Exam 3: Cranial Cavity Part 1
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Can olfactory neurons regenerate?
they can, and do but this ability dimishes with age
The interior of the cranial cavity consits of how many spaces/fossae?
What are the names of the 3 spaces/fossae of the cranial cavity?
- anterior cranial fossa
- middle cranial fossa
- posterior cranial fossa
What separates the anterior cranial fossa from the middle cranial fossa?
- lesser wings of spendoid
- anterior clinoid processes
What bony features are found within the anterior cranial fossa?
- crista galli
- cribriform plate
- orbital plate of frontal bone
What structures are found in the anterior cranial fossa?
- frontal lobe of cerebrum
- olfactory tracts
- olfactory bulbs
- olfactory nerves
What does the crista galli look like/mean?
The crista galli is found on which bone?
What is the crista galli?
upward extension of nasal septum
What structure attaches to the crista galli?
anterior part of falx cerebri
What is the cribriform plate?
a horizontal bony plate on either side of crista galli
Why does the cribriform plate have numeros small openings?
to transmit olfactory nerve
Before entering the cribriform plate, where do the olfactory nerves come from?
After passing through the cribriform plate, the olfactory nerves go where?
to olfactory epithelium
Where is the olfactory epithelium located?
in roof of nasal cavity
Which CN is the olfactory nerve?
What is the olfactory nerve responsible for?
Where does the olfactory tract come from?
The olfactory tract attaches to what?
What is the frontal lobe of the brain responsible for?
- social awareness
Where is the orbital plate of the frontal bone?
lateral to cribriform plate
What is the function of the orbital plate of the frontal bone?
forms roof of orbit
Where is the middle cranial fossa located?
between lesser wing of sphenoid and petrous ridge of temporal bone
What are the parts of the middle cranial fossa?
- median part
- two lateral parts
What is included in the median part of the middle cranial fossa?
- optic canals
- chiasmatic groove
- sella turcica
What is the function of the chiasmatic groove?
connets optic canals
What does sell turcica mean?
Where is the sella turcica?
posterior to chiasmatic groove
What is included in the sella turcica?
What does the hypophyseal fossa house?
What is the anterior limit of the lateral part of the middle cranial fossa?
lesser wing of sphenoid
What is the posterior limit of the lateral part of the middle cranial fossa?
What bony structures are located in the lateral parts of the middle cranial fossa?
- greater wing of sphenoid
- squamous and petrous portions of temporal bone
What is the hardes, densest part of bone in the skull?
petrous portions of temporal bone
What is contained in the petrous portions of the temporal bone?
middle and inner ear
What are the contents of the middle cranial fossa? 
- optic chiasma
- CN II (optic n.)
- pituitary gland
- temporal lobe of cerebrum
- CN III (oculomotor n)
- CN IV (trochlear n.)
- CN V (trigeminal n)
- CN VI (abducens n)
- cavernous sinus
- internal carotid artery (w/ carotid [sympathtic] plexus)
- middle meningeal artery
Are the carotid plexus sympathetic or parasympathetic?
Where does the middle meningeal artery enter the middle cranial fossa?
Where is the middle meningeal artery found in the middle cranial fossa?
between periosteal dura and bone
What passes through foramen rotundum?
maxillary n (V2)
What passes through foramen ovale?
mandibular n (V3)
What passes through superior orbital fissure?
opthalmic n (V1)
What is the thinnest bone in the skull?
What occurs in the temporal bone as a result of it being so thin?
When the temporal bone fractures, which artery is likely to be torn?
middle meningeal artery
With severe physical trauma to the side of the head, which portion f the temporal bone is likely to be fractured?
What is the result of a torn middle meningeal artery due to a temporal bone fracture?
What is an extradural hematoma?
blood collects between periosteal dura and bone
What happens as the extradural hematoma enlarges?
puts pressure on brain
Why does an extradural hematoma put pressure on the brain as it enlarges?
bony cranial cavity has a fixed volume
What happens to a patient with extradural hematoma without surgical treatment to stop the bleeding and removal of hematoma?
patient placed in life-threatening situation
Where is the cavernous sinus?
bilateral, one on either side of pituitary gland
What passes through the cavernous sinus? 
- Oculomotor n (III)
- Trochlear n (IV)
- Abducent n (VI)
- Ophthalmic n (V1)
- Maxillary n (V2)
- internal carotid a.
- hypophysis (pituitary gland)
What happens if cavernous sinus is infected and inflammation occurs?
CN VI will be compressed
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