Cardio Vascular Chapter 7 pt2

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Buttersideup
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160697
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Cardio Vascular Chapter 7 pt2
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2012-07-02 01:38:54
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  1. normal sinus rthym(NSR)
    regular rthym of the hearth cycle stimulated by the SA node (average 60-100 beats /minu)
  2. SYPTOMATIC AND DIAGNOSTIC TERMS
  3. Ateriosclerosis
    thickening, loss of elasticity and califacation (hardening) of artial walls
  4. arterosclerosis (ASHD)

      atheromatous plaque
    builsdup of fatty substances within the walls of the arteries

    a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the buildup of fat lipids
  5. thrombosus
    a stationary blood clot
  6. embolus
    emboli
    someting free in the bllod stream
  7. stenosis
    condition of narrowing of a part
  8. constriction
    compression of a part
  9. occlusion
    plugging; obstruction or a closing off
  10. ischemia
    to hold back blood; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by consrticion or occlusion of a blood vessel
  11. perfusion deficit
    a lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by a narrowing, occlusion, ect
  12. infarct
    to stuff, a localized area of necrosisi(condition of tissue death) caused by ischemia as a result of occlusion of ablood vessel
  13. angina pectoris
    chest pain casued by a temporary loss of oxegenated blod to heart mussel often cxaused by narrowing of the coronary arteries (angina = to choke)`
  14. aneurysm
    -saccular
    -fusiform
    -dissecying 
    • a widening, bulgingmof the wall of the heart, the soft aorta, or an artery caused by congenital defect or acquired weakness.
    • -a sac like buldge on one side
    • -a spindle shaped bulge
    • -a split or tear of the  vessel wall 
  15. claudication
    to limp, a pain in a limb( especially in a calf) while walking that subsides after rest; it is caused by in adequate blood supply
  16. diaphohoresis
    profuse sweating
  17. heart murmur
    an abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves
  18. palpitation
    subjective expierence of ponding, skipping, or racing heartbeats
  19. vegatiation
    to grow; an abnormal growth of tissue around a value generally a result of infectionsuch as bacterial enocarditis in chidlren strep
  20. arrhythmis
    any of several kinds of irregularityor loss of rhyth of the heartbeat
  21. dysrthythmia (difficulty)
    -bradycardia
    fibrillation
    flutter
    heart block
    -premature ventricular contraction (PVC)
    -tachycardia
    • -a slow heart rate less than 60
    • -chaotic irrigular contrations
    • -extremely rapid but regular contrations
    • interference with the normal electrical condution
    • -a ventriculaer contraction precedeing the normal impulce intiated by the SA node
    • -fast heart rate +100
  22. artiosclerotic heart disease (ASHD) 
    degenerative conditionn of the artereis characterized by the thickening of the inner lining, suseptabe to rupture. oftern seen in smorekers and aged
  23. bacterial endocarditis
    a bacterial inflamation that effects the endocardium or the heart valves
  24. cardiac tamponade
    compressionn of the eart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sacas results from pericarditis or trauma, causing rupture of a blood vessel with in the heart (tampon = a plug)
  25. congestive heart failure
    • failure of left ventricule to pump adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body resulting in a "bottleneck" of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins, causing edema in the lower portions of the bidy
    • and fluid in the lungs
  26. coronary artery disease (CAD)
    a condition affecting arteries of the heartthat reducesthe flow of blood and delivery ofoxygen and nutrients to the myocardium most often caused m=by artherosclerosis
  27. hypertension (HTN)
    -essential (primary) hypertension
    -secondar6y hypertension 
    • persistently high blood pressure
    • -HBP attributed to no single cause byut associated with smoking obesity, heredity ect
    • -HBP caused by effects of other disease 
  28. mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
    protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction resulting in complete closure and backward blood flow
  29. EKG
    stress ECG
    holter ambulatory monitor  
    • gram = record
    • and electricsl picure of the heart represented by positive and negative deflections on a graph labled with the letters P, Q, R, S and t
    • -and ECG recorded during excerise-portable eck worn by the patient that monitors electrical activity of the heart over hours
  30. positon emmision tomgraphy PET) scan 
    nuclear isotoped=s an CT
  31. angiography 
    xray of a blood vessel after injection of contrast medium
  32. coronary artery bypass graph (CABG)
    -anastomosis 
    • grafting a portion of a blood vessel retrived from another part of the body to bypass occluded coronary artery  restoring circulation to myocardial tissue
    • -opening joinig of two blood vessels to allow flow from one to the other
  33. endarterectomy
    incision and coring of the lining of an srtery to clear a blockage (usually fat)
  34. valve replacement
    surgery to replace diseases heart valve with an artificail one
  35. percutaneeous transuminal coronary angioplasty
    -intravascular stent  
    • a method of treating a the narrwing coronary artery by incerting a specialized catheter with a ballon attachment-usually involves stent
    • -used to reinforce the wall of a vessel aafter angioplasty
  36. defibulation
    -defibultaltor 
    • termination of ventricular fibulation by delivery of an electrical stimulus to the heart
    • -device thar delivers electrical stimulation for difibulation 
  37. cardioversion
    termination of tacycardia eith by pharmaceutical means or by dlivery of electriclal energy
  38. pacemaker
    a device used to treat brady cardia
  39. COMMON THERAPUTIC DRUG CLASSIFCATIONS
    antiangianl
  40. antianginal
    drug that dialates coronary arteris , restoring oxigen to tissues to releve pain of angina pectoris
  41. antiarrhythmic
    a drug that counteracts cardia arrthmia
  42. anticoagulant
    a drug that prevents clotting of the blood used to treat Thormbophlebitis and myocardial infraction
  43. beta-adrenergenic blocking agents
    beta blockers 
    inhibits responses to sypathatic adrenergenic nerve activity causing a slowing of electrical  conduction and heart rate
  44. calcium channel blockers
    inhibits the entery of calcium ions in heart muscel cells causing a slowing of the heart rate  used to tret angina +
  45. diuretic
    a drug that increases the secretion of urine commonly prescribed to treat hypertension
  46. agents
    used to dissolve thrombi
  47. vasoconsctrictor
    causes constricting of blood vessels decreasing blood flow
  48. vosdilator
    cuases dilation of blood vessels increasing blood flow
  49. ACRONYMS
  50. ASHD
    arteriosclerotic Heart disease
  51. AV
    artioventricular
  52. CABG
    coronary artery bypass graft
  53. CHF
    congestive heart failure
  54. DVT
    deep vein thrombosis
  55. HTN
    hypertnsion
  56. MI
    myocardial infarction
  57. SA
    sinoatrial

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