Bio test

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Bio test
2010-04-25 15:23:21

ch. 42, 43, 51
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  1. Arteriole
    • A vessel that conveys blood between an artery and a capillary bed
  2. Artery
    A vessel that carries blood away from the heart to organs throughout the body
  3. Atria
    A chamber of the vertebrate heart that receives blood from the veins and transfers blood to a ventricle
  4. Atrioventricular Valves
    A heart valve located between each atrium and ventricle that prevents a backflow of blood when the ventricle contracts
  5. Blood pressure
    Force exerted by blood against vessel walls
  6. Capillary
    A microscopic blood vessel that penetrates the tissues and consists of a single layer of endothelial cells that allows exchange between the blood and interstitial fluid.
  7. Cardiac cycle
    The alternating contractions and relaxations of the heart
  8. Closed circulatory system
    A circulatory system in which blood is confined to vessels and is kept separate from the interstitial fluid
  9. Diastole
    The stage of the cardiac cycle in which a heart chamber is relaxed and fills with blood
  10. Edema
  11. Erythrocyte
    A blood cell that contains hemoglobin, which transports oxygen, also called a red blood cell
  12. Heart apex
  13. Hemolymph
    In invertebrates with an open circulatory system, the body fluid that bathes tissues
  14. Leukocyte
    A blood cell that funtions in fighting infections, also called a white blood cell.
  15. Lymph
    The colorless fluid, derived from interstitial fluid, in the lymphatic system of vertebrates
  16. Open circulatory system
    A circulatory system in which fluid called hemolymph bathes the tissues and organs directly and there is no distinction between circulatory fluid and the interstitial fluid
  17. Peripheral resistance
  18. Plasma
    The liquid matrix of blood in which the cells are suspended
  19. Platelet
    A pinched-off cytoplasmic fragment of a specialized bone marrow cell. Platelets circulate in the blood and are important in blood clotting
  20. Pulmonary circuit
    The branch of the circulatory system that supplies the lungs
  21. Purkinje fibers
  22. Semilunar valve
    A valve located at each exit of the heart, where the aorta leaves the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery leaves the right ventricle
  23. Systemic circuit
    The branch of the circulatory system that supplies all body organs except those involved in gas exchange
  24. Ventricles
    A heart chamber that pumps blood out of the heart
  25. Vein
    In animals, a vessel that carries blood toward the heart
  26. Venule
    A vessel that conveys blood between a capillary bed and a vein
  27. Alveoli
    One of the dead-end, multilobed air sacs where gas exchange occurs in a mammalian lung
  28. Bronchi
    One of a pair of breathing tubes that branch from the trachea into the lungs
  29. Bronchioles
    A fine branch of the bronchi that transports air to the alveoli
  30. Countercurrent exchange
    The exchange of a eubstance or heat between two fluids flowing in opposite directions
  31. Hemoglobin
    An iron-containing protein in red blood cells that reversibly binds oxygen
  32. Myoglobin
    An oxygen-storing, pigmented protein in muscle cells
  33. Partial pressure
    The pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mixture of gases
  34. Tidal volume
    The volume of air a mammal inhales and exhales with each breath
  35. Tracheal system
    In insects, a system of branched, air-filled tubes that extends throughout the body and carries oxygen directly to cells
  36. Ventilation
    The flow of air or water over a respiratory surface
  37. Bohr shift
    A lowering of the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, caused bya drop in pH. It facilitatkes the release of oxygen from hemoglobin in the vicinity of active tissues
  38. Acquired (adaptive) immunity
    A vertebrate-specific defense that is mediated by B lumphocytes and T lymphocytes. It exhibits specificity, memory, and self-nonself recognition.
  39. Innate immunity
    A form of defense common to all animals that is active immediately upon exposure to pathogens and that is the same whether or not the pathogen has been encounterred previously
  40. Antibody/ Immunoglobulin
    A protien secreted by plasma cells that binds to a particular antigen. All antibody molecules have the same Y-shaped structures and in their monomer form consist of two identical heavy chains of two identical light chains
  41. Lysozyme
    An enzyme that destroys bacterial cell walls' in mammals, found in sweat, tears, and saliva
  42. Phagocytosis
    A type of endocytosis in which large particulate substances are taken up by a cell. It is carried out by some protists and by certian immune cells of animals. In mammals mainly macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells.
