Crim Pro

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Author:
BlasterGirl
ID:
160941
Filename:
Crim Pro
Updated:
2012-07-09 11:10:56
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Search Seizure
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Description:
Define Overview State Act SorS Warrant Exceptions Execution Suppression
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  1. What Amendment applies to Search & Seizure?
    What are the elements of a reasonable S&S?
    Consequence of violating S&S? 
    • 4th Amendment prohibits a (1) state actor from engaging in an (2) unresonable search or seizure.
    • Search or seizure is reasonable only if authoirzed by:
    • (1)(a) a valid warrant or (b) warrant exception, AND
    • (2) executed in a reasonable manner.

    • 1 - state action
    • 2- search (REP; phy intrusion) or seizure (possessory interest; free to leave)
    • 3 - warrant (PC, particularity) or warrant exception
    • 4 - execution (reasonable; knock & announce)
    • 5 - suppression 
  2. A.     State Action:    
    B.     Search or Seizure:
         1. Search:     2 types of searches
         2. Seizure:     2 types of seizures
    C.     Standing
    • A.     4th A applies only to gov't actors and agents.
    • B.    
    • Search:
    • (1)(a) Invasion of reasonable expectation of privacy
    •      - REP: Subjective expectation + Objectively reasonable.
    •      - No REP: exposed to public, transferred to 3P who turns over to police.
    • (1)(b) Physical intrusion into constitutionally protected area to obtain information. 
    •      - Protected areas: persons, houses, papers and effects (car, purse).
    • Seizure:
    • (2)(a) Things:
    •      - Meaningful interference w/possessory interest
    •      - (detention, dispossession, destruction)
    • (2)(b) Persons:
    •      - Exercise of authoirty which restrains freedom of movement, under which a reasonable person would not feel free to leave.
    •      - (Terry stops, arrests) 

    • C. Standing
    •      - Search or seizure may be challenged only by a person who was actually searched or seized. 
  3. Warrant or Warrant Exception:
    Authorization?
    Warrant Requirements?
    Warrant Exceptions?
    Stackability?
    Scope? 
    A: S&S must be authoirzed by (1) a valid warrant, or (2) a warrant exception.

    R: (1) PC, (2) particularity, (3) oath/affirmation, (4) detached & neutral magistrate.

    E: (1) plain view (2) consent (3) exigent circumstances (4) automobile (5) public arrests (6) incident to arrest (7) inventory (8) Terry stop (9) special needs

    Stack: May stack exceptions on top of one another to expand authority, BUT...

    Scope: ...may not exceed scope of authority. 
  4. Warrant:
    Probable Cause
    Particularity
    Oath or Affirmation
    Detached and Neutral Magistrate 
    • PC: Based on totality of circumstances.
    • Test: Fair probability, reasonable grounds, reasonably trustworthy info sufficient for prudent person to conclude:
    • (1) crime has been or is being committed by person seized,
    • (2) evidence of criminality in place to be searched.

    Note: hearsay and anonymous tips are enough to support but not estbalish PC.

    • Particularity: 
    • Test: sufficiently definite for police to ID persons, places, or items to be searched or seized with reasonable certainty.

    • Note: names & addresses sufficient but not necessary.
    • Particularity must appear on face of warrant or through incorporated affidavit. 

    • Oath/Affirmation: Test: police must give info supporting warrant under oath.
    • Neutral Magistrate: Test: No stake in outcome, not rubber stamp.
    • Note: Need NOT be judge or lawyer. 
  5. Warrant Exceptions:
    Plain View
    • Test: Police may search or seize an item they see in "plain view: if:
    • (1) they're authoirzed to be there, and
    • (2) PC item is connected with criminality

    • Note: (1) auth can come from warrant, exception, or public.
    • (2) Police may also S/S an item they feel during auth search (Terry) if feel gives rise to PC. 
  6. Warrant Exceptions:
    Consent:
    1st Party
    3rd Party 
    Objectors 
    • 1P:  
    • Test: Voluntary under totality of circumstances.
    • Factors: police actions, suspect's background & condition
    • 3P:
    • Test: Voluntary + (a) actual auth, or (b) apparent auth.
    • Actual auth to consent based on joint access & control, or
    • Reasonable belief in apparent auth to consent.

    (common areas OK, roommate's bedroom NOT OK. Overnight guest may consent/withhold).

