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What do virus use to attach to their host?
Capsid proteins OR Spikes
What do WORMS and PROTOZANS use to attach to their host?
- 1. Suckers / hooks
- 2. Barbs
- 3. Cillia / Flagella
What do BACTERIA use to attach to their host?
- 1. Fimbriae
- 2.Slime layer / Capsules
- 3. Lipotechoic acid
An animal / organism that spread disease from host to host?
An organism (e.g. mosquitoe) that transmits a disease causing organism is a ___________ ?
A pathogen exoenzyme that cause BLOOD CLOTHs to form ?
An organism that is able to cause disease in a normal healthy (susceptible) host with intact immune defense ?
A pathogen (e.g. Streptococcus Pneumoniae) uses ____________ that allow the microbe to slip away from phagocytes preventing membrane engulmnt?
A pattern of infection which spreads all over the body (e.g Syphilis & Chenken Pox)?
A pattern of infection in which more that one microbe is causing the infection?
E.g. wound contaminated with soil /feces
A pattern of infection in which one area of the body is affected and normally does'nt spread?
E.g. Wart & Biols
A pattern of infection which occurs in a health host ?
E.g. Cold & Flu viruses
A pattern of infection that will only affect a host after a previous infection has weaken the host's immune system?
A pattern of infection which incubates quickly & last for a short period?
E.g. Cold, Ebola and Flu
A pattern of infection that takes longer to incubate and last longer?
E.g: Tuberclosis = fatal
Ringworm = irritating & painful
An infection that is usually aquired while at the hospital?
Examples of Communicabel (DIRECT CONTACT) through which humans get infected ?
- - Kissing, Shaking hands, Sex
- - Wet droplets = coughing & sneezing
- - Vertical Transmission from mother to fetus
- - Vectors: mosquitoes, Test-tse fly
- - Eating contaminated meat / drinking contaminated water
This type of disease is not spread from host to host; it may be caused by Normal Flora in a compromised host.
- It could be aquired when a host has contact with a facultative parasite?
E.g: Tetanus = wound exposed to soil /feces
This type of diseae is easily spread from host to host via respiratory route?
- Air borne: chenke pox & Tuberclosis
- Easily Communicable
- They could be aquired by direct contact
This type of disease is constantly present worldwide?
- present in the population of every country
- endermic worldwide
The spread of an epidemic across continents is ______ ?
An organism that infects host whose immune system (defense system) has been compromised by predisposing conditions?
- Such persons being: the elderly, very young children, mal-nurished pple and the sick
The invasion & colonization of a host by pathogens is refered to as ?
A process that involves damage being done to the host is known as ?
Most microbes are likely to have the most difficulty entering through which portal of entry?
The study of factors taht affect disease in population is known as ?
This study has an important application in public health and preventive medicine?
The study of the spread and prevalence of diseases is refered to as ?
List 6 significant interactions that occurs between us and our Normal Flora?
- 1. N.F serve as a reservoir for pathogens
- 2. N.F stimulate our immune system (mostly in new borns)
- 3. Tooth decay & Gum disease (caused by N.F. of the mouth when we eat sugar).
- 4. N.F. are Antagonistic to pathogens (blook them from attaching to host)
- 5. N.F produce Vitamines (e.g Vit. A & Biotin)
- 6. N.F stimulates development of the intestine (newborn when they consume breast milk)
Describe 3 portals of pathogen entry into humans?
- 1. SKIN: via wounds, borrowing worms
- 2. MUCOUSE MEMBRANE:
- - conjuntiva of the eye
- - oral : mucosa of intestine (gastro intestinal tract)
- - respiratory lining
- - mucusa of the Urogenital tract
- 3. PLACENTA: mother to futus
Microbes that live on host, but normally do not cause infection or damage the host are ?
An organism that colonize a host but do not cause disease is know as ?
NORMAL RESIDENT FLORA
Microbes that stay on a host (occupy the body) for a short period of time are refered to as ?
A host that pathogens live on but this host does not show systoms of a disease is ?
A specific chemical product of microbes, plants and some animals which has poisonous effect on other organisms ?
A harmful substance produced by a microbe ?
Toxins that enter the body via injection are refered to as ?
- E.g: Exotoxin (protein)
- Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide)
A toxin secreted by living bacterial cell into the infected tissues?
- This toxing is a PROTEIN
This toxin is released only after the cell is damaged or lysed.
- It is a lipopolysaccharide released by Gram -ve bacteria when they die.
- It requires a high concentration to have an effect.
- It works by over stimulating the body's defense system
- It has no anti-toxins
A substance secreted by pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoan, and worm that break down and inflict damage on host tissues ?
List the major reservoirs of infection for human and state how they might spread diseases?
- 1. Carriers: Healthy pple that carry disease and spread.
