Roman World Exam 3

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  1. Tiberias
    • Emperor of the Julio Claudian Dynasty
    • Augustus's stepson
    • Ruled rome from Capri during the last 20 years of his reign
    • Left tremendous amount of money in the treasury after his death
  2. Sejanus
    • Chief administrator of the Roman empire for Tiberias
    • Alleged murderer of Tiberias
    • only son of Drusus Caesar
    • Was executed by Tiberias for suspicion of attempting to overthrow him and become emperor himself
  3. Caligula
    • Tiberias Nephew
    • Executed his mother and brothers for treason from 31-33
    • Built a temple for himself of the Palatine
    • Was attacked and stabbed to death in 41
  4. Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus
    • Consul
    • legate of Germania Superior
    • Involved in a plot against caligula
    • was executed
  5. Claudius
    • Emperor of Rome
    • Put down revolt in Domitia led by Scribonius
    • Set up corp of imperial freedmen
    • established an efficient imperial administration which included a dept of Justice and finance
  6. Invasion of Britain
    • occured in 43
    • Claudius Invaded
    • temple to claudius established at Camulodunum
    • Camulodunum was established as the provincial capital
  7. agrippa I
    • Banished by Tiberias
    • Named co-heir to the Roman throne
    • was executed
  8. Nero
    • Poisoned Britanicus
    • executed 3 wives and mother
    • claimed and depicted himself as a great patron of the arts
    • was suggested that he started the great fire of rome to detract from his unpopular policies
  9. Lucius Amnaeus Seneca
    • Romes leading intellectual figure in the mid first century
    • virtual ruler of the roman world during the first phase of Nero's reign
    • wrote the Pumpkinification of the Divine Claudius
    • introduced fiscal and judicial reforms
  10. First Persecution of the Christians A.D. 64
    • Persecuted by Nero
    • allegedly set fire to rome
    • were not persecuted for religious reasons
    • was regional persecution not yet widespread
  11. Civil War 68-69
    • Between 3 men proclaimed emperor
    • Galba Otho and Vitillus were the 3
    • war was won by vespacian
    • vespacian became emperor and first of the Flavian dynasty
  12. Otho, Galba, Vitillus
    • Proclaimed emperors between 68&69
    • were defeated by one another
    • followed the death of Nero
    • Were succeeded by Nero
  13. Vespacian
    • First of the Flavian Dynasty
    • Sons were titus and Domitian
    • Good politician and military leader
    • became a better man after becoming emperor which is unique
  14. Pax Augusta
    • Peace of Augustus
    • Temple built by Vespacian
    • Completed in 45
    • Deified the peace that Augustus brought to Rome
  15. Jesus Christ
    • 4 BC-30 AD 
    • Founder of Christianity
    • Teaching and deeds recorded in the New Testament
    • Incarnation of God according to the Christians
  16. The acts of the apostles
    • were written in Greek
    • was written by Luke the Evangelist
    • Was written in Rome
    • Without acts a picture of the primitive church would be impossible to reconstruct
  17. Pagan
    • In the Roman tradition were deified people and mythical personages for for worship and sacrifice
    • The christian apology defended against attacks by pagans
    • 150 christians coming under universal persecution by the pagans
    • emperor Gallienus commences 40 year period in which christians arent persecuted
  18. The Imperial Cult
    • evolved from hellenistic Greek and Roman Precedents
    • it was tied to military and political power
    • included the worship of Rome and the Genius of the the Roman people
    • Ruling emperors began to be treated as divine entities
  19. Lex de imperio Vespasiani
    • Used to grant imperial powers to Vespacian
    • Consistent with power of the tribune
    • took power from the aediles
  20. Pliny the Younger
    • Roman Author and administrator
    • served as praetor and consul
    • wrote 10 books filled with personal correspondence
