micro chpter 13

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rawasom
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micro chpter 13
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2012-07-04 17:52:09
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micro biology chapter 13 test 4
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  1. What do virus use to attach to their host?
    Capsid proteins OR Spikes
  2. What do WORMS and PROTOZANS use to attach to their host?
    • 1. Suckers / hooks
    • 2. Barbs
    • 3. Cillia / Flagella
  3. What do BACTERIA use to attach to their host?
    • 1. Fimbriae
    • 2.Slime layer / Capsules
    • 3. Lipotechoic acid
  4. An animal / organism that spread disease from host to host?
    -------------------------------------
    An organism (e.g. mosquitoe) that transmits a disease causing organism is a ___________ ?
    VECTOR
  5. A pathogen exoenzyme that cause BLOOD CLOTHs to form ?
    COAGULASE
  6. An organism that is able to cause disease in a normal healthy (susceptible) host with intact immune defense ?
    TRUE PATHOGEN
  7. A pathogen (e.g. Streptococcus Pneumoniae) uses ____________ that allow the microbe to slip away from phagocytes preventing membrane engulmnt?
    CAPSUCLES
  8. A pattern of infection which spreads all over the body (e.g Syphilis & Chenken Pox)?
    SYSTEMIC infection
  9. A pattern of infection in which more that one microbe is causing the infection?

    E.g. wound contaminated with soil /feces
    MIXED infection
  10. A pattern of infection in which one area of the body is affected and normally does'nt spread?

    E.g. Wart & Biols
    LOCAL infection
  11. A pattern of infection which occurs in a health host ?

    E.g. Cold & Flu viruses
    PRIMARY infection
  12. A pattern of infection that will only affect a host after a previous infection has weaken the host's immune system?
    SECONDARY infection
  13. A pattern of infection which incubates quickly & last for a short period?

    E.g. Cold, Ebola and Flu
    ACUTE infection
  14. A pattern of infection that takes longer to incubate and last longer?

    E.g: Tuberclosis = fatal
            Ringworm = irritating & painful
    CHRONIC infection
  15. An infection that is usually aquired while at the hospital?
    NOSOCOMIAL infections
  16. Examples of Communicabel (DIRECT CONTACT) through which humans get infected ?
    • - Kissing, Shaking hands, Sex
    • - Wet droplets = coughing & sneezing
    • - Vertical Transmission from mother to fetus
    • - Vectors: mosquitoes, Test-tse fly
    • - Eating contaminated meat / drinking contaminated water
  17. This type of disease is not spread from host to host; it may be caused by Normal Flora in a compromised host.
    - It could be aquired when a host has contact with a facultative parasite?

    E.g: Tetanus = wound exposed to soil /feces
    NON-COMMUNICABLE disease
  18. This type of diseae is easily spread from host to host via respiratory route?

    - Air borne: chenke pox & Tuberclosis
    - Easily Communicable
    - They could be aquired by direct contact
    CONTAGIOUS disease
  19. This type of disease is constantly present worldwide?

    - present in the population of every country
    - endermic worldwide
    ------------------------------------------
    The spread of an epidemic across continents is ______ ?
    PANDEMIC
  20. An organism that infects host whose immune system (defense system) has been compromised by predisposing conditions?