    • Objecting Co-occupants: Police may NOT search home over (1) present and (2) objecting co-occupant.
    •  
  7. Warrant Exceptions:
    Exigent Circumstances 
    Automobile 
    • Exigent Circumstances:
    • Test: Resonable basis for police to believe delay in obtaining warrant would result in:
    • (1) evidence destruction,
    • (2) danger to public or police, or 
    • (3) flight of suspect.

    Note: Still need PC of criminality. Lesser the crimes (misd) + greater intrusion = less likely exigency.

    • Automobile:
    • Test: PC that any area of car to be searched (including containers) harbors evidence of criminality. 

    • PC + Car = OK
    • Car + PC = OK 
  8. Warrant Exceptions:
    Public Arrests: Rule
    (1) Felony
    (2) Misdemeanor
    Private Arrests: Rule
    (1) Arrestee's Home
    (2) 3P Home 
    • Public Rule: NO warrant needed for arrest in public.
    • (1) Felonies: Need public + PC.
    • (2) Misd: Need public + PC + committed in presence of cop.
    • Private Rule: Warrants required to arrest in private unless exception.
    • (1) Arrestee's Home: Need arrest warrant.
    • (2) 3P Home: Need both arrest + search warrants. 
  9. Warrant Exceptions:
     Search Incident to Lawful Arrest
    (1) Person
    (2) Cars
    (3) Homes 
    1. P: contemporaneous search of: (a) suspect, (b) wingspan, (c) containers in wingspan/on person for weapons/evidence.

    2. C: NO search UNLESS reasonable belief: (a) arrested occupant/recent occupant may access car, or (b) car contains evidence of crime arrested for.

    3.  H: During time takes to complete arrest, may conduct protective sweep (cursory visual inspection for people not evidence) for accomplices in (a) adjoining rooms, and (b) other rooms if reasonable suspicion of danger.
  10. Warrant Exceptions:
    1 - Inventory
    2 - Terry (1) stops, (2) frisks
    • Inventory:
    • Test: within scope of resonable and routine procedures to protect valuables, police and public, police may inventory contents of:
    • (1) possessions at booking after lawful arrest, and
    • (2) automobile after lawful impoundment

    • Terry:
    • (1) Stops (seizure):
    • Required: reasonable suspicion that suspect is engaged in criminal activity. 
    • Allowed: brief detention and questioning to confirm or dispel suspicion.
    • RS must be  based on specific and articulable facts. It's less than PC but more than a hunch.

    • (2) Frisks (Search):
    • Required: lawful Terry Stop + RS suspect is armed and dangerous.
    • Allowed: Patdown of outer clothing and wingspan for weapons.
    • May NOT frisk for evidence.
    • May manipulate ambiguous obects to determine if weapon ("bulge rule"). 
    • May reach in & seize object if frisk confirms suspicion of weapon or gives rise to PC of contraband. 
  11. Warrant Exceptions:
    Special Needs 
    • (1) Balancing Test: If primary purpose is NOT related to criminal investigation, may S/S if gov't interest > privacy intrusion.
    • (2) Common Purpose: public health & safety

    Note: The more random, dispersed the program, the more likely to be reasonable.  
  12. Execution of Warrants:
    Test: (1) Before, (2) During 
    • S/S must be executed reasonably.
    • (1) Before: must knock and announce presence & purpose UNLESS reasonable grounds to believe: (a) dagerous, (b) futile, (c) evidence destruction.
    • (2) During: may take reasonable steps to secure premises: (a) temporarily detaining individuals at scene, and (b) ordering occupants out of car. 
  13. Suppression:
    (1) Exclusionary Rule:
    (2) Exceptions
         (a) Procedural
         (b) Doctrinal 
    (3) Exclusions 
    • (1) Exclusionary Rule: evidence obtained as result of unconst conduct inadmissible against individual whose rights were violated as fruit of poisonous tree.
    • (2) EXCEPTIONS: (When illegally obtained evidence MAY be used).
    • Procedural:  
    • (a) Impeach on cross, (b) grand jury, (c) parole revocation hearing, (d) civil proceedings!
    • Doctrinal:
    • (a) K&A violation, (b) reasonable, good faith reliance on facially valid warrant, (c) clerical errors by court employees in maintaining records, (d) isolated negligence by police in maintaining records [negligence only - exception does not apply if intentional, reckless, grossly negligent or recurring negligence]. 
    • Exclusions: (NOT FOPT)
    • (1) Independent Source
    • (2) Inevitable Discovery
    • (3) Attenuation (intervening cause, free will, time, events) [illegally arrested person released on bail, returns to station on own free will to confess]. 
  14. II. CONFESSIONS
    Which Amedments apply? (3 bodies of law)
    Thumbnail Analysis 
    • Defined: Confessions obtained by state actor may be suppressed if obtained in violation of: 
    • (1) Due Process Clause
    • (2) 6th A right to counsel
    • *(3) 5th A Miranda* 