  43. Macrophage
    A phagocytic cell present in many tissues that functions in innate immunity by destroying microbes and in acquired immunity as an antigen-presenting cell
  44. Complement system
    A group of about 30 blood proteins that may amplify the inflammatory response, enhance phagoocytosis, or idrectly lyse extracellular pathogens
  45. Interferon
    A protin that has antiviral or immune regulatory functions. Interferon-a and interferon-b, secreted by virus-infected cells, help nearby cells resist vireal infection; interferon-y, secreted by T cells, helps activate microphages
  46. Inflammatory response
    An innate immune defense triggered by physical injury or infection of tissue involving the release of substances that promote swelling, enhance the infiltration of white blood cells, and aid in tissue repair and destruction of invading pathogens
  47. Natural killer (NK) cell
    A type of white blood cell that can kill tumor cells and virus infected cells as part of innate immunity
  48. Cytokines
    Any of a group of protines secreted by a number of cell types, including macrophages and helper T cells, that regulate the function of lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system
  49. Antigen
    A macromolecule that elicits an immune response by binding to receptors of B cells or T cells
  50. Epitope
    A small, accessible region of an antigen to which an antigen receptor or antibody binds, also called an antigenic determinant
  51. B-cell receptor
    The antigen receptor on B cells, a Y-shaped, membrane-bound molecule consisting of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains linked by disulfide bridges and containing two antigen-binding sites
  52. B lymphocyte (B cell)
    The lymphocytes that complete their development in the bone marrow and become effector cells for the humoral immune response
  53. T-cell receptor
    The antigen receptor on T cells; a membrane-bound molecule consisting of one alpha chain and one beta chain linked by a disfulfide bridge and containing one antigen bidning site
  54. Major histocompatibility complexy (MHC)
    A family of genes that encode a large set of cell-surface protiens that function in antigen presentation. Foreign MHC molecules on transplanted tissue can trigger T cell responses that may lead to rejection of the transplant
  55. Effector cells
    A lymphcyte that has undergone clonal selection and is capable of mediating an acquired immune response
  56. Memory cells
    One of a clone of long-lived lymphocytes, formed during the primary immune response, that remains in a lymphoid organ until activiated by exposure to the same antigen that triggered its formation. Activated memory cells mount the secondary immune response.
  57. Clonal selection
    The process by which an antigen selectively binds to and activates only those lymphocytes bearing receptors specific for the antigen. The selected lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate into a clone of effector cells and a clone of memory cells specific for the stimulating antigen
  58. Humoral immune response
    The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of B cells and that leads to the production of antibodies, which defend against bacteria and viruses in body fluids
  59. Cell-mediated immune response
    The branch of acquired immunity that involved the activation of cytotoxic T cells, which defend against infected cells
  60. Neutrophil
    The most abundant type of white blood cell. Neutrophils are phaocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days.
  61. T helper cells
    A type of T cell that , when activated, secretes cytokines that promote the response of b cells (humoral response) and cytotoxic T cells (cell-mediated response) to antigens
  62. Antigen presentation
    The process by which an MHC molecule binds to a fragment of an intracellular protien antigen and carries it to the cell surface, which it is displayed and can be recognized by a T cell.
  63. TLR
    Toll-like receptor. a membrane receptor on a phagocytic white blood cell that recognizes fragments of molecules common to set of pathogens
  64. Primary immune response
    The initial acquired immune resonse to an antigen, which appears after a lag of about 10 to 17 days.
  65. Secondary immune response
    The acquired immune response elicited on second or subsequent exposures to a particular antigen, The secondary immune response is more rapid, of greater magnitued, and of longer duration thatn the primary immune response.
  66. Dendritic cell
    An antigen-presenting cell, located mainly in lymphatic tissues and skin, that is particulalry efficeitn in presenting antigens to helper T cells, thereby initiating a primary immune resposne
  67. Active immunity
    Long-lasting immunity conferred by the action of B cells and T cells and the resulting B and T memory cells specific for a pathogen. Active immunity can develop as a result of natural infection of immunization
  68. Passive immunity
    Short-term immunity conferred by the transfer of antibodies, as occurs in the transfer of maternal antibodies to a fetus or nursing infant.
  69. Immunodeficiency
    • A disorder in which the ability of an immune system to protect against pathogens is defective or absent.
  70. Stimulus
    In homeostasis, a fluctuation in a variable that triggers a return to a set point
  71. Sensory trasnduction
    The conversion of stimulus energy to a change in the membrane potential of a sensory receptor cell
  72. Receptor potential
    An initial response of a receptor cell to a stimulus, consisting of a change in voltage across the receptor membrane proportional to the stiumuls strength. The intensity of the receptor potential determines the frequency of action potentials traveling to the nervous system
  73. Perception
    The interpretation of sensory system input by the brain
  74. Adaptation
    Inherited characteristic of an organism that enhances its survival and reproduction in specific enviroments
  75. Myofibril
    A fibril collectively arranged in longitudinal bundles in muscle cells (fibers); composed of thin filaments of actin and regulatory protien and thick filaments of myosin
  76. Sacromere
    The fundamental, repeating unit of striated muscle, delimited by the Z lines
  77. Motor unit
    A single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it controls
  78. Tetanus
    The maximal, sustained contraction of a skeletal muscle, caused by a very high frequency of action potentials elicited by continual stimulation
  79. Endoskeleton
    A hard skeleton buried within the soft tissues of an animal
  80. Exoskeleton
    A hard encasement on the surface of an animal that provides protection and points of attachment for muscles
  81. Hydrostatic skeleton
    A skeletal sysstem complosed of fluid held under pressure in a closed body compartment
  82. Peristalsis
    A type of movement on land produced by rhythmic waves of muscle contractions passing from front to back, as in many annelids
  83. Myosin
    A type of protien filament that acts as a motor protien with actin filaments to cause cell contraction
  84. Tropomyosin
    the regulatory protein that blocks the moysin-binding sites on actin molecules