lit intro

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m.wd
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160732
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lit intro
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2012-07-17 09:33:56
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lit eng americ
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  1. difference between story and discourse
    discourse: the form of how something is told to whom by whom

    story: the content of what is told
  2. constituents of a story-oriented approach to narrative
    storyworld --> Events + Existence (--> characters + settings)
  3. techniques of characterization
    •  character constallations
    •  analysis of characterisation
    •  characterisation done by narrator or by another character
    •  by character himself/herself
    •  by character about other character
    •  implicit (stillschweigend) vs. explicit (eindeutig) characterisation
    •  reliabitity
  4. potential of discussing a story's setting/atmosphere
    setting = specific location in space and/or time

    • - mood-invested space: where spaces and objects fulfil expressive symbolic or atmospheric functions
    • - space of action: which serves mainly as a backdrop/ framework for the action
    • - observed space: providing a panoramic overview
  5. Stanzel's model for narrative transmission
    - fundamental category: narrative situation ('point of view')

    • elements of mediacy:
    • - mode: narrator or reflector
    • - person: first or third person
    • - perspective: internal or externat perspective

    • dominant narrative situations:
    • - authorial (dominated by externat perspective)
    • - first person (identity of the realms of existence of narrator and the rest of the characters)
    • - figural (dominance of the reflector mode)
  6. Gérald Genette's model for narrative transmission
    • - narration (who speaks/narrates?)
    • - focalization (the perception of events. Who sees?)

    • ----------------------------------
    • TIME
    • - order (analepsis, prolepsis, anachronic)
    • - duration (discouse vs story time): stretch, summary, ellipsis, scene, pause)
    • - frequency (How many times is something told?)

    • VOICE (How speaks to whom from which position in relation to the story?)
    • - covert/overt narrator
    • - heterodiegetic/homediegetic/autodiegetic (which position?)
    • - embedded/frame narrative
    • - intradiegetic (reporting of the event while it happens)/extradiegetic (past; events are far away) ---> level of communication

    • FOCALISATION (Who perceives what in which way?)
    • - Internat: fixed, variable, multiple
    • - External
    • - zero
  7. similarities and differences between Stanzel and Genette
    • = Genette's focalazor is Stanzel's reflector
    • # Where Stanzel tends towards unification, Genette turns his concern towards diversification
    • # Genette tries to establish a distinction between "the character whose point of view orients the narrative perspective" and the questions "who is the narrator"
    • # Instead of using the term "narrative situation" and "point of view", he distinguishes between "narration" and "focalozation"
  8. narrative situation(s) (Genette)
    • - mode: extradiegetic/ intradiegetic narrator
    • - person: homodiegetic(heterodiegetic narrator
    • - perspective: overt/covert
  9. covert narrators
    "anonymous voices"
  10. overt narrators
    individualized, explicit speaker
  11. heterodiegetic narrator
    • located outside of the storyworld
    • appears only on the extradiegetic level
  12. homodiegetic narrator
    • an extradiegetic narrator who appears as a character in his/her own story
    • if he/she's identical with the protagonist, we speak of an autodiegetic narrator (=first person narrator)
  13. extradiegetic narrator
    • located the level of narrative transmission
    • constitutes the narrative process together with fictive adressee
  14. intradiegetic narrator
    • located on the level of the story
    • characters who are part of the narrated story
  15. speech in narrative
    • - direct sitation (direct speech)
    • - indirect speech (inquit phrases + summeries, interprets, ... --> indirect way of telling)
    • - free indirect discourse
  16. consciousness in narrative
    - representation of thought

    • narrative report of thought act
    • indirect thought
    • free indirect thought
    • direct thought
    • free direct thought