    • Thumbnail Analysis:
    • (1) State aciton?
    • (2) Due Process? (involuntary?)
    • (3) 6th A? (deliberate elicitation after formal charges?)
    • (4) Miranda? (custodial interrogation?)
    • (5) Suppression? 
  15. II. CONFESSIONS
    A. Due Process
    B. 6th A
         (1) Trigger
         (2) Test
         (3) Waiver
    C. 5th A
    D. Suppression 
    • A. Due Process:
    • Test: Involuntary b/c will overborne by state coercion. 

    • B. 6th Amendment:
    • Provides right to counsel after initation of adversarial proceedings. State cannot deliberately elicit confession in absence of counsel.
    • (1) Trigger: Formal proceedings (indictment, not arrest). 
    •      (a) Offense-specific: extends only to offenses charged, NOT uncharged, unrelated crimimal activity.
    • (2) Test: "Deliberate elicitation without counsel."
    • (3) Waiver: "knowing, intelligent and voluntary"
    • Tip: Waiver of Miranda right to counsel waives 6th A right to counsel, also.
  16. II. CONFESSIONS
    A. Due Process
    B. 6th A
    C. 5th A - Miranda
         (1) Trigger
         (2) Test
         (3) Miranda Warnings
         (4) Invocation
         (5) Waiver
    D. Suppression 
    • C. 5th Amendment Miranda:
    • During custodial interrogation, 5th A right to (1) counsel, (2) silence, and (3) Miranda Warnings. 

    • Thumbnail:
    • 1 - custody (arrest, or fx equivalent?)
    • 2 - Interrogation (Likely to elicit incriminating response?) 
    • 3 - Warnings (of silence, use, counsel?)
    • 4 - Invocation (silence or counsel unequivocally?)
    • 5 - Waiver (knowing, intelligent and voluntary?)

    • (1) Trigger: Custody.
    •      (a) Arrest or the functional equivalent restriction of freedom.
    •      (b) coercive police-dominated environment
    • (2) Interrogation:
    •      (a) express questioning, or
    •      (b) conduct police should've known reasonably likely to elicit an incriminating response.
    • (3) Miranda Warnings: MUST Mirandize before custodial interrogation. Warnings must contain:
    •      (a) right to remain silent, (b) any statement can be used against you, (c) right to counsel before and during questioning, (d) if cannot afford attorney, one will be appointed.
    • (4) Invocation: 
    •      (a) Test: suspect must invoke right to silence or counsel unequivocably (expressly). Interrogation must cease immediately. Resumption of interrogation if:
    • Silence = several hours + new warnings and valid waiver
    • Attorney = 14 days or suspect initiates + new warnings and valid waiver  
    • (5) Waiver: Confessions obtained through custodial interrogation admissible if Mirandized suspect waives rights knowingly, intelligently, and voluntarily.
    •      (a) knowing & intelligent: basic understanding of rights and consequences of waiving.
    •      (b) Voluntary: not coerced by police
    •      (c) may be express or implied from course of conduct 
  17. II. CONFESSIONS
    A. Due Process
    B. 6th A
    C. 5th A - Miranda
    D. Suppression 
    (1) Exclusionary Rule
    (2) General Exceptions
    (3) Miranda Exceptions 
    • (1) Exclusoinary Rule: fruit of defendant's violation of Due Process, 6A and 5A Miranda rights are inadmissible
    • (2) Evidence: (a) independent source, (b) inevitable discovery, (c) attenuation.
    • (3)  Confessions: (a) public safety, (b) impeachment, (c) physical evidence, (d) witness testimony, (e) invalid + valid confession, admit latter if (i) properly warned, (ii) valid waiver, and (iii) prior invalid confession was voluntary (not coerced) and evasion of Miranda was not deliberate.
  18. III. PRE TRIAL IDENTIFICATION
    Overview: (1) (2)
    Thumbnail
    A. Procedures
    B. 6th Amendment
    C. Due Process
    D. Suppression
    Overview: Pretrial ID are governed by (1) DPC and (2) 6th A right to counsel (after formal charges). MIRANDA DOES NOT APPLY.

