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2012-07-04 12:52:58
biology genes

Biology 110, tutorials 1-4 for test1- Su2012
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  1. In _____ individuals (e.g., bacteria, Hydra) produce genetically identical offspring termed clones.
    asexual reproduction
  2. In _________ the genetic material from two parents combines to form offspring who are genetically distinct from their parents (and who are also distinct from other siblings produced by the same parents).
    sexual reproduction
  3. The inheritance of traits is due to the transmission of ______ from parents to offspring, and these ______ code for the physical similarities that we observe
  4. Genes occupy specific positions on chromosomes. More than one form of a gene may exist, and these alternative forms of the gene ( called ________) result in the formation of slightly different proteins and enzymes that sometimes manifest themselves as differences in physical appearance, physiological functioning, etc.
  5. two chromosomes in a pair also have the same genes; if a gene for hair color is located at one location on one chromosome (locus), its _________ chromosome will have the hair color gene at the same location.(may or may not cotain the same alleles)
  6. reproductive cells termed sperm and eggs are __________
  7. Adults produce gametes by _________ (division), and each gamete contains only one-half the number of chromosomes found in the nonreproductive cells of the parent.
  8. The nonreproductive cells (containing 46 chromosomes) are called _______ cells, and are abbreviated as "2n."
  9. The gametes (containing 23 chromosomes) are called _______ cells, and are abbreviated as "n."
  10. When a haploid ovum and a haploid sperm unite through fertilization, a diploid ______ is produced.
  11. _________ has three essential phases, (1) pairing of homologous chromosomes, (2) locking of the chromosomes together via crossing over, and (3) disjunction or segregation of the chromosomes into two daughter cells.
  12. At the conclusion of meiosis, #____ daughter cells are formed, each with one-half the normal number of chromosomes
  13. _____________, occurs in metaphase I, when the homologous chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate. Orientation of the pairs is random
    independent assortment
  14. chromosome combinations in humans are 2^(n?)=8,388,608
    23rd power; (n= to the number of haploid chromosomes)
  15. one source of genetic variation (during meiosis) is the exchange of genetic material between the maternal and paternal chromosomes, a process called __________________ or recombination.(PROPHASE I)
    crossing over
  16. Mendel defined a _________ as a heritable feature for which variants exist, and a _____ as a particular variant of [answer #1]
    character; trait
  17. The trait that was expressed in the F1 generation was termed a _____ trait
  18. Although not present in the F1 generation, the trait exhibited by the one parent(P) reappeared in F2 generation, at approximately a 3:1 ratio of one parental trait to the other. The trait that reappeared in the F2 generation was termed a _________ trait
  19. An organism's _________ is its genetic makeup for a particular trait; that is, a listing of its alleles at a given location
  20. The ________ is the organism's appearance; that is, the trait produced by the alleles at the location for that trait.
  21. A _________ cross involves the crossing of individuals and the examination of a single character (flower color or seed color or pod shape, etc.) in their offspring.
  22. A _______ cross is used to determine the genotype of an individual with a dominant trait. In a _______ cross, an individual with the dominant phenotype is crossed with a fully recessive individual.
  23. Law of segregation occurs during _________ I
  24. a ________ cross is a cross between F1 offspring (first-generation offspring) of two individuals that differ in two traits of particular interest. For example, Bb x Bb
  25. it is more common that one gene can have multiple effects; this is called ___________ (ie. albino + crossed eyes)
  26. Sometimes a gene at one location on a chromosome can affect the expression of a gene at a second location; this is called ____________ (ie. recessive horse pigment code overrides horse brown color dominance)
  27. Quantitative characters usually indicate that the character is controlled by more than one gene; this is called ____________. (ie. skin color tone)
    polygenic inheritance
  28. part of mitosis. It is the beginning stage where chromatin start to duplicate inside the nuclear envelope: ____phase
  29. During _____phase nuclear envelope disapears, chromosomes in the nucleus condense
  30. During _____phase, the chromosomes move to the cell equator
  31. During ____phase, chromosomes separate (centromeres split, sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite cell poles, each chromatid is now a separate chromosome)
  32. during ___phase, chromosomes relax (nuclear envelopes (2) reform, chromosomes begin to uncoil)
  33. during _____________, cell cytoplasm divides and two new daughter cells are now separate
  34. homologous chromosome pairs align during metaphase __ (I or II?)
  35. meiosis __ (I or II) separates the homologous chromosomes; meiosis __ (I or II) separates sister chromatids [by mitosis]
    I; II
  36. Alleles segregate during the production of gametes, this is called the law of _______________
  37. When homologous chromosome pairs (randomly) align during Metaphase I, this is the law of _________________
    independent assortment

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