    • served as imperial legate in the province of Bithynia
  21. First Jewish War
    • Jewish Rebellion against Roman rule in Judea
    • The jews expelled the Romans from Jerusalem
    • Vespacian and Titus sent to put down the rebellion
    • Jerusalem fell and temple was burned
  22. Masada
    • Mountaintop fortress in southeast israel
    • site of the jews last stand after the fall of Jerusalem
    • was beseiged by Flavius Silva
    • took Romans 2 years to breach the fortress
  23. Germania Superior and Inferior
    • Created by Domitian
    • Campaigned across the Rhine
    • earned title germanicus
    • wall was built across germania superior
  24. Titus
    • Made name for himself in the Jewish Revolt
    • great reputation for Roman emperor especially after disaster relief for the victims at Pompeii
    • Dedicated the Roman Colliseum
    • Rebuilt the Temple of Jupiter
  25. Mount Vesuvius
    • Destroyed the city of Pompeii and Stabiae
    • Buried Herculaneum with mud after the eruption
    • eruption was recorded by Pliny the Younger
    • Titus gave much relief after its eruption to the citizens of Pompeii
  26. Domitian
    • Roman Emperor
    • Began to style himself as a god
    • Built the Domus Augustana
    • Put down tribes along the Danube River in Dacia
  27. Dominus et Deus
    • what Emperor Domitian proclaimed himself to be
    • translates as Lord and God
    • was very offensive
    • resulted in a conspiracy against him
  28. Decebalus
    • King of the Dacians
    • unified the Dacian tribes and led them against Domitian and Trajan
    • Trajan captured the Dacian capital from Decebalus twice
    • Committed suicide after Trajan returned
  29. Nerva
    • Last Italian Emperor
    • Developed relief program for the poor
    • banned all treason charges and trials
    • returned property confiscated by Domitian
  30. Trajan
    • First emperor that is not Italian
    • Established the Alimenta
    • fought and defeated the Dacians
    • Campaigned against the Parthians
  31. Dacian wars (101-2, 105-6)
    • Decibalus king of Dacia warred against Rome
    • Trajan made it a province
    • decebalus rebelled in 105
    • Trajan invaded with army and decibalus commits suicide
  32. Hadrian
    • Worked towards stabilizing and strengthening frontiers of the empire
    • built a wall in Britain to keep out Barbarians
    • repuil the Panthenon
    • Launched building campaign an architectural highmark
  33. Antinous
    • Hadrians boy lover
    • drowned in the nile
    • was made a deity
    • creat city on the nile, antinopolous in his honor
  34. Bar Kokhba Revolt
    • The third jewish Revolt
    • devastated Judea
    • appears to have been an attempt to eradicate Jews
    • jews were forbidden to enter jerusalem
  35. Quattuorviri Consulares
    • Appointment of 4 judges by Hadrian
    • Cases were heard throughout the 4 regions of Italy
    • Was to allow people of Rome Justice without inflicting them the burden of having to travel to rome to recieve it
    • interpreted as a desire to streamlin administrative and legal proceedings
  36. Constitutio Antoniniana
    • Edict Issued in 212
    • Also known as the edict of Caracalla
    • Declared all free men in the Republic were to be given Roman Citizenship
    • was passed to increase Rome's Tax base
  37. Commodus
    • Only son of Marcus Aurelius that survived infancy
    • Had no interest in Ruling as hed dedicated his duties to others
    • Believed himself to be God and Hercules
    • Strangled to death by Narcissus
  38. Apuleius
    • Wrote the Golden Ass
    • Was a platonic Philosopher
    • wrote 3 books on plato
    • The golden ass is important for its description of Religious mysteries
  39. Antoninus Pius
    • Roman Emperor
    • Put down revolts by the Moors in North Africa
    • No major wars during his reign
    • Adopted Marcus Aurelius
  40. Marcus Aurelius
    • Known as the Philosopher King
    • Reign marked by Continuous and Bitter warfare
    • sets precedent making his brother an augustus
    • put down revolts in Britain and Germany
  41. Lucius Verus
    • Roman Emperor
