Neurology A&P

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Neurology A&P
2012-07-05 09:28:39

Neurology A&P
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  1. Central Nervous System CNS
    • Brain and Spinal Cord
    • interprets incoming sensory information and issues instructions.
  2. Peripheral Nervous System
    • Lies outside the CNS
    • 2 Divisions
    • Somatic nervous System - voluntary
    • Autonomic System - Involuntary
  3. Somatic Nervous System
    • Division of the Peripheral Nervous system.
    • Sends messages from CNS to skeletal muscles.
    • Voluntary
  4. Autonomic Nervous System
    • Division of the Peripheral Nervous system.
    • Sends messages from the CNS to Smooth muscle, Cardiac Muscles, and certain glands.
    • Maintains internal homeostasis
  5. Autonomic Nervous System Subdivisions
    • Sympathetic Nervous System - fight or flight (raises vital signs and increases secretions of adrenal gland)
    • Parasympathetic Nervous System - calms the body lowers vital signs and adrenal hormone output
  6. Cells of the Nervous System
    • Neurons - carry messages to and from the brain ad spinal cord.
    • Neuroglial (Glial cells) - support cells that protect neurons while producing CSF
  7. Axon
    Cylindric extension of the nerve cell conducts impulses away from the neuron
  8. Dendrites
    Extend from the cell body of the neuron and receive impulses
  9. All or none law
    There is never a partial transmission of a message. Impulse is either strong enough to elicit a response or to week to generate the message
  10. Neuromuscular Junction
    The junction between a nerve fiber and the muscle it supplies.
  11. Common neurotransmitters
    • Acetylcholine
    • Norepinephrine
    • Dopamine
    • Serotonin
  12. Acetylcholine
    speeds transmission of impulse
  13. Norepinephrine
    Maintains arousal (awakening from deep sleep)
  14. Dopamine
    Affects motor functions (gross subconscious movements)
  15. Serotonin
    • Induces sleep
    • Affects sensory perception
    • Controls temp
    • Role in control of mood
  16. 4 Divisions of the Brain
    • Cerebrum
    • Diencephalon
    • Cerebellum
    • Brainstem (midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata)
  17. Basal Ganglia
    • Bands of gray matter deep within the cerebral hemispheres
    • Forms the extrapyramidal system
    • Controls automatic movement associated with skeletal muscle activity.
  18. Cerebrum
    • Cerebral cortex - outer gray matter
    • Gyri - Convolutions folds
    • sulci - Fissures grooves
    • Corpus Callosum - Connecting structure
  19. Lobes of the Cerebrum
    • Frontal
    • Parietal
    • Temporal
    • Occipital
  20. Frontal Lobe
    • Write and Speak (Broca's area)
    • Motor ability
    • Intellectualization
  21. Parietal Lobe
    • interpretation of sensory impulses from skin
    • Determination of left from right
  22. Temporal Lobes
    • Language comprehension (Wernicke's Area)
    • Auditory stimuli
  23. Occipital Lobe
    Interpretation of visual impulses
  24. Diencephalon
    • Thalamus -relay station (pain, light, touch and pressure)
    • Hypothalamus - body temp, fluid balance, appetite, sleep, fear, pleasure, and pain
  25. Thalamus
    Relay station (pain, light, touch and pressure)
  26. Hypothalamus
    • Body temp, fluid balance, appetite, sleep, fear, pleasure, and pain.
    • controls Sympathetic and Parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic system,
    • Influences heartbeat, Blood vessel contraction and relaxation, hormone secretion and vital body functions.
  27. Cerebellum
    • Coordination of voluntary movement
    • Maintenance of balance, equilibrium, muscle tone
  28. Midbrain
    • portion of the brainstem
    • movement
    • relay of impulses
    • auditory and visual reflexes
  29. Pons
    • Portion of the brainstem
    • sends impulses to structures inferior and superior
    • Contains respiratory centers
  30. Medulla Oblongata
    • controls heartbeat
    • rhythm of breathing
    • swallowing, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, hiccups
  31. Meninges
    • Three layers of connective tissue that surround the brain and spinal cord.
    • Dura mater - outermost layer
    • Arachnoid membrane - second layer
    • Pia mater - innermost layer, provides oxygen and nourishment to the nervous tissue
  32. Ventricles
    Four cavities in the brain where cerebrospinal fluid is formed.
  33. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
    contains protein, glucose, urea, salts and substances that for a blood-brain barrier.
  34. Spinal cord main funtions
    • conduct impulses to and from the brain
    • center for reflex actions (knee jerk or patellar reflex)
  35. Spinal Nerves
    • 31 pairs named according to corresponding vertebra
    • Transmits sensory info to the spinal cord through the afferent neuron (away from body part)
    • and motor info from the CNS to the various areas of the body through efferent neurons (to the body part).
  36. Cranial Nervs
    • 12 Pairs
    • 11 conduct impulses between the head, neck and brain
    • 1 (vagus nerve) serves organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities