Surgical Tech Certification

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Surgical Tech Certification
2010-05-03 11:41:46
Surgical tech equipment supplies instrumentation

Equipment, supplies and instrumentation, specimens, dressings, drains, basic science
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  1. Blade or jaw
    The part that makes contact with tissue and is the working portions
  2. Joint
    This is where the instrument is hinged
  3. Shank (shaft)
    Length of the instrument from the joint to the finger rings; the longer the shank, the deeper the penetration into a cavity
  4. Ratchet
    How an instrument may be locked in place; a sideways motion with your fingers in the finger rings may release the groove interlock when the instrument is closed
  5. Finger ring
    Located directly opposite the jaw; controls the opening and closing motion of the jaw
  6. 6 common methods of diagnosis
    • Radiology
    • Pathology
    • Endoscopy
    • Thermography
    • Ultrasonography
    • Magnetic Resonance imaging
  7. Describe radiology
    Branch of medicine that uses x-rays, radioactive substances and ionizing radiation for diagnosis and treatment
  8. Describe pathology
    Branch of biological science that studies the nature and cause of disease through changes in the structure and function of organ systems and all thier components
  9. Describe endoscopy
    Visual examination of the interior of a body cavity or organ utilizing a lighted scope
  10. Describe thermography
    Detecting and measuring variations of heat emitted by different regions of the body and transforming them into visible signals that can be recorded photographically
  11. Describe ultrasonography
    Use of sound vibrations to study alterations of anatomical structures
  12. Describe Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    Use of electromagnetic energy and radiofrequencies for identifying abnormalities in anatomical structures
  13. Arthroscope
    Visualization of intra-articular surfaces, generally the knee
  14. Bronchoscope
    Visualization of the broncial area, its branches, and the mucosa of the trachea
  15. Choledochoscope
    Visualization of the common bile duct
  16. Colonoscope
    Visualization of the entire large intestine
  17. Culdoscope
    Visualization of pelvic structures
  18. Cystoscope
    Visualization of the urinary bladder
  19. Esophagogastroduodenoscope
    Visualization of the esphagus, stomach and duodenum
  20. Esophagoscope
    Visualization of esphagus and cardia of the stomach
  21. Gastroscope
    Visualization of the stomach
  22. Mediastinosocpe
    Visualization of lymph nodes or tumors in the superior mediastinum
  23. Nephroscope
    Visualization of renal pelvis, calyces and upper ureter
  24. Proctoscope
    Visualization of the rectum
  25. Sigmoidoscope
    Visualization of the sigmoid colon
  26. 7 radiological items/accessories which could be used in diagnostic procedures
    • Portable x-ray machine
    • C-arm machine
    • Lead aprons/shields
    • OR tables
    • Cysto tables
    • Image intensifiers (c-arm)
    • Floroscope
  27. Describe portable x-ray machines
    Machine which can be moved from room to room, creates diagnostic images either on film or digital images on monitors
  28. Describe c-arm imaging
    A portable fluoroscopic machine that displays live images on a monitor
  29. Describe lead aprons/sheilds
    Protective devices to shield personnel from radiation during radiographic or fluoroscopic procedures
  30. Describe OR tables
    Operating room tables may have a tray or slot to place films for x-ray film exposures
  31. Describe cysto tables
    Special tables with radiographic and fluoroscopic capability that are used for urological procedures
  32. Describe image intensifiers (c-arm)
    Amplifies the fluoroscopic optical image projected onto a television screen
  33. Describe a fluorosocpe
    Similar to x-ray generator except that it has an additional screen composed of fluorescent crystals; fluorescent light produces an optical image that is projected ona screen or retained in film
  34. 2 mian characteristics of computed tomography (CT) scans
    • Uses an x-ray beam in conjunction with computer graphics technology
    • Produces a sequential series of positive images of transverse (cross) sections of organs and anatomical structures
  35. 2 main characteristics of ultrasonography
    • Uses high-frequency sound waves to produce an image or photograph of an organ or tissue
    • Ultrasonic echos are recorded as they strike tissues of different densities and elasticities
  36. 2 main characteristics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    • Uses electromagnetic energy and radiowaves to form image
    • Does not use radiation
  37. 3 basic pathology studies
    • Biopsy
    • Culture and Sensitivity
    • Frozen Section
  38. Describe biopsy specimen
    • Removal of living tissue, cell or body fluid samples
    • Samples are examined under a microsocpe by a pathologist
  39. Describe culture and sensitivity specimen
    • Growing living material under sterile conditions in prepared nutrient media
    • Material to be cultured is commonly obtained from abscesses, wounds or surgically removed tissue
  40. Describe frozen section specimens
    • Cutting a thin piece of frozen tissue specimen for examination under a microscopes
    • Performed on tissue when a rapid diagnosis is needed, usually while the patient is still anesthetized
  41. Which types of tissue specimens are not placed in formalin?
    • Stones
    • Teeth
    • Limbs
    • Tissue scheduled for cultures or frozen section
  42. 4 things to remember when handling amputated limbs in surgery
    • Remove all drapes and instruments from the limb
    • Wrap the amputated limb adequately with a proper drape and place it in a plastic bag
    • Attach label and specimen card for delivery to the laboratory
    • Never leave an amputated limb lying on a specimen cart
  43. 5 purposes of sutures
    • Provide hemostasis
    • Provide strength to the wound
    • Provide tissue approximation
    • Hold tissues together
    • Tie off tissue to be removed
  44. Define capillarity
    Allows tissue fluids to move along the strand
  45. Define double-armed
    A needle at both ends of a suture to allow for circumferential suturing
  46. Define elasticity
    Ability to be stretched or expanded
  47. Define free needles
    No thread attached
  48. Define gauge
    Distance throug the center of the suture in millimeters
  49. Keith needle
    Straight needle for subcutaneious closure
  50. Define knot strength
    Force necessary to cause a knot to slip
  51. Define Memory
    Ability to return to former condition
  52. Define monofilament
    Strand consisting of a single thread
  53. Define multifiliment
    Strand made of more than one thread held together by twisting or braiding
  54. Define pliability
    Ability to bend freely and repeatedly without breaking
  55. Define popoffs
    Suture can be pulled off the needle without using scissors
  56. Define single-armed
    One needle and one strand of suture
  57. Define tensile strength
    Amount of tension or pull, expressed in pounds, that a strand of suture will withstand before it breaks
  58. Define tissue drag
    Ease at which suture slips through tissue
  59. Describe absorbable
    A suture that is absored by living mamailan tissue; the strand will not act like a foreign body in the wound but will be incorporated into the body
  60. Describe nonabsorbable
    A suture that effectively resists enzymatic digestion in living tissue, and, therefore, must be manually removed
  61. Describe natural
    A suture made of materials that are provided by or that exist in nature
  62. Describe synthetic
    A suture produced artificially from pertroleum-based materials
  63. 4 things considered in suture selection
    • Condition of the tissue
    • Condition of the wound
    • Nature of the disease
    • Probably postop course for the patient
  64. Blunt point needles are used for...
    Suturing friable tissue such as the liver, kidneys, and spleen
  65. Curved needles are used for...
    Approximation of tissue because they are easily placed
  66. Cutting point needles are used for...
    Tissues that are difficult to penetrate such as skin and tendons
  67. Delicate needles are used for...
    ophthalmic tissue, blood vessels, and the intestines
  68. Heavy needles are used for...
    Gynecological procedures and muscles
  69. Medium needles are used for...
    General closure and gynecological and muscle procedures
  70. Needle selection is dependent upon
    The tissue being sutured and the depth at which the surgeon is working
  71. Needles with cutting shafts are used for...
    Tough, heavy tissues
  72. Straight needles are used for...
    Skin and superficial wounds
  73. Taper point needles are used for...
    Soft, delicate tissues such as the intestine and peritoneum
  74. What are the three dressing layers?
    • Inner
    • Intermediate
    • Outer
  75. Describe the inner dressing layer
    Layer is against the wound, provides a barrier against pathogens, acts as a passageway for the wound's secretions through wicking
  76. 3 types of inner dressings
    • nonocclusive
    • occlusive
    • semiocclusive
  77. Describe nonocclusive dressings
    Nonadherent material that draws secretions from the wound but remains air permeable
  78. Describe semiocclusive dressings
    Hydroactive material that provides a mechanical surface with permeability
  79. Describe occlusive dressings
    An airtight seal that prevents drying of the wound; impermeable to air and water but allows passage of secretions
  80. Describe the intermediate layer of a dressing
    An absorbent layer that holds the secretions passing from the inner layerDescrib
  81. Describe the outer layer of a dressing
    Holds the inner and intermediate layers in proper positions
  82. Description of Montgomery strap (4 things)
    • Absorbs a moderate to large amount of drainage
    • Holds a bulky dressing in place
    • May be used when frequent inspections of a wound are required
    • Provides easy access to the wound
  83. Describe stent dressings (3 things)
    • Applies pressure and stabilizes tissue
    • May be used when it is impossible to pressure dress an area such as the face or neck
    • Provides a form-fitting mold that may be taped over the area or tied with long suture ends
  84. Describe pressure dressing (7 things)
    • Absorbs excessive drainage
    • Distributes pressure evenly
    • Eliminates dead space and prevents edema and hematoma
    • Encourages wound healing and minimizes scarring by influencing wound tension
    • May be used following extensive operations
    • Provides comfort to the patient postop
    • Supports and immobilizes soft tissues
  85. Describe collodion dressing (5 things)
    • Adherent, occlusive, polyurethane transparent film
    • Allows the patient to shower or bathe with dressing in place
    • May be used on a clean incision that is primarily closed with sutures, staples or steri-strips
    • Provides easy visualization of the surgical wound
    • Usually removed in 24 to 48 hours after the surgical procedure
  86. Define current
    Flow of electrical charge or rate of flow of electrons
  87. Define electrical charge
    Too many or too few electrons
  88. Define electric current
    Movement of an electrical charge
  89. Define electrons
    Negatively charged particles
  90. Define insulators
    Material that stop the flow of electrons
  91. Define mass
    Any matter that occupies space
  92. Define neutrons
    Neutral particles
  93. Define nucleus
    Center of an atom
  94. Define Ohm's law
    A mathematical explanation of the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance
  95. Define power
    Rate at which work is done, measured in watts
  96. Define protons
    Particles contained within the nucleus that are positively charged
  97. Define volts
    Electrical potential
  98. Define speed
    How fast something is moving without concentration or direction
  99. Define velocity
    How fast something is moving and what direction it takes
  100. Define acceleration
    Change in velocity over a period of time
  101. Define projectile motion
    Mothion of something projected at an angle
  102. Define Newton's laws of motion
    • 1 - An object will remain still unless an outside force affects it
    • 2 - An object's acceleration is the same direction as its force
    • 3 - For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
  103. Define momentum
    Best described as the recoil of an object
  104. Define work
    The force that causes an object to change location
  105. Define energy
    Produces changes in matter
  106. Define potential energy
    Energy stored by an object
  107. Define kinetic energy
    Energy in motion
  108. Define power
    The rate at which work is done
  109. What is the ESU circuit composed of? (4 things)
    • Active electrode (bovie tip)
    • Generator
    • Grounding pad
    • Patient
  110. Name 2 different types of ESUs
    • Monopoloar (bovie)
    • Bipolar
  111. How does current travel in a monopolar ESU?
    From the gernator to the pencil through the body to the grounding pad and back to the generator
  112. How does current travel in a bipolar ESU?
    Current flows from the generator to one of the prongs, to the other prong and back to the generator