- 2. Animals:
- - Vectors: test-tse fly
- - Zoonosis: disease from animals which humans acquire and spread (sleeping sickness)
- 3. Soil, Plant &Water:
- - Tetanus from soil
- - Pseudomonas species from plants
- - Cholera from water
A category of toxin (exotoxin) that disrupts cells that line the digestive tract are called?
They are extreamly toxic at low temp.
E.g: Vibro enterotoxins from Vibrio Cholerae
This category of toxin (exotoxin) stop the transmission of neural signals OR block the flow of Neurotrasmitters?
- They are extreamly toxic at low temp
- BOTULINUM toxin from Clostridium Botulinum
- TETANUS toxin from Clostridium Tetani
This category of toxin (exotoxin) destroys RBCs
- They are extreamly toxic at low tempratures
- Microbes that produce
- - Alpha Hemolysis: turn blood agar green
- - Beta Hemolysis: clear RBCs from blood agar
Which category of toxin (exotoxin) kill cells?
- It can cause death by killing cells in the heart
- It is extreamly toxic at low temprature
- E.g: DIPHTHERIA toxin produced from Corynebacterium Diphtheriae attaches to 80s ribosomes stopping protein systhesis.
A disease in which the toxin is spread by BLOOD from the site of infection is called?
Name the normal resident floras of the ORAL CAVITY?
Fungi: Candida albicans
- Bacteria: - Streptococcus species
- - Lactobacillus species
- - Actinomyces
Name the normal resident floras of the LARGE INTESTINE?
- Bacteria: Coliforms: - Escherichia coli (E-coli)
- - Enterobacter species
Name the normal resident floras of the UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT?
- similar to those of the oral cavity
- regions: Nasal passaages, throat & pharynx
- Bacteria: - Staphylococcus Aureus
- - Neisseria
- - Hemophilus
- - Streptococcus
Name the normal resident floras of the GENITAL TRACT?
- Femal genitals, viginal & cervical surfaces
Bacteria: Lactobacillus Species
Fungi: Candida (yeast)
Name the normal resident floras of the ANTERIOR URETHRA (Urinary Tract)?
- Bacteria: - Streptococcus species
- - Staphylococcus species
- - Coliforms
Name the normal resident floras of the SKIN?
- Bacteria: - Corynebacterium
- - Staphylococcus epidermidis
- - Proionibacterium
: Yeast Candida
Name the normal resident floras of the ORGANS & FLUIDS inside the body?
- Brian, muscles, liver tissues, blood, lymph fluid and urine.
This region(s) should be sterile
Disease spread from one host to another through direct /indirect contact?
E.g: gonorrhea - direct contact
chicken pox - indirect
A disease in which the number of people with the disease are increasing in the population ?
This disease occurs constantly in a population.
An infectious disease that exhibits a relatively steady frequency over a long time period in a particular geographic locale?
E.g: Epstein Barr virus
A disease that affects a population and only occurs occasionally
- salmonellosis - food contaminated with salmonella bacteria
A pathogen that has the ability to escape phagocytosis and have toxins that kill phagocytes (neutrophils)?
The study of all aspects of the infection process (disease process) is ?
Indirect routes of communicable diseases are:
- Fomites: something one touchese.g door knobs, drinking from the same cup (sharing stuff).
- Contaminated food and water
- Droplets nuclei & aerosols: air (tubaclosis), flu, hanta virus
The degree to which a microbe can invade and damage host tissues?
The serverity of damage a disease causing organism causes on its host's tissues?
Toxin (pathogen) exoenzyme gain by microbes and use to cause a much more severe disease on the host?
any characteristic / structure / properties of a microbe that leads (contributes) to pathological effects (disease state) on the host?
A MICROBES ABILITY TO CAUSE DISEASE AND INFECTION is known as ?
A genetic trait of a pathogen that is mutated and the microbe no longer have the ability to cause disease ?
A mutant strain of a new bacteria pathogen which does not produce fimbriae and can no longe cause any disease suggest ____________ ?
The minimum number of microbes required to cause infection by a specific pathogen?
A pathogen exoenzyme that destroys FIBRIN CLOTS and expidit the invation of damaged tissues ?
E.g: Streptokinase, Staphylokinase
A pathoden exoenzyme that breaks up the sticky proteins in mucous membranes?
- It digest the protective coating on mucous membranes and is a factor in amoebic dysentery.
This pathogen exoenzyme cause HOST CELLs TO SEPARATE ?
This pathogen exoenzyme cases the BREAK DWON OF CONNECTIVE TISSUES ?
- Method used to establish proof of the cause of a disease.
- - Association: Every time the disease is observed, the same organism should be observed (a set of symptoms).
- - Isolation: Organism observed in step 1 should be isolated in pure culture.
- - Inoculation: Organism from pure culture should be inoculated in a healthy host and the same symptoms should be observed.
- - Reisolation: Organism isolated again from the host that was inoculated with the disease.