    • Thumbnail:
    • (1) 6th A (formal charges; attorney present?) 
    • (2) Due Process (reliability?)
    • (3) Suppression? 
  19. III. PRE TRIAL IDENTIFICATION
    A. Procedures
    B. 6th Amendment
    C. Due Process
    D. Suppression 
    • A. Procedures:
    •   (1) Line up: W asked to ID prep from group
    •   (2) Show up: one-on-one confrontation b/t W & suspect 
    •   (3) Photo array: W asked to ID perp from series of photos
    • B. 6th Amendment:
    •   (1) Trigger:After formal charges
    •   (2) Rule: suspect has right to counsel at live pretrial ID procedures (line up, show up, NOT photo array) 
  20. III. PRE TRIAL IDENTIFICATION
    A. Procedures
    B. 6th Amendment
    C. Due Process
    D. Suppression 
    • C. Due Process
    •   (1) Test: reliability (procedure arranged by police cannot be so unnecessarily suggestive that there's substantial liklihood of misidentification.

    • D. Suppression
    •   (1) Rule: exclude W from IDing suspect in court UNLESS prosecution can show ID is product of crime scene observation and not improper ID.
    • Factors:
    •      (a) opportunity to view suspect at crime scene
    •      (b) specificity of W's description to police
    •      (c) certainty of ID 
  21. IV. GRAND JURIES
    A. Function
    B. Facts 
    • A. Grand juries issue indictments upon PC.
    • B. Facts:
    • (1) 5th A requires GJ indictment for federal felonies
    • (2) Proceedings are closed to the public
    • (3) Prosecution presents evidence, including hearsay
    • (4) No right to counsel for W, even suspects 
  22. V. PRETRIAL DETENTION
    A. Standard
    B. Initial Appearance
    • A. Std: PC satisfied by 
    •   (1) GJ indicitment
    •   (2) valid arrest warrant
    •   (3) prelim hearing (if arrest in public), which
    •      (a) must be prompt (48 hours)
    •      (b) may be ex parte (w/o D or attny)
    • B. Initial Appearance
    •   (1) Required promoptly after arrest
    •   (2) Magistrate informs of charges, rights, appoints counsel, sets bail:
    •      (a) 8th A against excessive bail
    •      (b) bail determination immediately appealable
  23. VI. TRIAL RIGHTS
    A. Brady Rule
    B. Unbiased Judge
    C. Confrontation
    D. Jury Trial
    E. Right to Counsel 
    A. Brady Rule: DP requires prosecution to turn over all material exculpatory evidence.

    B. Unbiased Judge: DP guarantees judge with no (1) financial stake, (2) actual bias, (3) serious risk of actual bias.
  24. VI. TRIAL RIGHTS
    A. Brady Rule
    B. Unbiased Judge
    C. Confrontation
    D. Jury Trial
    E. Right to Counsel 
    • C. Confrontation:
    • (1) Rule: 6A right to confrontation requires exclusion of pretrial statements of adverse witnesses that are testimonial if:
    •  (a) W is unavailable, and
    •  (b) Def had no prior opp to cross examine.
    • (2) Testimonial: Resonably expected to be used at trial.
    •  (a) Testimonial: grand jury testimony, prelim hearing, former trial, lab report, investigative police interview.
    •  (b) NOT testimonial: 911 call, police interview if primary purpose is responding to ongoing emergency.
    • (3) Exception: face-to-face confrontation would contravene important public policy. 
  25. VI. TRIAL RIGHTS
    A. Brady Rule
    B. Unbiased Judge
    C. Confrontation
    D. Jury Trial
    E. Right to Counsel 
    • D. Jury Trial: 6A right to jury attaches if maximum possible sentence exceeds 6 months.
    • (1) Composition:      
    •      (a) Voir dire must represent fair cross section of community.     
    •      (b) actual jury need not.     
    •      (c) Preemptory challenges cannot be used for race or gender.

    • (2) Unanimity     
    •      (a) required for 6 person jury   
    •      (b) not required for 12 person jury.         
    •           (i). 9-3 ok, 8-4 prob not ok.
  26. VI. TRIAL RIGHTS
    A. Brady Rule
    B. Unbiased Judge
    C. Confrontation
    D. Jury Trial
    E. Right to Counsel 
    E. Right to Counsel: 6A provides right to counsel if defendant actually sentenced to prison.

