Restraints on the actions of government against individuals
The Fourteenth Amendment...
Provided a way to apply the Bill of Rights to the states
Holds that the Fourteenth Amendment incorporates the Bill of Rights into its restrictions on state government
The perspective that most of the protections of the Bill of Rights apply to state governments through the 14th Amendment is known as
The part of the First Amendment prohibiting the creation of a state-supported religion is the..
Separation of church and state..
Is a way of interpreting the First Amendment
..., the Supreme Court's most general statement on the constitutionality of government aid to religious schools, states that the aid has to be nonreligious in aim and that it cannot have the primary effect of advancing or inhibition religion.
The Lemon test
Proponents of school vouchers argue...
public schools are inadequate, and students should have a choice to apply state-issued funds to tuition at private as well as public schools, including religious schools.
In a school voucher system
Students are given vouchers to purchase education at public or private schools
The Supreme Court ruled that..
setting aside one minute of the school day for prayer or meditation without a clearly secular purpose is unconstitutional.
Teaching Darvins's theory of evolution in the public schools...
Is often controversial because the theory is not accepted as true by many Americans who feel it is contrary to their beliefs.
is supposed, according to proponents, to explain "gaps" in the theory of evolution that can only be filled by the existence of an intelligent creative force (GOD)
The provision of the First Amendment that guarantees the free exercise of religion is the...
free exercise clause
Prior restraint is defined as..
restraining an action before that activity has actually occurred.
Recently, at the Dearborn campus of the University of Michigan, a controversy arose..
when the school installed footwashing stations for Muslim students, raising questions of separation of church and state.
Symbolic speech is..
the nonverbal expression of beliefs.
Commercial speech is..
defined as advertising statements
According to the clear and present danger test, expression could be restricted if..
evidence exists that such expression would cause a condition that would endanger the public
Wrongfully hurting a person's good reputation is..
Defamation of character
a false statement that harms the good reputation of another.
Libel is ..
defamation in writing
True statement about Civil liberties..
specify what government cannot do, while civil rights specify what government must do to ensure equal protection and freedom from discrimination.
Generally speaking, civil rights..
are rooted in the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection under the law.
The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution...
In 1896 the United States Supreme Court ruled in the case Plessy v. Ferguson that..
separation of races is not a violation of the Constitution.
The direct result of the case of Plessy v. Ferguson was...
the development of a system of legal racial segregation known as "Jim Crow."
The tests commonly administered as a precondition for voting were called...
The white primary in Southern states allowed..
whites to exclude African Americans from voting in Democratic primaries.
In the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) the U.S. Supreme court held that...
public school segregation of races violates the equal protection clause of the Forteenth Amendment.
De facto segregation means
segregation because of previous conditions, not deliberate government intention.
....segregation occurs because of laws or administrative decisons by public agencies.
...led the Montgomery bus boycott, formed the Southern Christion Leadership Conference and became a driving force in the civil rights movements.
Martin Luther King
A nonviolent, public refusal to obey allegedly unjust laws is known as...
The Civil rights Act of 1964 did not do the following.
require affirmative action policies at all public universities
The civil rights movement led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was based on the philosophy of..
nonviolent civil disobedience.
The Civil Rights Act of 1968..
prohibilts discrimination in housing
As a result of The Voting Rights Act of 1965 and its amendments, the number of African Americans registered to vote..
...is the right to vote
In the U.S. women gained the right to vote nationwide..
after Britain and Canada but before Japan and Italy.
A practice, policy, or procedure that denies equality of treatment to an individual or to a group because of gender...
is gender discrimination.
The Bill of Rights guarantees "due process of law" to...
The policy in admissions or hiring that gives special consideration to traditionally disadvantaged groups to overcome the present effects of past discrimination is known as...
The charge that some affirmative action programs discriminate against non-minorities is called...
General agreement among the citizenry on an issue is...
The process by which people acquire political beliefs and attitudes is...
True statement infering to political socialization.
The 1960s and 1970s, dominated by events such as Vietnam and Watergate, gave rise to widespread cynicism about the government.
The first election that indicated the presense of a gender gap was won by..
Ronald Regan in 1980.
People who live in large cities tend to be more politically ...than those wo live in smaller communities.
Usually, the Gallup or Roper polls interview..
about 1,500 people in a nationwide sample.
Public opinion affects the political process...
because it is a source of power for elected officials who take positions supported by the people.