BIOL 100 FINAL

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blueclues
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160898
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BIOL 100 FINAL
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2012-07-06 01:07:01
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Biology Blood Nutrition Reproduction
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Blood, Nutrition, Reproduction
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  1. Blood Function
    Transportation

    Protection

    Regulation
  2. Blood Transports (4) ...
    Nutrients

    O2

    CO 2 

    Wastes
  3. Blood protects in 2 ways
    Carries immune cells

    Clotting - prevents blood loss 
  4. Blood regulates 2 things
    Temperature

    Nutrients 
  5. Composition of Blood
    Plasma

    Formed elements (blood cells) 
  6. makes up 55% of blood

    mostly water

    some dissolved electrolytes

    proteins     
    Plasma
  7. Helps with water flow between cells
    proteins in plasma
  8. Red and White blood cells and Platelets are formed from ___ ___ in Red Bone Marrow 
    Stem Cells
  9. Leukocytes
    White Blood Cells
  10. Immune Cells
    White Blood Cells
  11. 2 types of White Blood Cells (leukocytes)
    Granulocytes

    Agranulocytes 
  12. Contain granules in Cytoplasm
    Granulocytes
  13. 3 Types of Granulocytes
    Neutrophils

    Eosinophils

    Basophils
  14. Most abundant white blood cell

    Engulfs microbes 

    1st to site of infection   
    Neutrophils
  15. Defends against paracitic worms

    Stops Inflamation

    Activates Histamines 
    Eosinophils
  16. Granulocyte that causes inflamation
    Basophils
  17. 2 Types of Agranulocytes
    Monocytes

    Lymphocytes
  18. Largest of White Blood Cells

    Become macrophages 
    Monocytes
  19. Specific Immunity cells:

    B Cells and T Cells 
    Lymphocytes
  20. Immunity cells that produce Antibodies
    B Cells
  21. Immunity cells used for Cellular Defense
    T Cells
  22. Erythrocytes
    Red Blood Cells
  23. Most abundant formed element

    Flexible
    Red Blood Cells
  24. Protein in Red Blood Cells that carries Oxygen to make ATP
    Hemoglobin
  25. The ___ ___ Shape of Red Blood Cells makes for a large Surface Area to Volume Ratio
    Bioconcave Disc
  26. Red Blood Cells have no ___
    nucleus
  27. Red Blood Cells form stacks of themselves for . . .
    easy movement
  28. Life Cycle of a Red Blood Cell (100 - 120 days)
    1.  Kidney senses oxygen level in blood

    2.  Releases EPO

    3.  EPO acts on Red Bone Marrow to Increase Red Blood Cell production

    4.  Mature Red Blood Cells are Released

    5.  Increased blood oxygen level       
  29. Rh Factor is Inherited.

    Dominant: ___

    Recessive: ___  
    Positive / Negative
  30. Blood typing is based on the presence of ___ ___ on the ___ blood cells

    and

    What potential ___ are found in the ___   
    Surface Proteins / Red

    Antibodies / Plasma 
  31. Type O blood has ___ blood typing proteins
    Zero
  32. Type AB blood has proteins for ___
    both A and B
  33. Found floating in Plasma

    Attacks foreign proteins - anything other than "self"
    Antibodies
  34. Type AB blood has ___ antibodies
    Zero

    Can take ANY kind of blood  
  35. Type O blood has ___ antibodies
    A and B

    Can be Given to Any blood type; but can Only Receive type O
  36. Rh and ABO are UNRELATED . . .  they are ___
    Co-Dominant
  37. Conduct blood throughout the body

    Arranged as Branching Networks

       
    Blood Vessels
  38. 3 Types of Blood Vessels
    Arteries

    Veins

    Capillaries  
  39. Carries blood AWAY from the heart
    Arteries
  40. Carries blood TOWARD the heart
    Veins
  41. Microscopic blood vessels
    Capillaries
  42. Capillaries are a major site of ___ and ___ exchange
    Gas and Nutrients
  43. Capillaries are a major site of nutrient and gas exchange, via___, ___, ___ 
    diffusion

    pressure

    endo vs exocytosis 
  44. Arteries and Veins are only about ___ with ___ in between them
    Direction / Capillaries
  45. 4 Vessels
    Aorta

    Vena Cava

    Pulmonary Artery

    Pulmonary Vein     
  46. 4 Chambers
    L/R Atrium

    L/R Ventricle
  47. 4 Valves in between the vessels and chambers
    2) Atrioventricular Valve (AV Valve)

    2) Semilunar Valve (SL Valve) 
  48. Pathway of Blood (Left Side - to the Body)
    L Atrium