    - Such persons being: the elderly, very young children, mal-nurished pple and the sick
    OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGEN
  21. The invasion & colonization of a host by pathogens is refered to as ?
    ---------------------------------
    A process that involves damage being done to the host is known as ?
    INFECTION
  22. Most microbes are likely to have the most difficulty entering through which portal of entry?
    SKIN
  23. The study of factors taht affect disease in population is known as ?
    ---------------------------------
    This study has an important application in public health and preventive medicine?
    ---------------------------------
    The study of the spread and prevalence of diseases is refered to as ?
    EPIDEMIOLOGY
  24. List 6 significant interactions that occurs between us and our Normal Flora?
    • 1. N.F serve as a reservoir for pathogens
    • 2. N.F stimulate our immune system (mostly in new borns)
    • 3. Tooth decay & Gum disease (caused by N.F. of the mouth when we eat sugar).
    • 4. N.F. are Antagonistic to pathogens (blook them from attaching to host)
    • 5. N.F produce Vitamines (e.g Vit. A & Biotin)
    • 6. N.F stimulates development of the intestine (newborn when they consume breast milk)
  25. Describe 3 portals of pathogen entry into humans?
    • 1. SKIN: via wounds, borrowing worms
    • 2. MUCOUSE MEMBRANE:
    •      - conjuntiva of the eye
    •      - oral : mucosa of intestine (gastro intestinal tract)
    •      - respiratory lining
    •      - mucusa of the Urogenital tract
    • 3. PLACENTA: mother to futus
  26. Microbes that live on host, but normally do not cause infection or damage the host are ?
    --------------------------------------
    An organism that colonize a host but do not cause disease is know as ?
    NORMAL RESIDENT FLORA
  27. Microbes that stay on a host (occupy the body) for a short period of time are refered to as ?
    TRANSIENT FLORA
  28. A host that pathogens live on but this host does not show systoms of a disease is ?
    CARRIER
  29. A specific chemical product of microbes, plants and some animals which has poisonous effect on other organisms ?
    -----------------------------------
    A harmful substance produced by a microbe ?
    TOXIN
  30. Toxins that enter the body via injection are refered to as ?
    INTOXICATIONS

    • E.g: Exotoxin (protein)
    •        Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide)
  31. A toxin secreted by living bacterial cell into the infected tissues?

    - This toxing is a PROTEIN
    EXOTOXIN
  32. This toxin is released only after the cell is damaged or lysed.
    - It is a lipopolysaccharide released by Gram -ve bacteria when they die.
    - It requires a high concentration to have an effect.
    - It works by over stimulating the body's defense system
    - It has no anti-toxins
    ENDOTOXINS
  33. A substance secreted by pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoan, and worm that break down and inflict damage on host tissues ?
    EXO-ENZYMES
  34. List the major reservoirs of infection for human and state how they might spread diseases?
    • 1.  Carriers: Healthy pple that carry disease and spread.
    • 2. Animals:
    •      - Vectors: test-tse fly
    •      - Zoonosis: disease from animals which humans acquire and spread (sleeping sickness)
    • 3. Soil, Plant &Water:
    •   - Tetanus from soil
    •   - Pseudomonas species from plants
    •   - Cholera from water
  35. A category of toxin (exotoxin) that disrupts cells that line the digestive tract are called?

    They are extreamly toxic at low temp.
    ENTEROTOXINS

    E.g: Vibro enterotoxins from Vibrio Cholerae
  36. This category of toxin (exotoxin) stop the transmission of neural signals OR block the flow of Neurotrasmitters?

    - They are extreamly toxic at low temp
    E.g:
    - BOTULINUM toxin from Clostridium Botulinum
    - TETANUS toxin from Clostridium Tetani
    NEUROTOXINS
  37. This category of toxin (exotoxin) destroys RBCs
    - They are extreamly toxic at low tempratures
    HEMOLYSIN

    • Microbes that produce
    • - Alpha Hemolysis: turn blood agar green
    • - Beta Hemolysis: clear RBCs from blood agar
  38. Which category of toxin (exotoxin) kill cells?
    - It can cause death by killing cells in the heart
    - It is extreamly toxic at low temprature
    - E.g: DIPHTHERIA toxin produced from Corynebacterium Diphtheriae attaches to 80s ribosomes stopping protein systhesis.
    CYTOTOXINS
  39. A disease in which the toxin is spread by BLOOD from the site of infection is called?
    TOXEMIA
  40. Name the normal resident floras of the ORAL CAVITY?
    • Bacteria: - Streptococcus species
    •                - Lactobacillus species
    •                - Actinomyces

    Fungi: Candida albicans
  41. Name the normal resident floras of the LARGE INTESTINE?
    • Bacteria:  Coliforms: - Escherichia coli (E-coli)
    •                                      - Enterobacter species
  42. Name the normal resident floras of the UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT?

