In the cyclic form, the anomeric carbon is attached to two oxygens. When the ring is cleaved, every carbon must...
have one oxygen.
formula for finding the # of steroisomers is...
n=number of chiral carbons
A sugar with a 5-membered ring is called a
A linear carbohydrate with a carboxyl group at the second carbon from the end is a(an)
Which of the following is an anomeric pair?
D-glucose and D-fructose
D-glucose and L-glucose alpha-D-glucose and beta-L-glucose
linear D-glucose and cyclic D-glucose alpha-D-glucose and beta-D-glucose
alpha-D-glucose and beta-D-glucose
In the beta anomeric ring form, the CH2OH extending from the ring at the high-numbered end is on the ___ side relative to the ___ extending from the ring at the low-numbered end.
The "last" carbon in a sugar is the carbon furthest from the C=O group. The D carbon in biological sugars is always which carbon?
the second last carbon in the chain
The oxygen atom missing from deoxyribose in DNA is attached to carbon # ___ in ribose.
All D sugars are dextrorotatory.
(true or false)
An example of two different configurations is
alpha vs. beta anomers
An example of two related conformations is...
boat vs chair
An enantiomer of a carbohydrate has ___ chiral carbon(s) inverted. An epimer has ___ chiral carbon(s) inverted.
In the standard Fischer projection of a linear sugar, all the carbons are in line and run from the C=O aldehyde or ketone at the top to the CH2OH at the bottom. Groups at the sides extend towards the ___ .
In hyaluronate, every other glucose has its -CH2OH group (extending from the high-numbered end of the ring) converted into a ___ group.
COO- (carboxylate anion)
The process by which alpha and beta forms interconvert is called..
The C=O group in a linear sugar is at the ___ numbered end.
Ribose and deoxyribose, found in RNA and DNA, are ___ rings.
When you open a sugar, the ring O becomes a(an) ___ at the ___ numbered end.
Stable ring sizes in carbohydrates have ___ ring atoms.
5 or 6
Sugars with two -CH2OH groups extending from the ring were formed from a(an)
A tetrose is a sugar with 4 carbons ___ .
Aldose and ketose distinguish between the two major classes of..
Aldose functional group
ketose functional group
ketone group at the 2nd carbon from the top
____ sugars do not occur in biology
Sugars with three, four, five or six carbons are called ...
trioses, tetroses, pentoses and hexoses
____ non chiral carbons in ketoses
____non chiral carbons in aldoses
The C=O group is always on the __ carbon in aldoses
The ____________ numbered carbon is used for comparision with the central carbon of glyceraldehyde.
Every carbon is attached to ____ attached oxygen.
one and only one oxygen. Never 2, never none.
The total number of difcatalferent kinds of forms is given be the equation...
# forms = 2^n (n=# of asymmetric carbons)
mirror images (all asymmetric carbons inverted in symmetry
mirror images when some, not all, asymmetric carbons are inverted
two molecules that differ by configuration at only one asymmetric carbon
An enzyme which catalyzes conversion between the R and S configurations at one specific carbon
when the ring is formed, the carbonyl groups reacts with...
a hydrozyl group further down the chain
The partially positive ________ of the carbonyl, joins to the partially negative _______ of the hydroxyl group.
The partially negative ________ of the carbonyl, joins to the partially positive _______ of the hydroxyl group.
in ring formation, the orignal carbon oxygen is changed into...
a hydroxyl oxygen
in ring formation, the orignal hydroxyl oxygen is changed to...
the ring oxygen
During ring opening, the O will become...
an OH at the high numbered end
During ring opening, the OH will become..
a C=O group in the linear form
two froms due to mutorotation (alpha and beta)
Interconversion between the alpha and beta forms is called...
If the CH2OH and the OH are on the same sides of the ring then the ring is...
Beta = "Buddies"
If the CH2OH and the OH are on different sides of the ring, then the ring is...
alpha = "antagonists"
a sugar with a five-membered ring (4 carbons, 1 oxygen)
a sugar with a six-membered ring (5 carbons, 1 oxygen)
the formula giving size of the interior angle in a regular polygon is..
(n-2) x (180/n)
the optimal intermediate size for organic molecules is..
5-membered and 6-membered rings
Rings become less and less probable with...
small rings have unfavorable...
bond angle strain
large rings have unfavorable..