    Atrioventricular (AV) Valve

    L Ventricle

    Semilunar (SL) Valve

    Aorta

    Body

    Vena Cava           
  49. Pathway of Blood (Right Side - to the Lungs)
    R Atrium

    Atrioventricular (AV) Valve

    R Ventricle

    Semilunar (SL) Valve

    Pulmonary Artery

    Lungs

    Pulmonary Vein        

       
  50. In Coronary Circulation, the L and R Coronary Arteries supply ___ to ___ cells
    blood / muscle
  51. In Coronary Circulation, the Veins drain blood ___ from the Heart and INTO the ___ ___
    AWAY / Right Atrium
  52. Coordinates/Unifies Pump (of the Heart)
    Impulse Conduction
  53. 4 Steps of Impulse Conduction
    1. SA Node fires

    2. Stimulus spread across Atria to AV Node - Start of Atrial Contraction

    3. Spread through AV Bundle to Purkinje Fibers

    4. Purkinje Fibers distribute to Ventricular Muscle     
  54. Pacemaker for the Heart
    SA Node
  55. SA Node > AV Node > AV Bundle > Bundle Branches > Purkinje Fibers
    Impulse Conduction
  56. Cardiac Cycle
    1. Atria and Ventricles are RELAXED

    2. AV Valves OPEN - Ventricles filling

    3. Atria CONTRACT

    4. Ventricles CONTRACT

    5. AV Valves CLOSE

    • 6. Blood MOVES INTO Vessels     
    •      
  57. 1st Heart Sound in Cardiac Cycle
    AV Valves CLOSING
  58. Atria and Ventricles are RELAXED
    Diastole
  59. Atria Contract and Ventricles Relax
    Systole
  60. Ventricles Contract
    Ventricular Systole
  61. P Wave in EKG reading
    Arterial Depolarization
  62. QRS Complex
    Ventricular Repolarization
  63. Pressure exerted on Atrial Walls
    Blood Pressure
  64. Blood Pressure measurement is a Ratio between ___ ___ and ___ ___

    AKA: ___ and ___
    Ventricular Contraction / Ventricular Relaxation

    Systolic / Diastolic 
  65. Breaks down Macromolecules into absorbable units

    Rids the body of wastes 
    Digestive System
  66. 4 Layers of the Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract
    Mucosa

    Submucosa

    Muscularis

    Serosa  
  67. Innermost layer of the GI Tract

    Secretes mucous that protects against self-digestion 

    Highly folded 
    Mucosa
  68. GI Tract

    Connective Tissue layer that contains Nerves, Blood Vessels, and Lymph Vessels
    Submucosa
  69. Smooth Muscle Layer of GI Tract that is responsible for the movement of food
    Muscularis
  70. Epithelial Tissue

    Outtermost layer of the GI Tract that decreases friction when the GI Tract moves
    Serosa
  71. Mouth:

    Primarily Mechanical Digestion via ___ and ___

    Some Chemical Digestion via ___   
    Teeth and Tongue

    Saliva
  72. Contains Amylase in the Mouth 
    Saliva
  73. digestion enzyme for Starch
    Amylase
  74. Passage way for food and air

    AKA the Throat    

     
    Pharynx
  75. Sensory receptors in the ___ "shut off" the ___ before we swallow
    Pharynx / Trachea
  76. Muscular tube

    Moves food from Mouth to Stomach via the Pharynx

    Movement via Paristalsis   
    Esophogus
  77. Muscular movement to digest
    Peristalsis
  78. Stores Food

    Liquifies Food - Mechanical Digestion

    Chemical Digestion of Proteins    
     
    Stomach
  79. Food is turned, twisted, and mixed with fluid secretions in the stomach to make ___
    Chyme
  80. 2 adjustable (Controlled) openings of the Stomach
    Sphincters
  81. Stomach Chemical Digestion via
    Gastric Pits
  82. Secrete HCl and Intrinsic Factor in the Gastric Pits
    Gastric Glands
  83. Converts Pepsinogen to Pepsin
    Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
  84. Breaks apart Proteins in the Stomach
    Pepsin
  85. Protein necessary for the absorption of Vitamin B12
    Intrinsic Factor
  86. Pepsinogen is an INACTIVE form of ___.  Cannot digest the cells that produce it
    Pepsin
  87. Prevention of "Self-Digestion"
    Buffer: Alkaline (BASE) in Mucus to counter HCl

    Pepsinogen 

    HIGH replacement rate of cells 
  88. Condition where:

    Valve that keeps "stuff" in the stomach is Weak

    Stomach contents move up the esophogus 
    Heart Burn
  89. Condition where:

