  124. chitin has an acetylated ____ group at C2.
  125. another name for chitin is...
    N-acetylglucosamine (N-Ac-Glc) or GlcNAc
  126. the beta form of the derivatized glucose facilitates...
    sheet formation and rigidity.
  127. the rigid cell wall of bacteria is comprised mostly of an alternating sequence of...
    N-acetylglucosamine units and N-acetylmuramic acid
  128. A repeating sequence of two different kinds of units is called...
    a regular copolymer
  129. The DNA molecule in E. Coli has a precise sequence and length with a MW of....
    2.5 billion
  130. There are ____ different kinds of proteins
  131. There are ____ different kinds of messenger RNA's
  132. Positives amines bind to negative ______.
  133. In mamalian cells, the largest molecules are the ....
    DNA chromosomes
  134. hyaluronic acid is a ________ copolymer.
  135. the two units of hyaluronic acid are...
    N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid
  136. in glucoronic acid, the C6 CH2OH group has been oxidized to...
    a negative carboxylate anion
  137. when exteneded polymers bump into each other, its called a....
    gel (material found in the interior of the eyeball)
  138. glycoproteins are proteins that have...
    some carbohydrates attached to them
  139. glycosylation sites in mammalian proteins generally occur at locations that are....
    exposed to other molecules in the bloodstream.
  140. intracellular proteins are not ...
  141. short branched sugar chains are called ...
  142. oligiosaccharides are attached to proteins eiter by.. covalent attachment to the _____ atom of the _____ sidechains or by covalent attachment to the ____ atom of the _______ sidechain.
    • oxygen, serine, theronine
    • nitrogen, asparagine
  143. Serine has a ____ at the R position, whereas threonine has a _____ at the R position.
    • H
    • Methyl (CH3)
  144. oligosaccharides of glycoproteins are initially synthesized by a group of enzymes located in....
    the cytoplasm
  145. enzymes attach the first unit of the oligosaccharides to a very long lipid called....
  146. dolichol spans the membrane of..
    Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  147. glycosolayted dolichol proteins are made inside the...
  148. glycophorin is an example of a glycoprotein found in a cell's....
    outer membrane
  149. glycolipids (bloodgroup proteins) may be attached to what two places...?
    lipids on the outer surface of cells, or to proteins circulating in the blood stream
  150. ___ antigen is found in all humans
  151. Type A attaches an additional
  152. when type A attaches to O it turns into a....
    mature A antigen
  153. Type B attaches a ....
  154. Type AB attaches...
    both Gal and GalNac
  155. Type O only has ___ antigens...
  156. If you have the gene coding for the full length Rh protein you are considered to be...
    Rh positive (+)
  157. If you code for a shortened Rh factor,
    Rh negative (-)
  158. an individual with _____ blood type can donate to all people.
  159. a person with ____ blood type can accept from all people
  160. In the A-Gri-cul-ture mnemonic, the syllable representing two structurally similar nucleotides is
  161. In the square arrangement of the syllables of A-Gri-cul-ture, the hydrogen-bond "acceptors" with N: in the middle of their base-pairing edge are the
    left column: A and C
  162. The terms adenosine, adenine, and adenylate can be matched in some order to base, base-sugar, and base-sugar-phosphate. The name matching base-sugar is..
  163. The term adenylate is equivalent to..
  164. ATP is a high energy compound because...
    its cleavage relieves repulsion between similarly charged groups
  165. Which of the following bases has a methyl group?
    [adenine, cytosine, guanine, uracil, thymine]
  166. cAMP  is a...
    secondary messenger
  167. The D in NAD (and FAD) stands for...
  168. The function of the adenine base portion of NAD and FAD is ___ .
    a handle for binding of the cofactors to an enzyme surface.
  169. A type of polymer with two negative charges per nucleotide at pH 7 is...
    none just one negative charge...
  170. The structure, base-sugar, which lacks the phosphate group of base-sugar-phos is a ___ .
  171. Phosphoanhydride bonds connect..
    phosphate to phosphate (ADP or ATP)
  172. The standard direction for writing the sequence of a polynucleotide is..
    5' phosphate -> 3' OH
  173. The phosphodiester links in polynucleotides are 3'-__
  174. In nucleic acids, separate numbering systems are used for the sidechain and for the ribose ring. Numbers with primes are used for...