    • co-Ruled with Marcus Aurelius
    • Campaigned with Marcus Aurelius against the Germanic Marcomanni
    • Died of a Stroke 
  42. Plague of 166
    • Returning Armies fighting in the East brought back a terrible plague
    • Lasted for 25 years
    • 1/5 of Alexandria were killed by it
    • the decrease and demoralization of the military and urban populations weakened the empire significantly
  43. Persecution of the Christians (Smyrna 150's)
    • Tensions between christians and polytheists led to mob violence against the christians
    • occured during the reign of Domitian
    • Was thought to have been due to plague that was sweeping through Rome (punishment by the Gods)
  44. Marcomanni & Quadi
    • Germanic Tribes that marched on Aquileia
    • Aqueleia was an important port on the Adriatic Sea
    • the tribes were turned back initially but were strengthened by other tribes
    • These hostilities were divided into the 1st and 2nd Marcomanni Wars
  45. Septimius Severus
    • First roman emperor from North Africa
    • Killed all praetorians that were involved in the assassination of Parthenax
    • Launched campaign against Ctesiphon and enslaved over 100,000 men, women, and children
    • coined phrase "maintain unity, pay soldiers well, and forget everyone else"
  46. Ablinus
    • Leader of the Roman legions of Britain
    • Was appointed Caesar over gaul, Britain, and Spain
    • Was declared emperor by his troops
    • Was defeated by Severus in battle at Lyon
  47. Alamanni & Goths
    • Germanic tribes who were fought by Caracalla
    • Some of them were defeated, ohters were placated
    • were raiding german provinces on the Danbian Frontier
  48. Macrinus
    • Was saluted as augustus by the army
    • first Roman emperor who was not a senator
    • cut soldiers pay, eastern army rebelled
    • met eastern army in battle was defeated and executed
  49. Elagabalus
    • Religious fanatic
    • Bisexual transvestite
    • worshipped the sun god
    • adopted Severus Alexander as his successor
    • was stabbed in the latrine while visiting the praetorian Guard
  50. Severus Alexander
    • Dominated by his mother who ruled the empire
    • fought against the Persians
    • Germans breached the Rhineland, he wanted to buy them off, his army felt this was dishonorable
    • Was executed by his troops along with mother
  51. Sol Invictus
    • Sun God of the Roman Empire
    • was the provincial syrian God Elagabalus
    • Deities image was brought to Rome from Emesa
    • Elagabalus neglected Rome's state deities and promoted Sol Invictus as Rome's most powerful deity
  52. Sassanid Empire
    • Persian dynasty
    • replaced the Parthians as Romes new enemy
    • Challenged Rome's eastern Borders
    • Took antioch in 253
  53. Shapur I
    • Persian king of the Sasanian Dynasty
    • Conquered Nisibis and Carrhae
    • Captured Valerian at Edessa
    • Styled himself as king of kings of Iran and Non-Iran
  54. Zenobia
    • queen of the Roman Colony of Palmyra
    • Conquered several of Rome's eastern Provinces
    • Was subjugated by Emperor Aurelian
    • Was beseiged by Aurelian at Palmyra
  55. Aurelian
    • Attempted to create a universal religion
    • Was centered around the sun God
    • Established temple to worship and priesthood
    • reformed the Roman Coinage
  56. Dominus et Deus Natus
    • Born Lord and God
    • Emperor Aurelian styled himself as this
    • Was featured on Roman coinage and inscriptions
    • was his claim to the vice-regency of Sol Invictus
  57. Diocletian
    • Roman Emperor
    • Restored Efficient government to the empire after the anarchy of the 3rd Century
    • Laid foundation for the Byzantine Empire
    • Reign is noted for the last great persecution of the Christians
  58. Tetrarchy
    • Rule of Four
    • Short lived system of joint rule established by Diocletian
    • Included an emperor of the east and West
    • Each emperor had a deputy(Caesar)
  59. Galerius
    • Roman Emperor notorious for his persecutions of Christians
    • Imposed poll tax on urban populations
    • Was emperor of the east