The ring oxygen becomes part of hydroxyl group at the _____ numbered end of the linear structure
the C of the C=O group in the linear form
The six membered ring of pyranoses is not...
in the boat and chair conformations, all bulky bases are
________ is the only hexose that can adopt differnet conformations with minimal steric hindrance.
In hyaluronic acid, the high numbered CH2OH is oxidized to ________ to make D-glucuronate
In second glucose, the OH group is replaced by _______ to make glucosamine
In the third glucose, the NH2 group is acetylated with the attached _______ to make N-acetyl-D-glucosammine.
In DNA, a phosphate group is added to the ....
The C1 OH group in DNA is replaced by...
a sidechain base (A,C,T or G)
to make DNA an oxygen is removed from...
The C3 OH is linked to the __ phosphate in the next nucleotide in the chain.
The C5 and C3 oxygens lie on opposite sides of the ribose ring to ...
minimize steric crowding in the polymer chain.
The "food-storage" polymers (starch and glycogen) utilize ___ anomers and adopt a ___ conformation.
The structure-providing polymers (cellulose and chitin) utilize ___ anomers and adopt a ___ hydrogen-bonded conformation.
The structures of the carbohydrate portions of human blood-group antigens are best described as..
The bond between two sugars in a disaccharide is an ether link and is called a ___ bond.
When proteins span the outer membrane of cells and also are glycosylated, the carbohydrate faces the...
outside of the cell
Cellulase is an enzyme which digests cellulose. It is made by...
D amino acids are not incorporated into proteins translated from mRNA on a ribosome. However they do occur in nature. An example is :
bacterial cell walls
The "food storage" homopolymers in plants and humans are ___ and ___ respectively.
The homopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is ___ .
The enzyme that efficiently breaks down glycogen into glucose in response to adrenalin attacks at numerous ___ ends in glycogen, which is a ___ polymer.
Gram negative bacteria have their peptidoglycan cell wall....
Hyaluronate polymers generate high viscosity in eyeball jelly by virtue of...
repulsion of like charges generating extended chains
Hyaluronate consists of a dimer of two sugars (D-glucuronate and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) that repeats over and over. Hyaluronate is best described as a ___ .
Enzymes coded by the genes of mammals are capable of digesting...
homopolymers of alpha-glucose
In proteins, O-linked sugars are attached to particular ___ sidecahins and N-linked sugars are attached to particular ___ sidechains.
An example of a peptidoglycan is...
bacterial cell walls
The number of reducing ends in a disaccharide is...
0 or 1
The "structure-providing" homopolymers in plants and insects are ___ and ___ respectively.
The "universal donor" blood type is ___ . The "universal acceptor" blood type is ___ .
O negative (donor)
AB positive (acceptor).
The most chemically reactive site on a carbohydrate is..
the carbonyl group off the linear form of an aldose.
The most chemically reactive site on a carbohydrate is called ...
"the reducing end of a sugar"
The most chemically reactive site on a carbohydrate is called the reducing end of a sugar because...
it is capable of reducing a cupric Cu++ ion to cuprous Cu+
The carbohydrate aldehyde group is ozidized to a...
the anomeric C-OH site forms into the location of the...
reducing end of the sugar
monosaccharides combine by a __________ reaction
when the monosaccahrides combine, two alochol groups combine to form an ____ and release a molecule of ______.
the ether bond between the two sugars in the disaccharide is called a ________bond
in a polysaccharide, only an anomeric aldheyde-related carbon containing a free OH group can be a...
potentially reactive reducing end.
After formation of the glycosidic bond, no further ______ is possible at the galactose
the reason for including both alpha and beta notations for both sugars is that...
both anomeric carbons are permanently fixed by a glycosidic bond
The letter "O" at the begining of a compound name inidicates....
the ether-like glycosidic bond
Standard orientation is written like...
reducing end to the right
______ is the energy storage polymer of glucose found in plants
starch is a homopolymer of glucoses with _______ links.
1 -> 4
in starch, each monomer (except for the final reducing end far at the right) is...
locked into the alpha anomeric form
Alpha amylose is another word for....
the chain of alpha glucose anomers in starch tends to adopt a _______ conformation.
The compact coil of starch is stored as starch ________.
The starch helix is ______-handed.
alpha = ?
The energy storage molecule in animals is....
glycogen has a higehr degree of branching than.....
glycogen is chemically very similar to...
