micro chpter 14

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  1. A Non-Specific cellular compontent of the immune system that plays an important role in our immune response by englufing and destroying bacteria, viruses and toxins.
  2. An example of a phagocyte that injest bacteria and fungi and are the most common WBSs in our body(blood)?
  3. Moncytes which have left the blood stream and enter the tissues are called?

    The largest phagocytes that injest and kill foreign cells; it is a strategic participant in certain specific immune reactions is known as -----?
  4. The presence of a complement protein OR an antibody binding to a target pathogen for phagocytosis is refered to as ?

    Some complement system protein mark a bacterial cell for phagocytosis is refered to as  ?
  5. When phagocytes (macrophages) move to an area infected by microbes, this process is called ?
    The migration into this region with a delibrate sense of direction, attracted by a gradient of stimulant products from the parasite and host tissues at the site of the injury
  6. Phagoceytes (Macrophages) recognize pathogens via ___________ at the site of injury?
    PAMPs (Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns)

    • e.g: - peptigoglycans
    •        - lipoteichoic acid
    •        - lipopolysaccharide
    •        - dsRNA
  7. A chemical that is released from virus infected cells sending a message to other cells in the area to prepare antiviral proteins and tumor suppression gens is known as ?
  8. This chemical is produces by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES in response to Viruses, RNA or other genes?
  9. This chemical is produces by FIBROBLAST and EPITHELIAL CELLS in response to Viruses, RNA or other genes?
  10. This chemical is produces by T-CELLS in response to Viruses, RNA or other genes?
  11. This system can kill bacteria by putting pores in their membranes (Membrane Attack Complex).
    this system is made up of at least 26 Non-specific serum proteins.
    this system when activated, they react in a sequential process like blood clotting process.
  12. What two ways can the complement system (cascade) use to kill cells?
    1. Membrane Attack Complex: the system kills cells by putting pores in their membrane.

    2. Opsonization: sytem uses some complement system protein OR antibody on a target, which mark the bacteria cell for phagocytosis
  13. How are antibodies and cellwall polysaccharides involved in the pathway of the Complement System  (Cascade)?
    Antibodies binding to a pathogen and some pathogen-associated molecule patterns can activate the complement system.
  14. A Non-Specific cell type that kills any cell (virus infected cell or cancer cell) that are not presented by MHC proteins is known as?
  15. what is responsible for presenting cellular proteins on the cell surface?
    MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex)
  16. Cells with specific antigens receptors that kill other cells on contact by releasing enzymes that cause cell lysis?
  17. List three Non-Specific / Natural / Innate barrier or mechanism; this are the first line of defense against diseases ?
    1. Physical Barriers: skin, Mucous membranes, nasal hairs, coughing/sneezing.

    • 2. Chemical Barriers:
    •     - lysozymes in tears & saliver
    •     - Salt (NaCL) & Urea in prespiration
    •     - Acid & Enzymes in gastic juice

    3. Genetic Barries: Receptors that pathogens use to attach to their host.
  18. List the functions of FEVER
    1. To inhabit growth of pathogens

    2. It increases the rate of immune reactions
  19. What are the functions of INFLAMMATION ?
    1. It stimulate wound healing and stop the spread of local infection.

    2. It repairs damaged tissues

    3. It mobilizes and attact the immune system

    4. It walls off and kills injurious agents
  20. A process of inflamation in which fluids and immune componets flow out of the capilaries near the injured area and leads to fever (high temp.) ?
  21. This is the first stage of inflammation where there is an increase of blood flow to ther injured area?
    Histamine released from BASOPHILS and MAST cells cause cells in arteriols to initiate _______?
  22. A genetically inherited defense system is ?
    It is a Natural defense that is part of the Non-Specific immumne system?
  23. A chemical that causes INFLAMMATION and it is from most cells?
  24. a chemical that can attact WBCs (Neutrophils) and it is from LYMPHOCYTES ?
  25. This chemical causes VASODILATION and it is from BASOPHILS and MAST CELLs ?
  26. a chemical (pyrogen) produced by MACROPHAGES as part of aquiring immune response which would cause FEVER or increase the body's temperature?
  27. A complex sequence of events stimulated by tissue injury; it is Non-Specific second line of defense?
    A red painful swelling caused by the host's own immune system is called?
    The flow of extra blood brings in immune components and cause redness and warth at the site of an infection?
  28. A nearly universal symptom of infection that elevates body temperature is refered to as ?
    - It is a Non-Specific second line of defense; pyrogens chemical reset the hypothalamus ?
    This is ofter caused by Gram -ve bacteria (lipopolysaccharides) ?
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micro chpter 14
chapter 14 test 4
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