  175. The mnemonic "pure-as-gold" is a way of remembering which nucleotides are...
    • purines
    • (purine A and G)
  176. A pyrimidine with a hydrogen-bond donating NH group at the center of its base pairing edge is ___ .
    thymine and uracil
  177. Reactions which release PPi as a product are ___ because ___ .
    • irreversible
    • because PPi subsequently is cleaved into 2 Pi's.
  178. The structure of pyrophosphate is...
  179. The chemically reactive end of coenzyme A is a(an)...
    SH group
  180. Nucleotide sidechains come in two sizes : small single rings or large double rings. The larger sidechains are :
  181. The monomeric units of nucleic acid polymers are called...
  182. Nucleic acids consists of ...
    a carbohydrate ring, a phosphate group and a base.
  183. DNA lacks an oxygen at the ___ position.
  184. The carbohydrate ring in RNA is...
  185. At PH7 the bases are _______ and not _____.
    • neutral
    • ionized
  186. the phosphate group in nucleic acids are at the _____ position.
  187. mucleotides without the phosphate group are called....
  188. Purines are the _____ bases.
  189. Purine consists of ____ rings.
  190. Pyrimidines are the _____ bases.
  191. pyrimidines consists of how many rings?
  192. in pyrimidines, the ring atom positions are numbered without....
    the primes
  193. ppi stands for...
  194. pyroophosphate is a phosphate _____.
  195. anhydride bonds are formed by a condensation reaction between two...
  196. The diester group in which a phosphate di-acid forms ester links with hydroxyl group at the 5' carbon of one ribose and the 3' carbon of another ribose is called a ....
    phosphodiester linkage
  197. ATp hydrolysis has a large delta ___.
  198. The enzyme responsible for forming cyclic AMP is called...
    adenylate cyclase
  199. The process of converting a hormone signal into a cellular response is called...
    signal transduction
  200. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to ....
  201. FAD stands for...
    flavin adenine dinucleotide
  202. NAD stands for...
    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
  203. CoA stands for
    Coenzyme A
  204. Acetyl CoA is...
    high energy intermediate product
  205. Chargaff's rule states that
    # purines = # pyrimidines in total DNA
  206. In the A-form (RNA) double helix, there are ___ base pairs per turn. These base pairs ___ .
    • 11.6
    • are along the perimeter of the double helix.
  207. Nucelic acids that absorb UV light with wavelength = 260 nm include ___ .
    both purine and pyrimidine sidechains of all nucleotides
  208. The anticodon loop in tRNA is the ___ leaf of the cloverleaf form (numbering 1st, 2nd, and 3rd from the 5' end).
  209. In one helix form (A vs B), the base pairs are approximately perpendicular to the helix axis. In the other form they are strongly tilted relative to that axis. The form with the strong tilt is the ___ form.
  210. Base-stacking interactions involving GC base pairs are ___ AT base-stacking interactions.
    stronger than
  211. The C-H group in A's base-pairing edge is not a hydrogen-bond donor because
    • (1) it is nonpolar and
    • (2) it is too far from the C=O acceptor in T.
  212. The ___ is at the end of the 2nd hairpin turn in the three-leafed clover diagram of tRNA. It pairs with the ___ in mRNA.
    • anticodon (tRNA)
    • codon (mRNA)
  213. The standard B form of DNA is a ___ double helix.
    right-handed antiparallel
  214. DNA melting curves are measured at ___ nm. Melting of the helix ___ absorbance.
    • 260
    • increases
  215. When dissolved in water, a DNA double helix adopts the ___ form and an RNA double helix adopts the ___ form.
    • B (DNA)
    • A (RNA)
  216. The melting temperature (Tm) of DNA ___ when the % of GC base pairs increases.
  217. The melting temperature (Tm) of DNA ___ when [NaCl] increases.
  218. The derivatives of A, C, G, or U found in tRNA are made by ___ modifications.
  219. Consider double helix regions in (1) genomic DNA, (2) the DNA/RNA hybrid helix during transcription, and (3) hairpin turns in RNA. The two strands are antiparallel in
    all cases, namely (1) DNA-DNA, (2) DNA-RNA, and (3) RNA-RNA
  220. Amino acids attach to the ___ end of tRNA, by making an ester bond.
    3' end
  221. When tRNA folds, the 1st leaf of the 3-leafed clover H-bonds to the ___ leaf, forming a(an) ___ shaped structure.
    • 3rd
    • L
  222. When DNA is denatured by heating, ___ .
    the absorbance at 260 nm goes up.
