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2010-04-29 19:09:30
biology amazing cell

anatomy/physiology chapter 3 quiz the amazing cell
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  1. Prokaryote
    • Unicellular organism
    • Has no true nucleus, nuclear envelope, or membrane-bound organelles

    ex)bacteria and cyanobacteria
  2. Eukaryote
    Found in all living things, such as plants and mammels.

    Have a true nucleus that contains chromosomes and has a nuclear envelope.
  3. All mammalian cells contain what 3 structures?
    • 1. Cell Membrane
    • 2. Cytoplasm
    • 3. Nucleus
  4. What is the importance of the lipid bilayer that makes up the cell membrane?
    • Thin membrane made up of 2 layers of lipid molecules
    • Form barrier around cells

    Keeps ions, protiens, and other molecules where they are needed and prevents them from diffusing into areas where they should not be.

    Oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules can pass through with ease.
  5. Name the types of protiens found on the cell membrane:
    Integral Proteins

    Peripheral Proteins

  6. Integral Proteins
    create channels that aid in the selective permeability of the cell membrane
  7. Peripheral Proteins
    • have enzymatic capabilities
    • (located on inside of cell's lipid bylayer)
  8. Glycoproteins
    cell to cell recognition (within glycolipids)

    intercellular attachments- act as binding cells
  9. Which is more commonly found in mammilian cells: cilia or flagella?
    Cillia occur in large numbers.
  10. What are the 4 components of cytoplasm?
    • Cytosol
    • Cytoskeleton
    • Organelles
    • Inclusions
  11. Name the types of fibers that make up the cytoskeleton.
    • Microtubules
    • Intermediate Fibers
    • Microfilaments
  12. Name the 6 organelles:
    • Mitochondria
    • Ribosomes
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Golgi Apparatus
    • Lysosomes
    • Peroxisomes
  13. Mitochondria
    • powerhouse of the cell
    • produces 95% of the energy that fuels the cell
  14. Ribosomes
    important site for protein synthesis
  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Rough ER: involved in production of protein

    Smooth ER: involved in synthesis and storage of lipids
  16. Golgi Apparatus
    modification, packaging, and distribution center for molecules
  17. Lysosomes
    • breakdown nutrient molecules into usable smaller units
    • digest intracellular derbis
  18. Peroxisomes
    contains enzymes that use oxygen to detoxify a number of harmful substances including alcohol and formaldehyde
  19. Can a cell that does not contain a nucleus live as long as a cell that does contain a nucleus?

    Why or why not?
    • Without a nucleus, a cell cannot: divide, make protein or enzymes, or repair themselves as they start to age.
    • For this reason, the supply of vital molecules allows them to survive for only 3-4 months.
  20. How do histones play a role in gene regulation?
    They keep the DNA strand organized and untangled, and also expose small sections of DNA to the outside nucleoplasm.

    They help to determine which segments of the DNA will be expressed and therefore which proteins will be made.
  21. Where is most of the water in animals found?
    Inside the animal's cells (intracellular fluid)
  22. Diffusion

    It is the kinetic movement of molecules from HIGHER to LOWER concentration.

    ex)water, oxygen/carbon dioxide
  23. What 3 principles determine whether a molecule can diffuse or not?
    • 1. Molecular Size
    • 2. Lipid Solubility
    • 3. Molecular Charge
  24. Osmosis

    It is the movment of water through a semipermeable membrane from DILUTE to more CONCENTRATED one.
  25. What is another name for hydrostatic pressure in the body?
    Blood Pressure
  26. Excretion vs. Secretion
    Excretion: exocytosis (moving stuff out of cell) of waste products

    Secretion: exocytosis of manufactured molecules
  27. What are the principal ions involved in maintaining a cell's resting membrane potential?
    Sodium and Potassium
  28. Somatic cells divide by what process?
  29. 3 Stages that occur during the Interphase of Mitosis
    • 1. Growth one (G1)
    • 2. Synthetic (S)
    • 3. Growth two (G2)
  30. 4 Stages of Mitotic phase of Mitosis
    • 1. Prophase
    • 2. Metaphase
    • 3. Anaphase
    • 3. Telophase
  31. Prophase
    chromatin becomes visible and organizes into chromosomes by joining 2 strands by a centromere

    nuclear envelope and nucleoli also disappear and the centriols divide and replicate, traveling to either "pole" of the cell
  32. Metaphase
    newly formed chromosomes align on a medial plane or "equator" between the 2 centrioles located at either end of the dividing cell
  33. Anaphase
    the daughter chromosomes begin to migrate to their respective centriols, away from the center of the dividing cell
  34. Telophase
    • daughter chromosomes return to being long-fiber chromatids
    • nuclear envelope and nucleoli reappear
    • the cell has completed its formation into 2 completely independent daughter cells
  35. What 3 factors play a role in the control of cell devision?
    • 1. Normal cells stop dividing when they come into contact with surrounding cells (Contact Inhibition).
    • 2. Growth inhibiting substances may be released from cells when their numbers reach a certain point.
    • 3. A number of checkpoints are reached during cell division, when the cell reassesses the division process.
  36. Where does protein synthesis begin?
    • The nucleus
    • (where the instructions for building proteins are contained within the DNA)
  37. What are the nucleotides found in DNA?
    • Adenine
    • Cytosine
    • Guanine
    • Thymine
  38. What are the nucleotides found in RNA?
    • Adenine
    • Cytosine
    • Guanine
    • Uracil
  39. Define Transcription:
    The process of transcribing the genetic code from DNA and RNA through protein synthesis using messenger RNA.
  40. Define Translation:
    Process of protein synthesis using messenger RNA to transfer genetic info in the form of nucleotides into amino acid form.

    (occurs in cytoplasm on ribosomes)