    • diegesis--> mimesis
    • > degree of mediacy
  17. poetic function
    projects the principle of equivalence from the axis of selection into the axis of combination (Jakobson)
  18. syntagmatic axis
    • - greek = which has been put together
    • - govern relations of contiguity and possible combinations of elements within a sentence or a text
  19. pradigmatic axis
    • - Greek = example, model
    • -  relationship between linguistic elements that can be substituted one for another in one specific slot within a sentence (similarity)
  20. foot
    • - smalles unit of verse
    • - iamb /x/, trochee /x, spondee //, dactyl /xx, anapest xx/, amphibrach x/x
  21. metre
    - highly artificial and perfectly regular sequence of stressed and unstressed syllables in lines of verse
  22. rhythm
    • - based on the volume of our breath, the word accent, the word order, the syntactic pattern of phrases and the stress of particular words for emphasis
    • - oral speech
  23. rhyme scheme
    the identity of the last stressed vowel and its subsequent letters in two or more words in its diverse forms and variations
  24. 4 different ryhme schemes
    • couplet aabb
    • alternate ryhme abab
    • envelope pattern abba
    • tail ryhme abcabc
  25. sonnet
    three quartets and a couplet
  26. Form and content of a sonnet
    • three quartets
    • - alternation of position in the three steps or
    • - variation of one thesis

    • couplet
    • - summary
    • - suprising turn
  27. emphasis
    (Betonung) often an unusual position of a word in a line
  28. euphemism
    (Beschönigung) embellishes a phenomenon
  29. hyperbole
    (Hyperbel) exaggeration
  30. litotes
    understatement in the negation
  31. inversion
    the invation of the word order is a favorite means of emphasis in a language that prefers a rather rigid word order of subject+verb+object
  32. anaphora
    repeats words at the beginning of lines
  33. epiphora
    repeats words at the end of lines
  34. repetition
    immediate repetition of words
  35. parallelism
    parallel construction of phrases
  36. asyndeton
    joins words or phrases by commas only
  37. polysyndeton
    joins words or phrases by conjunctions
  38. paradox
    statement that seems to be contradictory and true at the same time
  39. oxymoron
    (condensed version of the paradox) combines two contradictory terms
  40. trope
    usage of figurative language in literature, or a figure of speech in which words are used in a sense different from their literal meaning. The term trope derives from the Greek τρόπος (tropos), "turn, direction, way", related to the root of the verb τρέπειν (trepein), "to turn, to direct, to alter, to change
  41. function of metaphor
    • -The first, and more practical, function is to allow the reader greater understanding of the concept, object, or character being described. This is done by comparing it to an item that may be more familiar to the reader.
    • - The second function is purely artistic: to create an image that is beautiful or profound or otherwise produces the effect that the writer desires. For these reasons, writers have used the metaphor in literature since the earliest recorded stories.
  42. adresser vs adressee
    - adresser is never the author and adressee never the reader.

    - communication model - Factors and Functions (Jakobson)
  43. Pfisters tree of characterisation
  44. Stanzel's model
    • (discourse oriented approach)
    • - authorial
    • - figural
    • - first person

    • mode (narrator/ reflector)
    • perspective (internal/external)
    • person (first/third)
  45. memesis vs diegesis
    showing - telling
  46. ab ovo
    story starts with birth
  47. im medias res
    story starts in the middle of action
  48. in ultimas res
    story; end is known
  49. Freytags Triangle
  50. metonymy
    • - figure of speech used in rhetoric in which a thing or concept is not called by its own name, but by the name of something intimately associated with that thing or concept
    • - the crow came to town
  51. synecdoche
    • - Part of something is used to refer to the whole thing (pars pro toto)
    • - 10 sails (for 10 ships)
  52. figura etymologica
    • - a rhetorical figure in which words with the same etymological derivation are used adjacently
    • - Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator
  53. metaphor (Black)
    • - substitution view (cherry lips)
    • - comparison view (Richard is a lion)
    • - interaction view (Man is a wolf)
  54. Classical drama
    • 1 exposition
    • 2 complication
    • 3 climax
    • 4 reversal
    • 5 catastrophe
  55. rhetorical form vs poetic form
    • rhetorical form:
    • - morphological elements (words)--> tropes
    • - semantic elements (figurative) --> tropes
    • - syntactic elements (sentences)--> schemes of figures of speech

    • poetic form
    • - prosodic elements --> metre, rhythme
    • - ponological elements --> sounds, rhyme
  56. External focalisation
    Focalising subject located on the level of narrative transmission
  57. Internal focalisation
    Focalising subject located on the same level as characters (that is, he or she, is part of the story)

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