Exam 3: Cranial Cavity Part 2

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Exam 3: Cranial Cavity Part 2
2012-07-02 21:22:37
anatomy cranial cavity

review of 6/29 lecture on Cranial cavity for exam 3
Show Answers:

  1. Where is the posterior cranial fossa located?
    posterior to petrosus ridge of temporal bone and sella turcica
  2. What covers the posterior cranial fossa?
    tentorium cerebelli
  3. What is the tentorium cerebelli?
    separates cerebellum from occipital lobes of cerebrum
  4. What is contained in the posterior cranial fossa?
    • cerebellum
    • medulla and pons of brain stem
    • several cranial nerves  
  5. What bony features are found in the posterior cranial fossa?
    • foramen magnum
    • hypoglossal canal
    • jugular foramen
    • internal acoustic meatus    
  6. What does the foramen magnum transmit?
    • spinal cord
    • spinal part of CN XI (spinal accessory n) 
    • vertebral arteries
    • internal vertebral venous plexus  
  7. What does the hypoglossal canal transmit?
    CN XII (hypoglossal n)
  8. What does the jugular foramen transmit?
    • internal jugular vein
    • CN IX (glossopharyngeal n)
    • CN X (vagus n)
    • CN XI (spinal accessory n)
  9. What does the internal acoustic meatus transmit?
    • CN VII (facial n)
    • CN VIII (vestibulocochlear n)
    • labyrinthine arteries  
  10. What do the labryinthine arteries supply?
    internal ear
  11. Are the three meninges that surround the spinal cord present in the cranial cavity?
  12. What are the 3 meninges of the cranial cavity?
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid membrane
    • pia mater  
  13. How many layers does the dura mater have?
    2 fibrous layers
  14. What is the outer layer of the dura mater?
    periosteum of the bone
  15. Where is the periosteum (outer layer) of dura mater?
    intimately attached to interior surface of cranial cavity
  16. What is found between the periosteum layer of dura mater and the bones of the skull?
    numerous meningeal arteries
  17. The meningeal arteries make grooves on the bones, but which one in particular?
    parietal bone
  18. What is the texture of the inner layer of dura mater?
  19. The inner layer of dura is duplicated to form what?
    four inwardly projecting dural folds
  20. Are dural folds very tight?
  21. Why are dural folds very tight?
    prevents shifting of brain from side to side
  22. What is withing the dural folds?
    • vascular channels
    • dural venous sinuses
  23. What is the function of dural venous sinuses?
    collect venous blood from brain
  24. The dural venous sinuses collect blood from brain and eventually return it to where?
    internal jugular vein
  25. Name the dural folds:
    • falx cerebri
    • falx cerebelli
    • tentorium cerebelli
    • diaphragma sellae   
  26. The arachnoid membrane is seen going into what structures?
    dural sinus (arachnoid granulations)
  27. What is the shape of the falx cerebri?
  28. Where is the falx cerebri positioned?
    between two cerebral hemispheres located in median plane (midline)
  29. Where is the upper border of the falx cerebri attached?
    to bone (crista galli)
  30. What is contained in the falx cerebri?
    • superior sagittal sinus (upper border)
    • inferior sagittal sinus (anterior lower border)
    • straight sinus (posterior portion)   
  31. The posterior portion of the falx cerebri suspends what?
    tentorium cerebelli
  32. What does the posterior portion of the falx cerebri contain?
    straight sinus
  33. Where is the falx cerebelli?
    slight fold attached to internal occipital crest of skull
  34. What is contained in the posterior border of the falx cerebelli?
    occipital sinus
  35. What is the shape of the tentorium cerebelli?
    shaped like bell tent
  36. The tentorium cerebelli forms a roof over what?
  37. What is the function of the tentorium cerebelli?
    separates cerebellum from posterior parts of cerebrum
  38. Which border of the tentorium cerebelli is free?
    anterior border
  39. What does the anterior border of the tentorium cerebelli surround?
    large opening, the tentorial incisura
  40. What is contained in the attached lateral borders of the tentorium cerebelli?
    superior petrosal and transverse sinuses
  41. The diaphragma sellae forms a tent-like covering over what?
    pituitary gland
