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  1. Mophological Types
    • Isolating
    • Aggulatinative
    • Inflectional
  2. Isolating
    • analytic:  one morpheme for every meaning
    • ex- he puts (3rd person & present tense)
    • In an isolated language there are no affixes. 
    • A word is added into the sentence to change the tense & such.  
    • Words don't change their shape (no s)
    • Asian Languages (tonal)  
  3. Agglutinative
    • the affixes are very obvious where they are & how to put them on to words
    • They are like building blocks
    • Turkish
  4. Inflectional
    • affixes can not be separated to do one thing
    • they mean more than one thing
    • English- but no language is a true example  
  5. Syntactic Types
    • SVO
    • SOV
    • VSO 
  6. SVO
    • Subject-Verb-Object
    • ex- I love grapes.
    • 50% of languages 
  7. SOV
    • Subject-Object-Verb
    • Taro-ga inv-o mita (Japanese)
    • 20% of languages 
  8. VSO
    • Verb-Subject-Object
    • Boi ri amrae for laignib  (Irish)
    • Was king famous of/on/in Leinster
    • Less than 10 % of languages 
  9. Chomskyean
    • language is universal. 
    • Every child is born with the exact things in their mind.
    • Behaviorist view for language
    • reviewed B.F. Skinner's Book
    • Poverty of stimulus
    • Children are born with an innate ability for language  
  10. Poverty of stimulus
    • kids make mistakes such as I goes to school
    • never make certain mistakes I saw the man who lives over there is the mayor.
  11. LAD
    • Language Acquisition Device
    • discussed as though it's an organ of the mind.
    • There are different descriptive rules based ont he environment in which they live.
    • Chomsky is trying to figure out the LAD   
  12. Lack of true universals
    • If there was an LAD there would be consistency across languages
    • ex-functionalism: Joan Bybee 
  13. Language as a by-product of more general cognition
    • Memory:  a lot of language is a bi-product of memory
    • The structure of language is like memory
    • ex-sat doesn't follow the -ed pattern it just needs to be remembered.  
  14. Diachronic Universals
    • study of how language changes
    • slay--> slew / slay--> slayed is changing over time
    • when studying how languages change through time show similarities between each other 
  15. univerbating
    • becomes one word
    • going to --> gonna
    • happening in many languages  
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2nd Linguistics test
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