    - similar to those of the oral cavity
    - regions: Nasal passaages, throat & pharynx
    • Bacteria: - Staphylococcus Aureus
    •                 - Neisseria
    •                 - Hemophilus
    •                 - Streptococcus
  43. Name the normal resident floras of the GENITAL TRACT?

    - Femal genitals, viginal & cervical surfaces
    Bacteria: Lactobacillus Species

    Fungi: Candida (yeast)
  44. Name the normal resident floras of the ANTERIOR URETHRA (Urinary Tract)?
    • Bacteria: - Streptococcus species
    •                - Staphylococcus species
    •                - Coliforms
  45. Name the normal resident floras of the SKIN?
    • Bacteria: - Corynebacterium
    •                 - Staphylococcus epidermidis
    •                 - Proionibacterium

    Fungi: Yeast Candida

    Arthropods: mites
  46. Name the normal resident floras of the ORGANS & FLUIDS inside the body?

    - Brian, muscles, liver tissues, blood, lymph fluid and urine.
    This region(s) should be sterile

    Bacteria: PROPIONIBACTERIUM
  47. Disease spread from one host to another through direct /indirect contact?

    E.g: gonorrhea - direct contact
            chicken pox - indirect
    COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
  48. A disease in which the number of people with the disease are increasing in the population ?
    EPIDEMIC diease
  49. This disease occurs constantly in a population.

    An infectious disease that exhibits a relatively steady frequency over a long time period in a particular geographic locale?

    E.g: Epstein Barr virus
    ENDEMIC Disease
  50. A disease that affects a population and only occurs occasionally

    E.g:
     - salmonellosis - food contaminated with salmonella bacteria
    - Measles
    SPORADIC disease
  51. A pathogen that has the ability to escape phagocytosis and have toxins that kill phagocytes (neutrophils)?
    LEUCOCIDINS
  52. The study of all aspects of the infection process (disease process) is ?
    PATHOGENESIS
  53. Indirect routes of communicable diseases are:
    - Fomites: something one touchese.g door knobs, drinking from the same cup (sharing stuff).

    - Contaminated food and water

    - Droplets nuclei & aerosols: air (tubaclosis), flu, hanta virus
  54. The degree to which a microbe can invade and damage host tissues?
    -----------------------------------
    The serverity of damage a disease causing organism causes on its host's tissues?
    VIRULENCE
  55. Toxin (pathogen) exoenzyme gain by microbes and use to cause a much more severe disease on the host?
    ------------------------------------
    any characteristic / structure / properties of a microbe that leads (contributes) to pathological effects (disease state) on the host?
    VIRULENCE FACTOR
  56. A MICROBES ABILITY TO CAUSE DISEASE AND INFECTION  is known as ?
    PATHOGENICITY
  57. A genetic trait of a pathogen that is mutated and the microbe no longer have the ability to cause disease ?
    ----------------------------------------
    A mutant strain of a new bacteria pathogen which does not produce fimbriae and can no longe cause any disease suggest ____________ ?
    PATHOGENICITY FACTOR
  58. The minimum number of microbes required to cause infection by a specific pathogen?
    INFECTIOUS DOSE
  59. A pathogen exoenzyme that destroys FIBRIN CLOTS and expidit the invation of damaged tissues ?
    BACTERIA KINASE

    E.g: Streptokinase, Staphylokinase
  60. A pathoden exoenzyme that breaks up the sticky proteins in mucous membranes?

    - It digest the protective coating on mucous membranes and is a factor in amoebic dysentery.
    MUCINASE
  61. This pathogen exoenzyme cause HOST CELLs TO SEPARATE ?
    HYALURONIDASE
  62. This pathogen exoenzyme cases the BREAK DWON OF CONNECTIVE TISSUES ?
    COLLAGENASE
  63. KOCHS Postulates:
    - Method used to establish proof of the cause of a disease.
    • - Association: Every time the disease is observed, the same organism should be observed (a set of symptoms).
    • - Isolation: Organism observed in step 1 should be isolated in pure culture.
    • - Inoculation: Organism from pure culture should be inoculated in a healthy host and the same symptoms should be observed.
    • - Reisolation: Organism isolated again from the host that was inoculated with the disease.

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