    Stomach lining eroded by gastric juices when protections fail 
    Peptic Ulcers
  90. Digests: Protein, Carbs, Fat, and Nucleic Acids  
    Small Intestine
  91. Small Intestine chemically digests food via:

    ___ from the Stomach

    ___ from the Pancreas (into the ___)

    ___ from the Liver     
    Chyme, enzymes/Duodenum, and Bile
  92. Absorbs: Amino Acids, Sugars, Lipids, and Nucleotides
    Small Intestine
  93. 3 Parts of Small Intestine
    Duodenum

    Jejunum

    Ileum  
  94. 1st part of Small Intestine

    - Starts the Mixing
    Duodenum
  95. Mostly absorption part of Small Intestine
    Jejunum
  96. Small Intestine has Circular Folds that mixes ___ with ___ as they move along
    Chyme / Digestive Enzymes
  97. Finger-Like Projections in the Small Intestine that make for a Larger Surface Area
    Villi
  98. Hair-Like surface area of Small Intestine
    Microvilli
  99. Secretes digestive enzymes

    Produces juices to neutralize stomach acid
    Pancreas
  100. MAJOR Filter

    - filters ALL blood coming from Intestines: Detoxifies blood

    Packages Lipids

    Produces Bile
    Liver
  101. Virus that destroys Liver Cells
    Hepatitis
  102. Stores Bile
    Gallbladder
  103. breaks apart grease balls (fat)
    Bile
  104. Absorbs Water and Vitamins

    Stores Feces

    Fecal Elimination

    Includes the Colon     
    Large Intestine
  105. Fats are either Saturated or Unsaturated with ___
    Hydrogen
  106. 95% of Fats are ___
    Triglycerides
  107. Triglycerides are made up of  # ___ ___ and ___
    3 Fatty Acids / Glycerol
  108. Fat that is SOLID at room temperature
    Saturated
  109. Fat that is LIQUID at room temperature
    Unsaturated
  110. Hydrogenated oil: makes unsaturated fat SOLID at room temperature
    Transfat
  111. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids
    Mono/Polyunsaturated Fats
  112. Health benefits of fat
    Energy Storage

    Insulation

    Protection

    Absorption of Vitamins (K,A,D,E)

           
  113. Fat is a great insulator; because it is a ___ conductor of heat
    Poor
  114. Down Side of too much Fat
    High Blood Pressure

    Diabetes

    Athlerosclerosis 

    Cancer - Prostate, Colon, Breast
  115. Cholesterol in our system mostly comes from ___
    genetics (genes)
  116. Cholesterol is "escorted" around body by ___
    Lipoproteins
  117. 2 main types of Cholesterol carriers
    Low Density Lipotroteins (LDL)

    High Density Lipotroteins (HDL)
  118. Lipoproteins that bind cholesterol to blood vessels (artery walls)
    Low Density Lipoproteins
  119. Carries cholesterol from Low Density Lipoproteins away from cells
    High Density Lipoproteins
  120. Most IMPORTANT ratio of total Cholesterol to High Density Lipoprotein levels should not be greater than _:_
    4:1
  121. 3 Types of Carbohydrates
    Sugar

    Starch

    Fiber

     
  122. Simple Carbs vs Complex Carbs
    Monosaccharides

    Disaccharides
  123. Sugars (Treats) - Glucose

    Already broken down - easy to digest

    Only provide Energy 
    Simple Carbs
  124. Starch and Fiber

    Carbs that are more difficult to breakdown

    Provide Energy AND Nutrients 
    Complex Carbs
  125. Carbs needed for ___ : Cellular Respiration to make ___
    Fuel - ATP
  126. Indigestible Carbs

    Cellulose found in plant cell walls (fruits/veggies)

    Cannot be broken down or Absorbed 
    Fiber
  127. A measure that describes How FAST a food is converted into Blood Sugar and How MUCH it affects Blood Sugar Levels 
    Glycemic Response
  128. Foods that cause the Blood Sugar level to rise sharply have a ___ ___ ___

    White bread, potatoes, white rice
    High Glycemic Index
  129. Foods that cause a moderate/gradual rise in Blood Sugar Levels have a ___ ___ ___

    More SUSTAINED energy 

    Whole Fruit, Whole Grain Food, Brown Rice
    Low Glycemic Index
  130. Protein Functions
    - Structural Component of Cells

    - Regulate Chemical Reactions

    - Hormones   

    - Defense

    - Maintains Water Balance   
  131. Proteins are responsible for Cell Signaling via ___
    Hormones
  132. Proteins Regulate body processes (chemical reactions) via
    enzymes
  133. Proteins are used for Defense via ___
    Antibodies
  134. Effective and Healthy Weight Loss Plan
    1) Limit caloric intake (to a certain point: 1200/Women and 1800/Men) - Eat a balance