  223. Hairpin turns occur in ___ . Beta turns occur in ___ .
    • tRNA and rRNA (hairpin)
    • proteins (beta)
  224. Because many amino acids are encoded by more than 1 type of nucleotide triplet (since there are 64 different codons), the code is said to be ___ .
  225. In protein synthesis, each amino acid ___ .
    is added to its own tRNA by an enzyme which is specific for that pair of molecules.
  226. The methionine repressor protein binds to a palindromic DNA sequence with a single 2-stranded beta sheet. The two strands come from ___ and are ___ .
    • different subunits
    • antiparallel
  227. In eukaryotes, negative DNA is tightly packaged inside the small nucleus by wrapping it around positively charged proteins called
  228. Concerning the genetic code, some amino acids have only 1...
  229. In GC base pairs, which have 3 interstrand H-bonds, all the donor and acceptor groups are used up, so proteins can not interact with GC by hydrogen bonding. (true or false)
  230. In the leucine zipper motif, leucines occur every ___ residues
  231. leucine occur every ____ turns in a helix.
  232. Process(es) which occurs primarily in the nucleus in eukaryotes :
    both transcription and replication
  233. Mutations in the ___ position of the codon are least likely to result in a different amino acid or in an amino acid with very different chemical properties.
  234. Histones contain a relatively high propoertion of the amino acids ...
    arginine and lysine
  235. The mRNA sequence most closely resembles the ___ strand of DNA, and is complementary to the ___ strand.
    • protein-coding
    • template
  236. An mRNA sequence has ___ different reading frames.
  237. The HIV virus encodes an enzyme called a "reverse transcriptase", which catalyzes a reaction which is like transcription except that it occurs in the opposite direction. A reverse transcriptase uses an RNA sequence to...
    provide information for synthesis of DNA.
  238. Which of the following DNA sequences (when joined with its complementary strand) would have the proper symmetry for binding a head-to-head protein homodimer?

    [5'-AAGGC-CGGAA-3  or '5'-AAGGG-CCCTT-3']
  239. The sizes of an atom and an E. coli cell are approximately one ___ and one ___ respectively
    • Angstrom
    • micrometer
  240. An ideal type of amino acid for H-bonding to the well-separated N: acceptor and NH donor exposed on the major groove edge of adenine is ___
  241. The type of amino acid in the TATA-box binding protein which intercalates into the AT-rich region of its DNA binding site is
  242. Transfer RNA must exist in at least ..
    20 different forms..
  243. The site on a tRNA molecule where an amino acid is covalently attached to the tRNA occurs ___ .
    at the 3' end
  244. The primary reason why phospholipids form bilayers is because ___ .
    they are amphipathic.
  245. Cholesterol tends to generate a(an) ___ fluidity in membranes.
  246. The outside of a chylomicron consists of a monolayer which is dominated by phospholipids. The inside contains ___ .
    The outside of a chylomicron consists of a monolayer which is dominated by phospholipids. The inside contains ___ .
  247. Chylomicrons are synthesized in the ___ , travel next thru the ___ , and eventually end up in the ___ .
    small intestine -> lymph system -> blood
  248. Contraction of the uterus during childbirth is stimulated by
    a prostaglandin
  249. The unsaturated fatty acid with the notation 18:2 n-6 has double bond(s) at positions
    9-10, 12-13
  250. Nonpolar energy storage fats are...
    esters of fatty acids
  251. A root word signifying an ester group is ____ . It is part of the name for the class of molecules abbreviated TAG.
  252. How many of the three molecules listed below are derived in whole or in part from fatty acids : (1) prostaglandins, (2) beeswax, and (3) triacylglycerols.
    all three
  253. In the summer, Lake Erie fish adapt to their environment by adjusting their membranes to increase the % of lipids that are ___ and have ___ . The same effects occur when bacteria are transferred to a warmer environment.
