micro chpter 13

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micro chpter 13
2012-07-04 17:52:09
micro 13 test4

micro biology chapter 13 test 4
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  1. What do virus use to attach to their host?
    Capsid proteins OR Spikes
  2. What do WORMS and PROTOZANS use to attach to their host?
    • 1. Suckers / hooks
    • 2. Barbs
    • 3. Cillia / Flagella
  3. What do BACTERIA use to attach to their host?
    • 1. Fimbriae
    • 2.Slime layer / Capsules
    • 3. Lipotechoic acid
  4. An animal / organism that spread disease from host to host?
    An organism (e.g. mosquitoe) that transmits a disease causing organism is a ___________ ?
  5. A pathogen exoenzyme that cause BLOOD CLOTHs to form ?
  6. An organism that is able to cause disease in a normal healthy (susceptible) host with intact immune defense ?
  7. A pathogen (e.g. Streptococcus Pneumoniae) uses ____________ that allow the microbe to slip away from phagocytes preventing membrane engulmnt?
  8. A pattern of infection which spreads all over the body (e.g Syphilis & Chenken Pox)?
    SYSTEMIC infection
  9. A pattern of infection in which more that one microbe is causing the infection?

    E.g. wound contaminated with soil /feces
    MIXED infection
  10. A pattern of infection in which one area of the body is affected and normally does'nt spread?

    E.g. Wart & Biols
    LOCAL infection
  11. A pattern of infection which occurs in a health host ?

    E.g. Cold & Flu viruses
    PRIMARY infection
  12. A pattern of infection that will only affect a host after a previous infection has weaken the host's immune system?
    SECONDARY infection
  13. A pattern of infection which incubates quickly & last for a short period?

    E.g. Cold, Ebola and Flu
    ACUTE infection
  14. A pattern of infection that takes longer to incubate and last longer?

    E.g: Tuberclosis = fatal
            Ringworm = irritating & painful
    CHRONIC infection
  15. An infection that is usually aquired while at the hospital?
    NOSOCOMIAL infections
  16. Examples of Communicabel (DIRECT CONTACT) through which humans get infected ?
    • - Kissing, Shaking hands, Sex
    • - Wet droplets = coughing & sneezing
    • - Vertical Transmission from mother to fetus
    • - Vectors: mosquitoes, Test-tse fly
    • - Eating contaminated meat / drinking contaminated water
  17. This type of disease is not spread from host to host; it may be caused by Normal Flora in a compromised host.
    - It could be aquired when a host has contact with a facultative parasite?

    E.g: Tetanus = wound exposed to soil /feces
  18. This type of diseae is easily spread from host to host via respiratory route?

    - Air borne: chenke pox & Tuberclosis
    - Easily Communicable
    - They could be aquired by direct contact
    CONTAGIOUS disease
  19. This type of disease is constantly present worldwide?

    - present in the population of every country
    - endermic worldwide
    The spread of an epidemic across continents is ______ ?
  20. An organism that infects host whose immune system (defense system) has been compromised by predisposing conditions?

    - Such persons being: the elderly, very young children, mal-nurished pple and the sick
  21. The invasion & colonization of a host by pathogens is refered to as ?
    A process that involves damage being done to the host is known as ?
  22. Most microbes are likely to have the most difficulty entering through which portal of entry?
  23. The study of factors taht affect disease in population is known as ?
    This study has an important application in public health and preventive medicine?
    The study of the spread and prevalence of diseases is refered to as ?
  24. List 6 significant interactions that occurs between us and our Normal Flora?
    • 1. N.F serve as a reservoir for pathogens
    • 2. N.F stimulate our immune system (mostly in new borns)
    • 3. Tooth decay & Gum disease (caused by N.F. of the mouth when we eat sugar).
    • 4. N.F. are Antagonistic to pathogens (blook them from attaching to host)
    • 5. N.F produce Vitamines (e.g Vit. A & Biotin)
    • 6. N.F stimulates development of the intestine (newborn when they consume breast milk)
  25. Describe 3 portals of pathogen entry into humans?
    • 1. SKIN: via wounds, borrowing worms
    •      - conjuntiva of the eye
    •      - oral : mucosa of intestine (gastro intestinal tract)
    •      - respiratory lining
    •      - mucusa of the Urogenital tract
    • 3. PLACENTA: mother to futus
  26. Microbes that live on host, but normally do not cause infection or damage the host are ?
    An organism that colonize a host but do not cause disease is know as ?
  27. Microbes that stay on a host (occupy the body) for a short period of time are refered to as ?
  28. A host that pathogens live on but this host does not show systoms of a disease is ?
  29. A specific chemical product of microbes, plants and some animals which has poisonous effect on other organisms ?
    A harmful substance produced by a microbe ?
  30. Toxins that enter the body via injection are refered to as ?

    • E.g: Exotoxin (protein)
    •        Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide)
  31. A toxin secreted by living bacterial cell into the infected tissues?

    - This toxing is a PROTEIN
  32. This toxin is released only after the cell is damaged or lysed.
    - It is a lipopolysaccharide released by Gram -ve bacteria when they die.
    - It requires a high concentration to have an effect.
    - It works by over stimulating the body's defense system
    - It has no anti-toxins
  33. A substance secreted by pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoan, and worm that break down and inflict damage on host tissues ?
  34. List the major reservoirs of infection for human and state how they might spread diseases?
    • 1.  Carriers: Healthy pple that carry disease and spread.
    • 2. Animals:
    •      - Vectors: test-tse fly
    •      - Zoonosis: disease from animals which humans acquire and spread (sleeping sickness)
    • 3. Soil, Plant &Water:
    •   - Tetanus from soil
    •   - Pseudomonas species from plants
    •   - Cholera from water
  35. A category of toxin (exotoxin) that disrupts cells that line the digestive tract are called?

