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- Language works because we want it to work.
- Inference is always working in language.
- Meaning making on the part of the
- all languages vary except dead languages
- individually: idiolect; style and register
- geographically: dialects
- socially: sociolectsd.
- temporally: “dialects” different languages
is the context of the linguistic activity
- setting: where you are
- Context/theme/topic: what you are talking about
- participants: who you are with
- congruent: the three discourse situations go together naturally
- ex- in a church talking about religion with a preist: this is fluent/no thought
- incongruent: thing are mixed and messed up
- ex-at a swimming pool talking about cooking recipes with a priest
- language choice based on discourse situation factors
- originally studied speakers who were bilingual switching between two languages
- Where there is usually older variety of a language spoken alongside a younger version of the same language
- Official Language
- Where there is a high language spoken used alongside a low language
- H- Domains: school, religion, government
- L- domains: home, social
- de jure- official by law
- de facto- may never be recognized (English)
- artificial- based off of French
- French Spanish English 1500
- tu tu informal thou thee
- vu usted formal ye you
- in some languages like Japanese and Korean similar to tu and vu but there are many levels (up to 8) depending on the people talking to.
- Can result in different verb forms.
- Slang: informal situations informal context
- ex-That is sick! (awesome)
- Familiar terms: nicknames
- ex-Laur for Laurenc.
- ESL students and formality: don’t have the same length and varieties of exposure as a native speaker
- ex- they learn formal language and speak formally which isn’t friendly and often a native speaker doesn’t choose to be friends because the signal isn’t there to be friends. They don’t know there is a familiar choice.
Lexical style differences
- informal- "That is sick!"
- formal- "That is wonderful!"
Grammatical Style Differences
- formal differences:
- spoken genre’s more of a tendency for Contractions
- omission of that – “She said 0 he lied"
- greater use of first and second person pronouns (I, me, we, us, you)