All glucose molecules have an _______ at the C1 carbon in the linear form.
ends that dont have anything attached to it yet are...
chemically reactive reducing ends.
there may only be one or no _______, never more than 1
_______ is a homopolymer of glucoses linked 1->4.
the monomeric units of celluloses are the _____ anomer forms
hydrogen bonding gives cellulose
humans and other animals lack enzymes to digest the...
the rumen of cows contain bacteria that can...
digest the beta glucose, humans can't
beta-cellulase (enzymes that break down beta-glucose) are what type of enzymes?
____ is the biopolymer comprising the rigid exoskeleton of insects.
Chitin is a homopolymer of ....
beta anomers of glucose units.
chitin has an acetylated ____ group at C2.
another name for chitin is...
N-acetylglucosamine (N-Ac-Glc) or GlcNAc
the beta form of the derivatized glucose facilitates...
sheet formation and rigidity.
the rigid cell wall of bacteria is comprised mostly of an alternating sequence of...
N-acetylglucosamine units and N-acetylmuramic acid
A repeating sequence of two different kinds of units is called...
a regular copolymer
The DNA molecule in E. Coli has a precise sequence and length with a MW of....
There are ____ different kinds of proteins
There are ____ different kinds of messenger RNA's
Positives amines bind to negative ______.
In mamalian cells, the largest molecules are the ....
hyaluronic acid is a ________ copolymer.
the two units of hyaluronic acid are...
N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid
in glucoronic acid, the C6 CH2OH group has been oxidized to...
a negative carboxylate anion
when exteneded polymers bump into each other, its called a....
gel (material found in the interior of the eyeball)
glycoproteins are proteins that have...
some carbohydrates attached to them
glycosylation sites in mammalian proteins generally occur at locations that are....
exposed to other molecules in the bloodstream.
intracellular proteins are not ...
short branched sugar chains are called ...
oligiosaccharides are attached to proteins eiter by.. covalent attachment to the _____ atom of the _____ sidechains or by covalent attachment to the ____ atom of the _______ sidechain.
oxygen, serine, theronine
Serine has a ____ at the R position, whereas threonine has a _____ at the R position.
oligosaccharides of glycoproteins are initially synthesized by a group of enzymes located in....
enzymes attach the first unit of the oligosaccharides to a very long lipid called....
dolichol spans the membrane of..
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
glycosolayted dolichol proteins are made inside the...
glycophorin is an example of a glycoprotein found in a cell's....
glycolipids (bloodgroup proteins) may be attached to what two places...?
lipids on the outer surface of cells, or to proteins circulating in the blood stream
___ antigen is found in all humans
Type A attaches an additional
when type A attaches to O it turns into a....
mature A antigen
Type B attaches a ....
Type AB attaches...
both Gal and GalNac
Type O only has ___ antigens...
If you have the gene coding for the full length Rh protein you are considered to be...
Rh positive (+)
If you code for a shortened Rh factor,
Rh negative (-)
an individual with _____ blood type can donate to all people.
a person with ____ blood type can accept from all people
In the A-Gri-cul-ture mnemonic, the syllable representing two structurally similar nucleotides is
In the square arrangement of the syllables of A-Gri-cul-ture, the hydrogen-bond "acceptors" with N: in the middle of their base-pairing edge are the
left column: A and C
The terms adenosine, adenine, and adenylate can be matched in some order to base, base-sugar, and base-sugar-phosphate. The name matching base-sugar is..
The term adenylate is equivalent to..
ATP is a high energy compound because...
its cleavage relieves repulsion between similarly charged groups
Which of the following bases has a methyl group?
[adenine, cytosine, guanine, uracil, thymine]
cAMP is a...
The D in NAD (and FAD) stands for...
The function of the adenine base portion of NAD and FAD is ___ .
a handle for binding of the cofactors to an enzyme surface.
A type of polymer with two negative charges per nucleotide at pH 7 is...
none just one negative charge...
The structure, base-sugar, which lacks the phosphate group of base-sugar-phos is a ___ .
Phosphoanhydride bonds connect..
phosphate to phosphate (ADP or ATP)
The standard direction for writing the sequence of a polynucleotide is..
5' phosphate -> 3' OH
The phosphodiester links in polynucleotides are 3'-__
In nucleic acids, separate numbering systems are used for the sidechain and for the ribose ring. Numbers with primes are used for...
The mnemonic "pure-as-gold" is a way of remembering which nucleotides are...
(purine A and G)
A pyrimidine with a hydrogen-bond donating NH group at the center of its base pairing edge is ___ .
thymine and uracil
Reactions which release PPi as a product are ___ because ___ .
because PPi subsequently is cleaved into 2 Pi's.
The structure of pyrophosphate is...