    • long
    • fewer C=C
  254. In response to adrenalin, lipids are released from fat tissue to the bloodstream and then bind to the transporter protein called ___ .
    serum albumin
  255. In the fatty acid series 18:0 18:1 18:2, as the number of double bonds increases from 0 to 2, the melting point ___ .
  256. In the saturated fatty acid series 12:0 14:0 16:0, as chain length increases from 12 carbons to 16 carbons, the melting point ___ .
  257. Most fatty acids have an ___ # of carbons. When C=C double bonds are present, they usually are ___
    • even
    • cis
  258. The omega end of a fatty acid is the ___ group. Carbon 1 is the ___ group.
    • CH3 (omega)
    •  COOH (#1)
  259. Phospholipids contain ___ alcohol groups linked in ester or phosphoester bonds.
  260. When a sperm whale swims from the surface of the ocean down to the ocean floor, the quantity which decreases is the whale's ___ .
  261. Fatty acids with C=C double bonds are called ___ fats. When they have two or more C=C, the position numbers of the carbons at the beginnings of the double bonds differ by ___ .
    • unsaturated
    • 3
  262. Soaps are best described as
    potassium salts of fatty acids
  263. in dna the sugar phosphate is on the ______ and the bases are on the _______.
    • outside
    • insde
  264. ______ bonds are formed between pairs of bases
  265. A pairs with
  266. G pairs with
  267. the distance between the C1' ribose ring atoms is...
    1.1 nm (11 Angstroms)
  268. The sum of the purines (A + G) on both sides combined equals...
    the sums of the pyrimidines (C + T ) on both sides combined = 50%
  269. Acceptor groups in DNA are...
    N: and O:
  270. Donor groups in DNA are...
    NH and NH2
  271. The DNA helix is a ____________ structure
  272. DNA is a regular pattern of
    dihedral angles
  273. the minor groove in B form is...
  274. the major groove in b form is...
  275. there is no room for aditional water in the ____ form of DNA.
  276. there sre ____ base pairs per turn in the B form
  277. B form's tilt is __ degrees
  278. A form's tilt is ___ degrees
  279. base stacking is (favorable or unfavorable?)
  280. what are the three favorable folding interactions in DNA ?
    • burying of the nonpolar sidechains
    • stacking interactions (pi cloud overlap)
    • optimization of hydrogen bonding bewtween the edges of base pairs.
  281. intercalation is...
    the process of inserting ethidium triple ring into the intercalates into the intercalates into your DNA.
  282. EtBr is a carcinogen because...
    if it intercalated into you DNA could be mutated
  283. random coil is...
    DNA after its been heated to a point where strands seperate and are flopping around in a random conformation
  284. Tm depends on...
    the sequence of DNA 'concentration of ions in solution
  285. Higher concentrations of the salt KCL _____ the temperature
  286. Tm is a function of % ___ pairs.
  287. base-H2O + base-H20 ->
    base-base +H2O-H2O
  288. it takes a ____ temperature to melt DNA with a high % of GC pairs
  289. a dna sequence which has a higher total % of G and C will have a higher % of stacking interactions with the larger (more _________) delta G.
  290. the 4 svedberg units are...
    5S, 5.8S, 18S and 28S
  291. secondary structure features are found in ____ rna.
  292. DNA has ____strand bonding between two chains
  293. RNA has _____strand bonding within one strand
  294. the three fundamental proceses of tansmitting genetic information are...
    replication, transcription and translation
  295. Replication is...
    the process by which one DNA double helix is duplicated to become two DNAs
  296. Transcription is a process which...
    manufactures a single stranded RNA molecule containing genetic information found in a portion of the DNA
  297. Translation is...
    synthesis of a protein using the information provided in the mRNA
  298. The DNA template strand is...
    the tmeplate or mold for construction of the mRNA
  299. During transcription, a section of DNA ____ and ____ nucleotides line up with the exposed base pairs of the template strand
    • unwinds
    • RNA
  300. what two amino acids have only one codon?
    methionine and trytophan
  301. leucine is coded by ___ different codons..