    2) Include Exercise - use slightly more calories than intake

    3) Long-Term Behavior Modification
  135. Gonads produce ___ and ___ through meiosis
    Gametes / sex hormones
  136. Female sex hormones (2)
    Estrogen / Progesterone
  137. Male gonads
    Testes
  138. Spermatogenisis occurs within ___ ___
    seminiferous tubules
  139. Testosterone is a specific type of steroid sex hormone called ___
    androgens
  140. Androgens are produced by the ___ ___
    Interstitial Cells
  141. The testes are located in a sac of skin called the ___
    scrotum
  142. the scrotum maintains a temperature ___ than the body to produce healthy sperm
    Lower
  143. Area that is highly coiled for more space and is also the site of sperm maturation
    Epididymis
  144. Conducts sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
    Vas Deferens
  145. Conducts urine or sperm out of the body through the penis
    Urethra
  146. composed of the secretions from the male accessory glands
    semen
  147. Gland surrounding the urethra

    Activates sperm - makes them fully mobile

    Counteracts the acidity of the vagina - alkaline   
    Prostate gland
  148. Contains sugar to provide energy for sperm
    Seminal Vesicles
  149. Spermatogenisis starts with ___ and ends with ___ which need to undergo maturation
    Spermatogonia / Spermatids
  150. Mature sperm is called ___
    Spermatozoa
  151. Hormone released by testes
    Testosterone
  152. ___ controls sperm production
    testosterone
  153. Responsible for secondary sex characteristics (i.e. what makes a man "manly")
    testosterone
  154. Testosterone is regulated by a cycle of ___
    Hormones
  155. Female gonads
    Ovaries
  156. Ovaries store eggs which are produced during ___ development
    fetal
  157. Produces both female sex hormones
    Ovaries
  158. Site of fertilization

    Transports egg to uterus
    Oviducts (Fallopian Tubes)
  159. Site of fetal development
    Uterus
  160. Production of ova (eggs) that starts during fetal development 
    Oogenesis
  161. Oogenesis:

    Completion with ___ (meiosis II)

    Coincides with ___ ___ 
    Fertilization

    Ovarian Cycle 
  162. Ovarian Cycle

    1) ___ maturation

    2) Formation of mature ___ (end meiosis I)

    3) ___ (1hr after end of meiosis I)

    4) Formation of ___ ___     
    Follicle

    Follicle

    Ovulation

    Corpus Luteum   
  163. Produces progesterone
    corpus luteum
  164. Cycle of replacing endometrium in absence of fertilization
     
    Menstral Cycle
  165. Hormones are super ___ during menstration
    LOW
  166. Endometrium thickens via FSH (aka ___ ___ ___)
    Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
  167. Menstral Cycle:

    Continued secretion of the hormone LH causes the follicle cells to form the ___ ___
    Corpus Luteum
  168. The ___ ___ hormone makes for a spongy uterus
    LH
  169. If there is no fertilization, the ___ ___ will degenerate, causing falling levels of estrogen and progesterone
    corpus luteum
  170. estrogen hormone produced by ___ cells and ___ in the ___
    Follicle / Corpus Luteum / Ovaries
  171. Contraception that:

    Supresses FSH and LH

    Mimics pregnancy

    Prevents Ovulation   
    Estrogen / Progesterone Combination
  172. Contraception that only prevents ovulation
    Progesterone only  
  173. Contraception:

    Implanted into uterus

    prevents fertilization or implantation of zygotes   
    IUDs
  174. Highly contagious bacteria dependent on human cells for survival - Cannot produce its own ATP

    Infects cells of mucous membranes

    Symptoms: UTI, PID

    Treatment: Antibiotics 
    Chlamydia Trachomatis
  175. Chlamydia during pregnancy:

    Blocks the oviduct which causes ___ pregnancy

    Ruptures ___ around the fetus, leading to miscarriage

    Can be passed on to child during birth
    Ectopic

    Membrane
  176. Birth control pills increase the risk of transmission of ___
    Gonorrhea
  177. Herpes I (HSV-I) affects body parts ___ the waist
    Above
  178. Herpes II (HSV-II) affect body parts ___ the waist
    Below
  179. Caused by the bacteria: treponema pallidum

    Has 3 Stages

    Can be treated with antibiotics
    Syphillis
  180. 3 Stages of Syphillis:

    1) ___ where the bacteria entered the body

    2) a reddish-brown ___ covers the ENTIRE body

    3) Leisions, called ___, form on the body, but can also form on the blood vessels, bones, and the CNS
    Chancre

    Rash

    Gummas

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