  42. Within the diaphragma sellae a large opening transmits what?
  43. What is the infundibulum?
    stalk of pituitary gland
  44. What are meningeal nerves?
    sensory nerves to dura mater
  45. What supplies meningeal nerves?
    • thre divisions of trigeminal nerve (CN V)
    • spinal nerve C1-3 
  46. Postganglionic sympathetic fibers innervate what structures?
    meningeal vessels
  47. What provides postganglonic sympathetic fibers innervating meningeal vessels?
    superior cervical ganglion
  48. The postganglionic sympathetic fibers to the meningeal vessels come from the superior cervical ganglion and travel to the cranial cavity by what?
    carotid plexus
  49. How can dural venous sinuses be classified?
    as unpaired median sagittal sinuses and their continuations, or sinuses associated with paired cavernous sinuses
  50. Do the dural venous sinuses have valves?
  51. What are the dural venous sinsuses enclosed in?
  52. What is the function of the dural venous sinsuses?
    collect venous blood from brain todrain intointernal jugular vein
  53. Name the dural venous sinsuses:
    • superior sagittal sinus
    • inferior sagittal sinus
    • straight sinus
    • transverse sinuses
    • confluence of sinuses
    • occipital sinus
    • cavernous sinuses
    • inferior petrosal sinuses
    • superior petrosal sinuses
    • basilar sinus
  54. Where is the superior sagittal sinus?
    unpaired structure that occupies entire length of attached margin of falx cerebri
  55. In the occipital region, the superior sagittal sinus becomes what?
    transverse sinus
  56. Which superior sagittal sinus contains arachnoid granulations?
    superior sagittal sinus
  57. Where is the inferior sagittal sinus?
    unpaired structure in free, inferior ege of falx cerebri
  58. Which vein does the inferior sagittal sinus join?
    great cerebral vein (of Galen)
  59. The inferior sagittal sinus joins the great cerebral vein to become what?
    straight sinus
  60. Where is the straight sinus?
    unpaired structus in line of union between tentorium cerebelli and falx cerebri
  61. What does the straight sinus become?
    left transverse sinus in occipital region
  62. Where are the transverse sinuses?
    occupy attached margin of tentorium cerebelli
  63. What do the transverse sinuses form?
    grooves on inner surface of occipital bone
  64. What do the transverse sinuses become continuous with?
    sigmoid sinus
  65. What is the shape of the sigmoid sinus?
  66. What structure does the sigmoid sinus course toward?
    jugular foramen
  67. What joins with the transverse sinus?
    superior petrosal sinus
  68. Where is the confluence of sinuses?
    located where right and left transverse sinuses meet in midline and where occipital sinus begins
  69. Where is the occipital sinus?
    unpaired  in falx cerebelli
  70. What does the occipital sinus communicate with?
    interna vertebral venous plexus
  71. The occipital sinus communicates with the internal vertebral venous plexus via which foramen?
    foramen magnum
  72. Where are the cavernous sinuses?
    paired along side of hypophyseal fossa
  73. What does the cavernous sinus connect with?
    • superior and inferior ophthalmic veins
    • sphenoparietal sinus 
  74. What drains the cavernous sinuses?
    superior and inferior petrosal sinuses
  75. What is contained within the cavernous sinuses?
    • CN III
    • CN IV
    • CN V1
    • CN V2
    • CNVI
    • internal carotid artery     
  76. What do the inferior petrosal sinuses drain?
    cavernous sinuses
  77. Where do the inferior petrosal sinuses end?
    internal jugular vein
  78. Where are the superior petrosal sinuses?
    paired structures occupy grooves on petrous ridge
  79. What do the superior petrosal sinuses drain?
    cavernous sinuses into transverse sinuses
  80. Where is the basilar sinus?
    surface of dorsum sellae and basi-occiput bones
  81. What sinuses does the basilar sinus unite?
    cavernous sinuses and inferior petrosal sinuses with internal vertebral plexus
  82. What foramen allows the basilar sinus to unite the cavernous sinuses and inferior petrosal sinuses with he internal vertebral plexus?
    foramen magnum
  83. All blood from cranial cavity eventually goes where?
    to jugular v.
  84. Why is CSF recycled into brainstem?
    to maintain pressure
  85. Where does CSF come from and return to?
    blood stream