MCAT 2.0

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Maki6tu
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160686
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MCAT 2.0
Updated:
2012-08-02 15:19:36
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  1. Skin layers from surface going inward
    • Ectoderm - Epidermis, nervous, sebacious
    • Mesoderm - Vasc., muscle, lymphatic
    • Endoderm - lungs, digestive
  2. Differentiation concept
    -The process by which an unspecialized cell becomes a specialized cell.

    • -All cells contain the same genetic info, but may be different sizes, shapes, and contain different organelles.
    •  
  3. Glycolysis purpose, location and products
    -To split glucose molecules into pyruvates.

    -Cytoplasm (cytosol)

    • -Products
    • 2 ATP
    • 2 NADH
    • 2 Pyruvates
  4. What absorbs fats into the lymphatic system?
    Lacteals in the villi
  5. Krebs cycle location and products
    -Mitochondria

    • -Products
    • 2 ATP
    • 2 FADH2
    • 6 NADH (intermediates for ETC only. No other purpose) 
  6. ETC location and products
    -Mitochondria

    • -Products
    • 32 ATP 
  7. The body's prefered food sources in order 
    • Carbs
    • Fats
    • Proteins 
  8. Primary purpose of Grignard reactions
    To add a carbon to carbon bond, usually in SN2 fashion.

    Look for carbon chain with MgBr tail.

    Will attack the carbon nearest the best leaving group. 
  9. Three primary reducing agents
    • NaBH4 (sodium boro hydride)
    • LiAlH (lithium aluminum hydride)
    • Any metal with H2 (hydrogen gas)
  10. Favored places for reductions
    • Carbonyl carbon
    • Alkene double bonds 
  11. Primary purpose of Saponification reactions
    To take a base and attack carbonyls on molecules like triglycerides in order to make soap.
  12. ADH function
    ADH makes the distal convoluted tubule more permeable to H2O, therefore increasing H2O reabsorption.

    Increases bp 
  13. Aldosterone function
    Aldosterone increases Na+ reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct thus increasing osmotic pressure and increasing H2O reabsorption.

    Increases bp
  14. Which single bond is the shortest?

    C–H
    C–O
    C–C
    O–N 
    C–H
  15. Difference between (+,–) ∆H
    –∆H = exothermic

    +∆H = endothermic
  16. Difference between (+,–) ∆G
    –∆G = spontaneous

    +∆G = non-spontaneous
  17. Difference between (+,–) ∆S
    –∆S = more ordered (less entropy)

    +∆S = less ordered (more entropy)
  18. Fundamental Thermodynamic Relation formula
    ∆G = ∆H - T∆S

    • ∆G - Gibbs
    • ∆H - Enthalpy
    • ∆S - Entropy
    • T - Temp K
  19. When solving for gen chem crap
    • Figure out moles
    • Balance the equation
    • Check ratios
    • Transfer numbers accurately 
  20. With batteries (cells), which reduction potential is going to take place and which won't? 
    ˚E+ will occur

    ˚E will not occur
  21. Radians and degrees conversion
    360˚ = 2πrads
  22. Ionization refers to:
    The loss of an electron to form a cation, which is always endothermic.

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