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Ruled Egypt; One of Diadochoi (successors of Alexander—his generals because Alexander’s children were too young to rule…generals divided empire into 3 divisions (all of which wanted each other’s country)
Ruled Persia; One of Diadochoi (successors of Alexander—his generals because Alexander’s children were too young to rule…generals divided empire into 3 divisions (all of which wanted each other’s country)
Ruled Macedon; One of Diadochoi
- logos, focus on reason
- -believed that the world as we have it is made out of a substance…the less pure of the substance is the physical reality around us…the purest of the substance is reason.
- Rationality/reason (aka “logos”) permeates the world around us
- This means, the world and the fate that determines the world is all moving in a rational direction—whether or not we see that.
- Therefore you should live in keeping with reason—reason is what dictates good living
- atoms, materialism, pleasure
- The world is made up of little packages of matter (atoms) that bounce into each other and glob up together that manifest themselves into bigger things (like tables).
- when something decays, your observing dead atoms falling off
- This means we are just a bundle of atoms—so when humans die, we just decay (no after life)
- This is not something to fear…because you simply won’t be around anymore…so in this world you should maximize pleasure and minimize pain
- But for them this did not mean crazy life…they thought that what maximizes pleasure, are things like relationship and living an ethical life that at the end you can be proud of
- social critique (some people called Jesus this)
- Very poor and engaged in social critique—looked at the way that society acts as very false
- There’s something deep down in us that we need to get in touch with—being “well inside.”(Living in the virtue of wisdom)
- What inhibits you from doing this is constructs of society…so they would do crazy things (i.e. defecating in public) to break down social constructs
- rabbinic teachers; Somewhere in between free will and deterministic
- Interpret OT, but also interpret it in light of traditional oral/Rabbinic Law
- lots of Rabbinic connections still today
- power elite, reject resurrection and oral tradition; radical free will
- believed in radical free will for human beings
- Tended to be ancient Jewish power elite: most connected politically and with power base of high priesthood
- Rejected the idea of the resurrection
- Rejected oral tradition/Rabbinic Law (only accepted the canon/written Law)
- monastic, Qumran; human existence is deterministic
- Human being’s existence is deterministic…every step is highly determined
- Strong monastic tendencies…often did not marry
- Some guess that Dead Sea Scrolls originated from Essene group
- wide ranging group of people with a variety of movements…but shared the notion of wanting pagan rule overthrown and kingdom returned to Jewish people
- Part of “4th Philosophy": interested in regaining political control of Judea--overthrow pagan rule
- not very well defined by Josephus like the other three sects were
- (dagger-men) Ancient assassins
- Part of “4th Philosophy”: interested in regaining political control of Judea--overthrow pagan rule (not very well defined by Josephus like the other three sects were)
- pro-Herodian kingly line
- wanted to see Jewish monarchy of the Herodians reestablished.
- Excited when Agrippa becomes king.
- heritage traced back to ancient Israel, but in Assyrian exile intermarried.
- Lived in between Galilee and Judea…Judeans did not see them as true-blood Jews, so a good Jewish person would separate from Samaritan b/c they are unclean
- As far as beliefs, Samaritans accepted Pentateuch of OT, but did not accept any of the historical books after it.
- They also had their own history of kingdom.
- Jewish-looking religious practices, but with significant differences
- strong debates between groups about where temple should be (northern or southern kingdom).
Full-fledged GENTILE converts (circumcised, baptized, full keeping of Law)
- Gentile religious sympathizers
- Showed up on Sabbath with some interest…and might use Jewish Law to help determine own ethics…but not willing to be circumcised/full keeping of Law
- LXX – Greek Translation
- Translation about 200 years before NT…it technically only refers to Pentateuch, but came to be applied to whole of first major Greek translation of OT
- Legend associated with it: Tollany in Eypt was collecting a great library in Egypt, and he wanted to include Palestine’s. So he had people come from Palestine to translate—he gathered roughly 70 people, which he put in 70 different rooms (to make their own translation). When he brought them all out, they were word for word the same.
- While it is probably not true, legend does show the great respect people had for this translation
- Major translation used by early church
- later church became more suspicious of Septuagint, so came up with their own Greek translations, which are associated with their writers: Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotian.
Aramaic ‘paraphrases’ of scripture that came about during worship services--as passage would be read in Hebrew, then paraphrased in Greek
- OT books not in protestant Canon, that are intertestamental works of Jewish
- Catholics include these in their Bible, but Protestants do not because Jews did not include them in their Canon.
Also inter-testamental works of Jewish, written in the name of someone else (like Enoch)
talmudic and midrashic rabbinic literature:
- talmudic (primarily topical)
- Mishnah: codifying Jewish Law (earliest of documents) Tosefta : additions to Mishnah
- Jerusalem and Babylonian Talmuds: commentaries on Mishnah
- midrashic (commentary form)…quote old Rabbinic sayings about that text
- Midrash Rabbah
- Mekhilta: Exodus
- Sifra: Leviticus
- Sifre: etc.