    • afraid that his illness was vengeance by the christian God and issued an edict granting toleration
  60. Jovius
    • Relationships titles shared between eastern and western emperors
    • were applied to military unity and new provinces
    • meant jupiters son
    • was propagated on coins and art
  61. Carausius
    • One of Maximians Commanders
    • Launched a revolt with the North Sea fleet
    • Occupied Britain and Northern Gaul
    • Maximian struggled with the revolt for 7 years
  62. Edict of Maximum Prices
    • Fixed wages and established maximum prices
    • Was used to prevent inflation, abusive profits and exploitation of buyers
    • over 1,000 articles were enumerated
    • violations were punishable by death
  63. Edict against Manicheanism
    • Religious group that was persecuted by emperor diocletian
    • accused the group of acting in collusion with the persians against the empire
    • leaders of the group were to be burned alive
    • all imperial officials who followed it were sent to the mines
  64. The Great Persecution of the Christians
    • Campaign against the Christians by Emperor Diocletian
    • Orders for scriptures to be destroyed  and churches pulled down throughout the empire
    • issued edict that all freedmen were to be reenslaved
    • ordered that all subjects throughout the empire were to demonstrate their loyalty by sacrificing in public
  65. Lactantius
    • teacher of Rhetoric at the Imperial Court
    • Wrote on the Deaths of the Persecutors
    • A Christian Apologist
    • Referred to as the Christians Cicero
  66. Constantius Chlorus
    • Roman emperor and father the Constantine I
    • Member of the tetrarchy
    • Served as Caesar and Augustus
    • Died after victory over the Picts as Augustus
  67. The Carnuntum Crisis
    • capital of upper pannonia
    • Conference held in 308
    • Held by Diocletian, Galerius, and maximian
    • was an attempt to save the tetrarchy
  68. Maxentius
    • Roman Emperor
    • Controlled Italy, and Africa
    • Was killed by Constantine at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge
    • stopped the persecution of the christians
  69. Constantine the Great
    • Son of Constantius Chlorus
    • First Roman emperor to profess Christianity
    • Founded Constantinople
    • Fought the battle of the milvian Bridge in the name of God
  70. Battle at the Milvian Bridge
    • Battle in which Constantine defeated Maxentius
    • Recognized as pivotal episode leading to the acceptance of Christianity
    • Also marked Constantine's emergence as sole ruler
    • Constantine went into battle bearing the sign of the Cross
  71. In hoc Signo Vinces
    • In this sign you will conquer
    • constantine adopted this motto after his vision of a Chi Rho
    • Constantine saw this in the sky before the battle at the Milvian Bridge
    • Chi Rho stands for the first 3 letters of Christ's name
  72. Edict of Toleration
    • Given by Galerius
    • Proclaimed religious toleration for Christians to engage in Worship
    • officially ended the Diocletian Persecution
    • Was a realization by the tetrarchy that eradication of the Christians had failed
  73. Licinius
    • Roman Emperor
    • Ruled Panonia
    • Defeated Maximinus
    • Issued the edict of Milan with Constantine granting religious toleration
  74. The Edict of Milan
    • Proclamation that permanently established religious toleration for Christianity
    • Granted all persons freedom to worship and deity
    • gave christians legal rights
    • Stated that christians were to be returned any confiscated property
  75. Donatist Controversy
    • Church in North Africa didn't want lapsed clergy to serve
    • 2 Bishops were created
    • Donatus was chosen by the sect and Caecilian by the Romans
    • Conflict was never truly resolved
  76. Constantinople
    • Founded by Constantine
    • was the new capital of the Roman Empire
    • Was founded at Byzantium
    • was built in 6 years
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Roman World Exam 3
Roman World exam
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