  302. mRNA has ___ different reading frames
  303. step 1 of translation
  304. step 2 of translation
  305. step 3 translation
    translocation of protein
  306. translation : _______ cycle
  307. alanyl-tRNA is an enzyme that...
    specifically binds only alanine and the tRNA containing the alanine antoicodon
  308. DNA is ___ times longer than e. coli
  309. cells give DNA postive complexes because..
    DNA naturally wants to repel, the negative keeps it compressed.
  310. the positive charges on the proteins that wrap DNA help to...
    neutralize the negative charges on DNA
  311. Inside th nucleus, the negatively charges DNA is wrapped around...
    an octsmer of eight positively charged protein subunits, and binds a ninth protein subunit (H1)
  312. the 434 repressor is...
    a gene-regulating protein produced by a virus that infects bacterial cells
  313. the 434 repressor exists as a ...
  314. the type of DNA symmetric sequence which is conducive to binding head-to-head homodimers is called..
    a palindrome
  315. Dimers do not attach to other dimers because..
    after bonding surfaces attach to each other to make dimers there are no more exposed bonding surfaces.
  316. infiinitely long polymerization is possible in...
    the sickle cell hemoglobin mutant
  317. tandem arrangements are found in nature but are less common than ______ arrangements.
  318. head to tail contacts are possible with ____ arrangements
  319. the 434 repressor lies in the ______grooves on one side of the DNA helix
    two successive major
  320. leucine zipper protein contain...
    long helices with one end that is responsible for binding to DNA and another end that is responsible  for protein-protein interactions.
  321. the helices with leucine zippers have _______ interactions
  322. the TATA box is..
    A dna sequence that has an AT pyrimidine rich double helix segment
  323. AT rich regions are easier to Melt than GC regions because..
    There are fewer H bonds in AT and because the base stacking is less favorable
  324. with the TATA bos, the DNA segment produces a ___ shape
  325. phe ___ intercalates with the TATA box
    phe 34
  326. fatty acids are...
    long hydrocarbon chains ending in a caroboxlyic acid group
  327. when all the carbon bonds are single bonds in fatty acids, it is said to be..
  328. when there are some double bonds in a fatty acid, it is said to be ...
  329. when fatty acdis have double bonds they are not...
  330. double bonds in fatty acids are seperated by __ carbons.
  331. the first number in fatty acid notation tells us..
    the number of carbons
  332. the second number in fatty acid notation tells us ...
    the number of double bonds
  333. the last number in the fatty acid notation tells us...
    where the last double bond begins
  334. triacylglycerols are comprised of...
    three fatty acids joined by ester linkages to the tri alcohol called gycerol
  335. tri-acyl means =?
    three esters
  336. soaps are generated by...
    treating animal fats with KOH
  337. What does KOH do in soap generation??
    catalyzes hydrolysis of the ester bonds of TAGs to generate glycerol and potassium salts of the fatty acids
  338. waxes are ...
    esters linking one long hydrocarbon alcohol molecule with one long fatty acid
  339. the diff between phospholipids and TAGs are...
    one of the three fatty acids attached to glycerol in TAgs has been replaced by a phosphate group.
  340. each fatty acids tail is about ___ carbons long
  341. the membrane bilayer is about ___ carbons long
  342. prostaglandin begins as...
    arachidonic acid
  343. an external hormone stimulus is a ________ message.
  344. flipping the phospholipds from one layer to another is called..
    flip-flop diffusion
  345. too fluid membranes =
    unfavorable leakage of material thru poorly packed spaces
  346. too solid membrane =
    prevent favorable diffusion of some metabolic food materials thru the lipid bilayer.
  347. shorter chain lentgh = ______ melting temp.
  348. More double bonds = ______ melting temp
  349. a longer hydrocarbon has more surface area so it has stronger _______ bonding interactions
    van der waals (london)
  350. saturated fatty acids easily ____ against each other as a set of parallel linear chains.
  351. cholesterol has an _____ at the end.
  352. parallel alignment = ______ fatty acids
  353. kink (bent) alignment = _______ lipids
  354. bile salts are produced in the...
    gall bladder
  355. bile salts are ___philic
  356. adipocytes are..
    fat tissue cells
  357. muscle tissue cells are...
  358. fatty acids are carried by...
    serum albumin