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Skin layers from surface going inward
- Ectoderm - Epidermis, nervous, sebacious
- Mesoderm - Vasc., muscle, lymphatic
- Endoderm - lungs, digestive
-The process by which an unspecialized cell becomes a specialized cell.
- -All cells contain the same genetic info, but may be different sizes, shapes, and contain different organelles.
Glycolysis purpose, location and products
-To split glucose molecules into pyruvates.
- 2 ATP
- 2 NADH
- 2 Pyruvates
What absorbs fats into the lymphatic system?
Lacteals in the villi
Krebs cycle location and products
- 2 ATP
- 2 FADH2
- 6 NADH (intermediates for ETC only. No other purpose)
ETC location and products
The body's prefered food sources in order
Primary purpose of Grignard reactions
To add a carbon to carbon bond, usually in SN2 fashion.
Look for carbon chain with MgBr tail.
Will attack the carbon nearest the best leaving group.
Three primary reducing agents
- NaBH4 (sodium boro hydride)
- LiAlH (lithium aluminum hydride)
- Any metal with H2 (hydrogen gas)
Favored places for reductions
- Carbonyl carbon
- Alkene double bonds
Primary purpose of Saponification reactions
To take a base and attack carbonyls on molecules like triglycerides in order to make soap.
ADH makes the distal convoluted tubule more permeable to H2O, therefore increasing H2O reabsorption.
Aldosterone increases Na+ reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct thus increasing osmotic pressure and increasing H2O reabsorption.
Which single bond is the shortest?
Difference between (+,–) ∆H
–∆H = exothermic
+∆H = endothermic
Difference between (+,–) ∆G
–∆G = spontaneous
+∆G = non-spontaneous
Difference between (+,–) ∆S
–∆S = more ordered (less entropy)
+∆S = less ordered (more entropy)
Fundamental Thermodynamic Relation formula
∆G = ∆H - T∆S
- ∆G - Gibbs
- ∆H - Enthalpy
- ∆S - Entropy
- T - Temp K
When solving for gen chem crap
- Figure out moles
- Balance the equation
- Check ratios
- Transfer numbers accurately
With batteries (cells), which reduction potential is going to take place and which won't?
˚E+ will occur
˚E– will not occur
Radians and degrees conversion
360˚ = 2πrads
Ionization refers to:
The loss of an electron to form a cation, which is always endothermic.