    They are extreamly toxic at low temp.

    E.g: Vibro enterotoxins from Vibrio Cholerae
  36. This category of toxin (exotoxin) stop the transmission of neural signals OR block the flow of Neurotrasmitters?

    - They are extreamly toxic at low temp
    - BOTULINUM toxin from Clostridium Botulinum
    - TETANUS toxin from Clostridium Tetani
  37. This category of toxin (exotoxin) destroys RBCs
    - They are extreamly toxic at low tempratures

    • Microbes that produce
    • - Alpha Hemolysis: turn blood agar green
    • - Beta Hemolysis: clear RBCs from blood agar
  38. Which category of toxin (exotoxin) kill cells?
    - It can cause death by killing cells in the heart
    - It is extreamly toxic at low temprature
    - E.g: DIPHTHERIA toxin produced from Corynebacterium Diphtheriae attaches to 80s ribosomes stopping protein systhesis.
  39. A disease in which the toxin is spread by BLOOD from the site of infection is called?
  40. Name the normal resident floras of the ORAL CAVITY?
    • Bacteria: - Streptococcus species
    •                - Lactobacillus species
    •                - Actinomyces

    Fungi: Candida albicans
  41. Name the normal resident floras of the LARGE INTESTINE?
    • Bacteria:  Coliforms: - Escherichia coli (E-coli)
    •                                      - Enterobacter species
  42. Name the normal resident floras of the UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT?

    - similar to those of the oral cavity
    - regions: Nasal passaages, throat & pharynx
    • Bacteria: - Staphylococcus Aureus
    •                 - Neisseria
    •                 - Hemophilus
    •                 - Streptococcus
  43. Name the normal resident floras of the GENITAL TRACT?

    - Femal genitals, viginal & cervical surfaces
    Bacteria: Lactobacillus Species

    Fungi: Candida (yeast)
  44. Name the normal resident floras of the ANTERIOR URETHRA (Urinary Tract)?
    • Bacteria: - Streptococcus species
    •                - Staphylococcus species
    •                - Coliforms
  45. Name the normal resident floras of the SKIN?
    • Bacteria: - Corynebacterium
    •                 - Staphylococcus epidermidis
    •                 - Proionibacterium

    Fungi: Yeast Candida

    Arthropods: mites
  46. Name the normal resident floras of the ORGANS & FLUIDS inside the body?

    - Brian, muscles, liver tissues, blood, lymph fluid and urine.
    This region(s) should be sterile

  47. Disease spread from one host to another through direct /indirect contact?

    E.g: gonorrhea - direct contact
            chicken pox - indirect
  48. A disease in which the number of people with the disease are increasing in the population ?
    EPIDEMIC diease
  49. This disease occurs constantly in a population.

    An infectious disease that exhibits a relatively steady frequency over a long time period in a particular geographic locale?

    E.g: Epstein Barr virus
    ENDEMIC Disease
  50. A disease that affects a population and only occurs occasionally

     - salmonellosis - food contaminated with salmonella bacteria
    - Measles
    SPORADIC disease
  51. A pathogen that has the ability to escape phagocytosis and have toxins that kill phagocytes (neutrophils)?
  52. The study of all aspects of the infection process (disease process) is ?
  53. Indirect routes of communicable diseases are:
    - Fomites: something one touchese.g door knobs, drinking from the same cup (sharing stuff).

    - Contaminated food and water

    - Droplets nuclei & aerosols: air (tubaclosis), flu, hanta virus
  54. The degree to which a microbe can invade and damage host tissues?
    The serverity of damage a disease causing organism causes on its host's tissues?
  55. Toxin (pathogen) exoenzyme gain by microbes and use to cause a much more severe disease on the host?
    any characteristic / structure / properties of a microbe that leads (contributes) to pathological effects (disease state) on the host?
  57. A genetic trait of a pathogen that is mutated and the microbe no longer have the ability to cause disease ?
    A mutant strain of a new bacteria pathogen which does not produce fimbriae and can no longe cause any disease suggest ____________ ?
  58. The minimum number of microbes required to cause infection by a specific pathogen?
  59. A pathogen exoenzyme that destroys FIBRIN CLOTS and expidit the invation of damaged tissues ?

    E.g: Streptokinase, Staphylokinase
  60. A pathoden exoenzyme that breaks up the sticky proteins in mucous membranes?

    - It digest the protective coating on mucous membranes and is a factor in amoebic dysentery.
  61. This pathogen exoenzyme cause HOST CELLs TO SEPARATE ?
  62. This pathogen exoenzyme cases the BREAK DWON OF CONNECTIVE TISSUES ?
  63. KOCHS Postulates:
    - Method used to establish proof of the cause of a disease.
    • - Association: Every time the disease is observed, the same organism should be observed (a set of symptoms).
    • - Isolation: Organism observed in step 1 should be isolated in pure culture.
    • - Inoculation: Organism from pure culture should be inoculated in a healthy host and the same symptoms should be observed.
    • - Reisolation: Organism isolated again from the host that was inoculated with the disease.