    • (1) Ineffective assistance of counsel:
    •      (a) deficient performance under objective standard of resonableness.
    •      (b) prejudice (would've had different outcome but-for) 
  27. Right to Jury
    vs.
    Right to Attorney 
    • Jury: Possible sentence exceeds 6 months.
    • Atty: Actual sentence is imprisonment. 

    • Ex: Statutory Maximum 12 months; judge fines. 
    •      Jury = Yes (>6 mo)
    •      Atty = No (no jail time)
    • Ex: Statutory Maximum 3 months; 1 day sentence. 
    •      Jury = No (<6 mo)
    •      Atty = Yes (jail time) 
  28. VII. GUILTY PLEAS
    A. Plea-Taking
    B. Withdrawal of Plea 
    • A. Plea-Taking: Judge must address on the record:
    •      (1) nature of charge,
    •      (2) maximum and minimum (if any) authoirzed sentence 
    •      (3) right to plead not guilty and to trial
    •      (4) defendant waiving right to trail

    • B. Withdrawal: NOT allowed, UNLESS:
    •      (1) Defective plea-taking (above)
    •      (2) jurisdictional defect
    •      (3) ineffective assistance of counsel, or
    •      (4) prosecutor fails to fulfill his side of plea bargain 
  29. VIII. PUNISHMENT
    A. 8A
         (1) Test
         (2) Death Penalty
               (a) defective process
               (b) ineligible Offenders
    Define 8A: Prohibits cruel and unusual punishments in light of evolving standards of societal deciency. 

    Test: Grossly disproportionate to seriousness of offense.
  30. VIII. PUNISHMENT
    A. 8A   
     (1) Test   
     (2) Death Penalty
         (a) defective procress
         (b) Ineligible Offenders
    • Defective Process: (8th A violation)
    • (1)     Automatic Imposition
    • (2)     Non-homicide crime
    • (3)     Without consideration of all potentially mitigating evidence
    •  
    • Ineligible Offenders:
    • (1)     Mentally retarded
    • (2)     insane at time of execution
    • (3)     minor at time of offense (or life without parole if non-homicide crime)
  31. IX. DOUBLE JEOPARDY
    A.     5th A prohibits:
    B.     Attachment
    C.     Same Offenses
    D.     Same Soverign
    E.     Exceptions 
    • A. 5th A Prohibits a person being put
    • (1) twice in jeopardy of life or limb
    • (2) for the same offense
    • (3) by the same soverign

    • B. Attachment: once jeopardy "attaches" they cannot be prosectued again for the same offense
    • (1) Jury trial:  When jury trial is impaneled and sworn in
    • (2) Bench Trial: When 1st W is sworn in.
    • (3) Guilty Plea: When judge accepts plea unconditionally.
    • (4) Civil: NO JEOPARDY 
  32. IX. DOUBLE JEOPARDY
    A.     5th A prohibits:
    B.     Attachment
    C.     Same Offenses
    D.     Same Soverign
    E.     Exceptions
    • C. Same Offenses:
    • (1) Test: Not same ofense if each has an additional element the other does not. 
    • ABC & BCD = may be tried for both.
    • AB & ABC = may NOT be tried for both. May not be tried for lesser included offenses. 

    • D. Same Soverign:  Rule: Different soverigns may prosecute for the same conduct. 
    • Fed & State may both prosecute.
    • Different states may both prosecute.
    • State and municipality may NOT both prosecute.

    • E. EXCEPTIONS: (May try again)
    • (1) hung jury (may try again)
    • (2) mistrial due to manifest necessity (ex: D hopsitalized)
    • (3) after successful appeal
    •      [erroneously admitted evidence]
    • (4) Breach of plea bargain by D
  33. X. SELF-INCRIMINATION
    A.     5th A prohibits
    B.     Application
    C.     Elimination of 5A Privilege  
    • A.     5th A prohibits compelled testimony in a criminal case.
    •      1.     Prosecution cannot comment on invocation of privy
    • B.     Application 
    •      1.     Anyone may invoke it: (a) in custodial interrogation and [Miranda] (b) in any proceeding with testimony under oath [taking the 5th].
    •      2.     NOT APPLICABLE: (a) to physical evidence [voice, writing samples], (b) prior uncompelled communication [diary, contract].
    • C.     Elimination of privy (a) use and derivative use testimony [prosecution may compel testimony but may not use it to convict], (b) D testifies [waives anything within proper scope of cross] (c) SOL [privy unavailable once SOL on underlying crime has run].

     

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