congruent: the three discourse situations go together naturally
ex- in a church talking about religion with a preist: this is fluent/no thought
incongruent: thing are mixed and messed up
ex-at a swimming pool talking about cooking recipes with a priest
language choice based on discourse situation factors
originally studied speakers who were bilingual switching between two languages
Where there is usually older variety of a language spoken alongside a younger version of the same language
Where there is a high language spoken used alongside a low language
H- Domains: school, religion, government
L- domains: home, social
de jure- official by law
de facto- may never be recognized (English)
artificial- based off of French
French Spanish English 1500
tu tu informal thou thee
vu usted formal ye you
in some languages like Japanese and Korean similar to tu and vu but there are many levels (up to 8) depending on the people talking to.
Can result in different verb forms.
Slang: informal situations informal context
ex-That is sick! (awesome)
Familiar terms: nicknames
ex-Laur for Laurenc.
ESL students and formality: don’t have the same length and varieties of exposure as a native speaker
ex- they learn formal language and speak formally which isn’t friendly and often a native speaker doesn’t choose to be friends because the signal isn’t there to be friends. They don’t know there is a familiar choice.
Lexical style differences
informal- "That is sick!"
formal- "That is wonderful!"
Grammatical Style Differences
spoken genre’s more of a tendency for Contractions
omission of that – “She said 0 he lied"
greater use of first and second person pronouns (I, me, we, us, you)