The chemically reactive end of coenzyme A is a(an)...
Nucleotide sidechains come in two sizes : small single rings or large double rings. The larger sidechains are :
The monomeric units of nucleic acid polymers are called...
Nucleic acids consists of ...
a carbohydrate ring, a phosphate group and a base.
DNA lacks an oxygen at the ___ position.
The carbohydrate ring in RNA is...
At PH7 the bases are _______ and not _____.
the phosphate group in nucleic acids are at the _____ position.
mucleotides without the phosphate group are called....
Purines are the _____ bases.
Purine consists of ____ rings.
Pyrimidines are the _____ bases.
pyrimidines consists of how many rings?
in pyrimidines, the ring atom positions are numbered without....
ppi stands for...
pyroophosphate is a phosphate _____.
anhydride bonds are formed by a condensation reaction between two...
The diester group in which a phosphate di-acid forms ester links with hydroxyl group at the 5' carbon of one ribose and the 3' carbon of another ribose is called a ....
ATp hydrolysis has a large delta ___.
The enzyme responsible for forming cyclic AMP is called...
The process of converting a hormone signal into a cellular response is called...
Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to ....
FAD stands for...
flavin adenine dinucleotide
NAD stands for...
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
CoA stands for
Acetyl CoA is...
high energy intermediate product
Chargaff's rule states that
# purines = # pyrimidines in total DNA
In the A-form (RNA) double helix, there are ___ base pairs per turn. These base pairs ___ .
are along the perimeter of the double helix.
Nucelic acids that absorb UV light with wavelength = 260 nm include ___ .
both purine and pyrimidine sidechains of all nucleotides
The anticodon loop in tRNA is the ___ leaf of the cloverleaf form (numbering 1st, 2nd, and 3rd from the 5' end).
In one helix form (A vs B), the base pairs are approximately perpendicular to the helix axis. In the other form they are strongly tilted relative to that axis. The form with the strong tilt is the ___ form.
Base-stacking interactions involving GC base pairs are ___ AT base-stacking interactions.
The C-H group in A's base-pairing edge is not a hydrogen-bond donor because
(1) it is nonpolar and
(2) it is too far from the C=O acceptor in T.
The ___ is at the end of the 2nd hairpin turn in the three-leafed clover diagram of tRNA. It pairs with the ___ in mRNA.
The standard B form of DNA is a ___ double helix.
DNA melting curves are measured at ___ nm. Melting of the helix ___ absorbance.
When dissolved in water, a DNA double helix adopts the ___ form and an RNA double helix adopts the ___ form.
The melting temperature (Tm) of DNA ___ when the % of GC base pairs increases.
The melting temperature (Tm) of DNA ___ when [NaCl] increases.
The derivatives of A, C, G, or U found in tRNA are made by ___ modifications.
Consider double helix regions in (1) genomic DNA, (2) the DNA/RNA hybrid helix during transcription, and (3) hairpin turns in RNA. The two strands are antiparallel in
all cases, namely (1) DNA-DNA, (2) DNA-RNA, and (3) RNA-RNA
Amino acids attach to the ___ end of tRNA, by making an ester bond.
When tRNA folds, the 1st leaf of the 3-leafed clover H-bonds to the ___ leaf, forming a(an) ___ shaped structure.
When DNA is denatured by heating, ___ .
the absorbance at 260 nm goes up.
Hairpin turns occur in ___ . Beta turns occur in ___ .
tRNA and rRNA (hairpin)
Because many amino acids are encoded by more than 1 type of nucleotide triplet (since there are 64 different codons), the code is said to be ___ .
In protein synthesis, each amino acid ___ .
is added to its own tRNA by an enzyme which is specific for that pair of molecules.
The methionine repressor protein binds to a palindromic DNA sequence with a single 2-stranded beta sheet. The two strands come from ___ and are ___ .
In eukaryotes, negative DNA is tightly packaged inside the small nucleus by wrapping it around positively charged proteins called
Concerning the genetic code, some amino acids have only 1...
In GC base pairs, which have 3 interstrand H-bonds, all the donor and acceptor groups are used up, so proteins can not interact with GC by hydrogen bonding. (true or false)
In the leucine zipper motif, leucines occur every ___ residues
leucine occur every ____ turns in a helix.
Process(es) which occurs primarily in the nucleus in eukaryotes :
both transcription and replication
Mutations in the ___ position of the codon are least likely to result in a different amino acid or in an amino acid with very different chemical properties.
