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2012-07-05 14:40:51
2nd test Linguistics 341

2nd Linguistics Test
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  1. Language
    • Language works because we want it to work.
    • Inference is always working in language. 
    • Meaning making on the part of the
    • listener. 
  2. Language variation
    • all languages vary except dead languages
    • individually:  idiolect; style and register
    • geographically: dialects
    • socially: sociolectsd.     
    • temporally: “dialects” different languages
  3. style
    uses the choice
  4. register
    is the context of the linguistic activity
  5. discourse situation/factors
    • setting: where you are
    • Context/theme/topic: what you are talking about
    • participants: who you are with 
    • congruent:  the three discourse situations go together naturally 
    • ex- in a church talking about religion with a preist: this is fluent/no thought       
    • incongruent: thing are mixed and messed up
    • ex-at a swimming pool talking about cooking recipes with a priest
  6. code switching
    • language choice based on discourse situation factors
    • originally studied speakers who were bilingual switching between two languages
  7. Classic Diglossia
    • Where there is usually older variety of a language spoken alongside a younger version of the same language
    • Extended
    • Official Language
  8. Extended
    • Where there is a high language spoken used alongside a low language 
    • H- Domains: school, religion, government
    • L- domains: home, social
  9. Official Language
    • de jure- official by law       
    • de facto-  may never be recognized (English)
  10. Style Choice
    • T/V system
    • Honorifics
  11. T/V system
    • artificial- based off of French 
    • French  Spanish                                    English 1500
    •   tu            tu                 informal        thou          thee
    • vu           usted            formal               ye           you
  12. honorifics
    • in some languages like Japanese and Korean similar to tu and vu but there are many levels (up to 8) depending on the people talking to. 
    • Can result in different verb forms.
  13. Lexical Choices
    • Slang: informal situations informal context
    • ex-That is sick! (awesome)
    • Familiar terms: nicknames    
    • ex-Laur  for Laurenc.        
    • ESL students and formality: don’t have the same length and varieties of exposure as a native speaker   
    • ex- they learn formal language and speak formally which isn’t friendly and often a native speaker doesn’t choose to be friends because the signal isn’t there to be friends.  They don’t know there is a familiar choice.
  14. Lexical style differences
    • informal- "That is sick!"
    • formal- "That is wonderful!"
  15. Grammatical Style Differences
    • formal differences:
    • spoken genre’s more of a tendency for Contractions
    • omission of that – “She said 0 he lied"
    • greater use of first and second person pronouns (I, me, we, us, you)