Exam 3: Cranial Cavity Part 1

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Exam 3: Cranial Cavity Part 1
2012-07-02 20:03:38
anatomy cranial cavity

review of 6/29 lecture on cranial cavity for exam 3
Show Answers:

  1. Can olfactory neurons regenerate?
    they can, and do but this ability dimishes with age
  2. The interior of the cranial cavity consits of how many spaces/fossae?
  3. What are the names of the 3 spaces/fossae of the cranial cavity?
    • anterior cranial fossa
    • middle cranial fossa
    • posterior cranial fossa
  4. What separates the anterior cranial fossa from the middle cranial fossa?
    • lesser wings of spendoid
    • anterior clinoid processes 
  5. What bony features are found within the anterior cranial fossa?
    • crista galli
    • cribriform plate
    • orbital plate of frontal bone
  6. What structures are found in the anterior cranial fossa?
    • frontal lobe of cerebrum
    • olfactory tracts
    • olfactory bulbs
    • olfactory nerves   
  7. What does the crista galli look like/mean?
    cock's comb
  8. The crista galli is found on which bone?
    ethmoid bone
  9. What is the crista galli?
    upward extension of nasal septum
  10. What structure attaches to the crista galli?
    anterior part of falx cerebri
  11. What is the cribriform plate?
    a horizontal bony plate on either side of crista galli
  12. Why does the cribriform plate have numeros small openings?
    to transmit olfactory nerve
  13. Before entering the cribriform plate, where do the olfactory nerves come from?
    olfactory bulbs
  14. After passing through the cribriform plate, the olfactory nerves go where?
    to olfactory epithelium
  15. Where is the olfactory epithelium located?
    in roof of nasal cavity
  16. Which CN is the olfactory nerve?
    CN I
  17. What is the olfactory nerve responsible for?
  18. Where does the olfactory tract come from?
    the brain
  19. The olfactory tract attaches to what?
    olfactory bulb
  20. What is the frontal lobe of the brain responsible for?
    • judgements
    • planning
    • deciding
    • language
    • social awareness 
  21. Where is the orbital plate of the frontal bone?
    lateral to cribriform plate
  22. What is the function of the orbital plate of the frontal bone?
    forms roof of orbit
  23. Where is the middle cranial fossa located?
    between lesser wing of sphenoid and petrous ridge of temporal bone
  24. What are the parts of the middle cranial fossa?
    • median part
    • two lateral parts 
  25. What is included in the median part of the middle cranial fossa?
    • optic canals
    • chiasmatic groove
    • sella turcica
  26. What is the function of the chiasmatic groove?
    connets optic canals
  27. What does sell turcica mean?
    Turkish saddle
  28. Where is the sella turcica?
    posterior to chiasmatic groove
  29. What is included in the sella turcica?
    hypophyseal fossa
  30. What does the hypophyseal fossa house?
    pituitary gland
  31. What is the anterior limit of the lateral part of the middle cranial fossa?
    lesser wing of sphenoid
  32. What is the posterior limit of the lateral part of the middle cranial fossa?
    petrous ridge
  33. What bony structures are located in the lateral parts of the middle cranial fossa?
    • greater wing of sphenoid
    • squamous and petrous portions of temporal bone 
  34. What is the hardes, densest part of bone in the skull?
    petrous portions of temporal bone
  35. What is contained in the petrous portions of the temporal bone?
    middle and inner ear
  36. What are the contents of the middle cranial fossa? [11]
    • optic chiasma
    • CN II (optic n.)
    • pituitary gland
    • temporal lobe of cerebrum
    • CN III (oculomotor n)
    • CN IV (trochlear n.)
    • CN V (trigeminal n)
    • CN VI (abducens n)
    • cavernous sinus
    • internal carotid artery (w/ carotid [sympathtic] plexus)
    • middle meningeal artery          
  37. Are the carotid plexus sympathetic or parasympathetic?
  38. Where does the middle meningeal artery enter the middle cranial fossa?
    foramen spinosum
  39. Where is the middle meningeal artery found in the middle cranial fossa?
    between periosteal dura and bone
  40. What passes through foramen rotundum?
    maxillary n (V2)
  41. What passes through foramen ovale?
    mandibular n (V3)
  42. What passes through superior orbital fissure?
    opthalmic n (V1)
  43. What is the thinnest bone in the skull?
    temporal bone
  44. What occurs in the temporal bone as a result of it being so thin?
    easily fractured
  45. When the temporal bone fractures, which artery is likely to be torn?
    middle meningeal artery
  46. With severe physical trauma to the side of the head, which portion f the temporal bone is likely to be fractured?
    squamous portion
  47. What is the result of a torn middle meningeal artery due to a temporal bone fracture?
    extradural hematoma
  48. What is an extradural hematoma?
    blood collects between periosteal dura and bone
  49. What happens as the extradural hematoma enlarges?
    puts pressure on brain
  50. Why does an extradural hematoma put pressure on the brain as it enlarges?
    bony cranial cavity has a fixed volume
  51. What happens to a patient with extradural hematoma without surgical treatment to stop the bleeding and removal of hematoma?
    patient placed in life-threatening situation
  52. Where is the cavernous sinus?
    bilateral, one on either side of pituitary gland
  53. What passes through the cavernous sinus? [7]
    • Oculomotor n (III)
    • Trochlear n (IV)
    • Abducent n (VI)
    • Ophthalmic n (V1)
    • Maxillary n (V2)     
    • internal carotid a.
    • hypophysis (pituitary gland)  
  54. What happens if cavernous sinus is infected and inflammation occurs?
    CN VI will be compressed