Histones contain a relatively high propoertion of the amino acids ...
arginine and lysine
The mRNA sequence most closely resembles the ___ strand of DNA, and is complementary to the ___ strand.
An mRNA sequence has ___ different reading frames.
The HIV virus encodes an enzyme called a "reverse transcriptase", which catalyzes a reaction which is like transcription except that it occurs in the opposite direction. A reverse transcriptase uses an RNA sequence to...
provide information for synthesis of DNA.
Which of the following DNA sequences (when joined with its complementary strand) would have the proper symmetry for binding a head-to-head protein homodimer?
[5'-AAGGC-CGGAA-3 or '5'-AAGGG-CCCTT-3']
The sizes of an atom and an E. coli cell are approximately one ___ and one ___ respectively
An ideal type of amino acid for H-bonding to the well-separated N: acceptor and NH donor exposed on the major groove edge of adenine is ___
The type of amino acid in the TATA-box binding protein which intercalates into the AT-rich region of its DNA binding site is
Transfer RNA must exist in at least ..
20 different forms..
The site on a tRNA molecule where an amino acid is covalently attached to the tRNA occurs ___ .
at the 3' end
The primary reason why phospholipids form bilayers is because ___ .
they are amphipathic.
Cholesterol tends to generate a(an) ___ fluidity in membranes.
The outside of a chylomicron consists of a monolayer which is dominated by phospholipids. The inside contains ___ .
The outside of a chylomicron consists of a monolayer which is dominated by phospholipids. The inside contains ___ .
Chylomicrons are synthesized in the ___ , travel next thru the ___ , and eventually end up in the ___ .
small intestine -> lymph system -> blood
Contraction of the uterus during childbirth is stimulated by
The unsaturated fatty acid with the notation 18:2 n-6 has double bond(s) at positions
Nonpolar energy storage fats are...
esters of fatty acids
A root word signifying an ester group is ____ . It is part of the name for the class of molecules abbreviated TAG.
How many of the three molecules listed below are derived in whole or in part from fatty acids : (1) prostaglandins, (2) beeswax, and (3) triacylglycerols.
In the summer, Lake Erie fish adapt to their environment by adjusting their membranes to increase the % of lipids that are ___ and have ___ . The same effects occur when bacteria are transferred to a warmer environment.
In response to adrenalin, lipids are released from fat tissue to the bloodstream and then bind to the transporter protein called ___ .
In the fatty acid series 18:0 18:1 18:2, as the number of double bonds increases from 0 to 2, the melting point ___ .
In the saturated fatty acid series 12:0 14:0 16:0, as chain length increases from 12 carbons to 16 carbons, the melting point ___ .
Most fatty acids have an ___ # of carbons. When C=C double bonds are present, they usually are ___
The omega end of a fatty acid is the ___ group. Carbon 1 is the ___ group.
Phospholipids contain ___ alcohol groups linked in ester or phosphoester bonds.
When a sperm whale swims from the surface of the ocean down to the ocean floor, the quantity which decreases is the whale's ___ .
Fatty acids with C=C double bonds are called ___ fats. When they have two or more C=C, the position numbers of the carbons at the beginnings of the double bonds differ by ___ .
Soaps are best described as
potassium salts of fatty acids
in dna the sugar phosphate is on the ______ and the bases are on the _______.
______ bonds are formed between pairs of bases
A pairs with
G pairs with
the distance between the C1' ribose ring atoms is...
1.1 nm (11 Angstroms)
The sum of the purines (A + G) on both sides combined equals...
the sums of the pyrimidines (C + T ) on both sides combined = 50%
Acceptor groups in DNA are...
N: and O:
Donor groups in DNA are...
NH and NH2
The DNA helix is a ____________ structure
DNA is a regular pattern of
the minor groove in B form is...
the major groove in b form is...
there is no room for aditional water in the ____ form of DNA.
there sre ____ base pairs per turn in the B form
B form's tilt is __ degrees
A form's tilt is ___ degrees
base stacking is (favorable or unfavorable?)
what are the three favorable folding interactions in DNA ?
burying of the nonpolar sidechains
stacking interactions (pi cloud overlap)
optimization of hydrogen bonding bewtween the edges of base pairs.
the process of inserting ethidium triple ring into the intercalates into the intercalates into your DNA.
EtBr is a carcinogen because...
if it intercalated into you DNA could be mutated
random coil is...
DNA after its been heated to a point where strands seperate and are flopping around in a random conformation
Tm depends on...
the sequence of DNA 'concentration of ions in solution
Higher concentrations of the salt KCL _____ the temperature
Tm is a function of % ___ pairs.
base-H2O + base-H20 ->
it takes a ____ temperature to melt DNA with a high % of GC pairs
a dna sequence which has a higher total % of G and C will have a higher % of stacking interactions with the larger (more _________) delta G.
the 4 svedberg units are...
5S, 5.8S, 18S and 28S
secondary structure features are found in ____ rna.
DNA has ____strand bonding between two chains
RNA has _____strand bonding within one strand
the three fundamental proceses of tansmitting genetic information are...
replication, transcription and translation
the process by which one DNA double helix is duplicated to become two DNAs
Transcription is a process which...
manufactures a single stranded RNA molecule containing genetic information found in a portion of the DNA
synthesis of a protein using the information provided in the mRNA
The DNA template strand is...
the tmeplate or mold for construction of the mRNA
During transcription, a section of DNA ____ and ____ nucleotides line up with the exposed base pairs of the template strand
what two amino acids have only one codon?
methionine and trytophan
leucine is coded by ___ different codons..
mRNA has ___ different reading frames
step 1 of translation
step 2 of translation
step 3 translation
translocation of protein
translation : _______ cycle
alanyl-tRNA is an enzyme that...
specifically binds only alanine and the tRNA containing the alanine antoicodon
DNA is ___ times longer than e. coli
cells give DNA postive complexes because..
DNA naturally wants to repel, the negative keeps it compressed.
the positive charges on the proteins that wrap DNA help to...
neutralize the negative charges on DNA
Inside th nucleus, the negatively charges DNA is wrapped around...
an octsmer of eight positively charged protein subunits, and binds a ninth protein subunit (H1)
the 434 repressor is...
a gene-regulating protein produced by a virus that infects bacterial cells
the 434 repressor exists as a ...
the type of DNA symmetric sequence which is conducive to binding head-to-head homodimers is called..
Dimers do not attach to other dimers because..
after bonding surfaces attach to each other to make dimers there are no more exposed bonding surfaces.
infiinitely long polymerization is possible in...
the sickle cell hemoglobin mutant
tandem arrangements are found in nature but are less common than ______ arrangements.
head to tail contacts are possible with ____ arrangements
the 434 repressor lies in the ______grooves on one side of the DNA helix
two successive major
leucine zipper protein contain...
long helices with one end that is responsible for binding to DNA and another end that is responsible for protein-protein interactions.
the helices with leucine zippers have _______ interactions
the TATA box is..
A dna sequence that has an AT pyrimidine rich double helix segment
AT rich regions are easier to Melt than GC regions because..
There are fewer H bonds in AT and because the base stacking is less favorable
with the TATA bos, the DNA segment produces a ___ shape
phe ___ intercalates with the TATA box
fatty acids are...
long hydrocarbon chains ending in a caroboxlyic acid group
when all the carbon bonds are single bonds in fatty acids, it is said to be..
when there are some double bonds in a fatty acid, it is said to be ...
when fatty acdis have double bonds they are not...
double bonds in fatty acids are seperated by __ carbons.
the first number in fatty acid notation tells us..
the number of carbons
the second number in fatty acid notation tells us ...
the number of double bonds
the last number in the fatty acid notation tells us...
where the last double bond begins
triacylglycerols are comprised of...
three fatty acids joined by ester linkages to the tri alcohol called gycerol
tri-acyl means =?
soaps are generated by...
treating animal fats with KOH
What does KOH do in soap generation??
catalyzes hydrolysis of the ester bonds of TAGs to generate glycerol and potassium salts of the fatty acids
waxes are ...
esters linking one long hydrocarbon alcohol molecule with one long fatty acid
the diff between phospholipids and TAGs are...
one of the three fatty acids attached to glycerol in TAgs has been replaced by a phosphate group.
each fatty acids tail is about ___ carbons long
the membrane bilayer is about ___ carbons long
prostaglandin begins as...
an external hormone stimulus is a ________ message.
flipping the phospholipds from one layer to another is called..
too fluid membranes =
unfavorable leakage of material thru poorly packed spaces
too solid membrane =
prevent favorable diffusion of some metabolic food materials thru the lipid bilayer.
shorter chain lentgh = ______ melting temp.
More double bonds = ______ melting temp
a longer hydrocarbon has more surface area so it has stronger _______ bonding interactions
van der waals (london)
saturated fatty acids easily ____ against each other as a set of parallel linear chains.