Student's diagram of his or her understanding of a concept
Bruner's approach, in which students work on thier own to discover basic principles.
Formulating general principles based on knowledge of examples and details.
Making imaginative leaps to correct perceptions or workable solutions
Drawing conclusions by applying rules or principles; logically moving from a general rule or principle to a specific solution.
An adaptation of discovery learning, in which the teacher provides some direction.
Statement of inclusive concepts to introduce and sum up material that follows.
Schema-driven problem solving
Recognizing a problem as a "disguised" version of an old problem for which one already has a solution.
Rigidity; tendency to respond in the most familiar way.
The tendency to hold onto beliefs, even in the face of contradictory evidence.
Seeking information that confirms our choices and beliefs, while disconfirming evidence.
Sudden realization of a solution
Coming up with many possible solutions.
Narrowing possibilities to a single answer.
General plans for approaching learning tasks.
Specific techniques for learning, such as using mnemonics or outlining a passage.
Tools for concept mapping developed by the Institute for Human Machine Cognition that are connected to many knowledge maps and other resources on the Internet.
Beliefs about the structure, stability, and certainty of knowledge and how knowledge is best learned.
Spontaneous and automatic transfer of highly practiced skills.
Application of abstract knowledge learned inone situation to a different situation.
Approach in which the teacher presents a puzzling situation and students solve the problem by gathering data and testing their conclusions
Methods that provide students with realistic problems that don't necessarily have "right" answers.
Social Learning Theory
Theory that emphasizes learning through observation of others.
Social Cognitive Theory
Theory that adds concern with cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions, and expectations to social learning theory.
A person's sense of being able to deal effectively with a particular task.
Changes in behavior, thinking, or emotions that happen through observing another person-a model.
Process of activating and sustaining thoughts, behaviors, and emotions in order to reach goals.
A view of learning as skills and will applied to analyzing learning tasks, setting goals and planning how to do the task, applying skills, and especially making adjustments about how learning is carried out.
The idea that skills and knowledge are tied to the situation in which they were learned and difficult to apply in new setting.
Multiple representations of content
Considering problems using various analgoies, examples, and metaphors.
Bruner's designe for teaching that introduces the fundamental structure of all subjects early in the school years, then revisits the subjects in more and more complex forms over time.
A relationship in which a less experienced learner acquires knowledge and skills under the guidance of an expert.
Stand-alone thinking skills programs
Programs that teach thinking skills directly without need for extensive subject matter knowledge.
Evaluating conclusions by logically and systematically examining the problem, the evidence, and the solution.
Locus of causality
The location-internal or external-of the cause of behavior.
Hierarchy of needs
Maslow's model of seven levels of human needs, from basic physiological requirements to the need for self-actualization.
fulfilling one's potential
maslow's four lower-level needs, which must be satisfied first.
Maslow's three higher-level needs, sometimes called growth needs.
Need for autonomy
the desire to have our own wishes, rather than external rewards or pressures, determine our actions.
Patterns of beliefs about goals related to achievement in school.
Students who focus on how well they are performing and how they are judged by others.
Descriptions fo how individuals' explanations, justifications, and excuses influence their motivation and behavior.
Beliefs about personal competence in a particular situation
the expectation, based on previous experiences with a lack of control, that all one's efforts will lead to failure.
Tasks that have some connection to real-life problems the students will face outside the classroom.
View that empahsizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and making sense of information.
Direct instruction/explicit teaching
Systematic instruction for mastery of basic skills, facts, and information
Teaching characterized by high levels of teacher explanation, demonstration, and interaction with students.
Clearly structured knowledge that is needed for later learning and that can be taught step by step.
Learning strategy in which two students take turns summarizing material and criticizing the summaries.
Sustaining expectation effect
Student performance maintained at a certain level because teachers don't recognize improvements.
A philosophical approach to teaching and learning that stresses learning through authentic, real-life tasks. Emphasizes using language to learn, integrating learning across skills and subjects, and respecting the language abilities of student and teacher.
A flexible approach to teaching that matches content, process, and product based on student differences in readiness, interests, and learning needs.
A group whose average score serves as a standard for evaluating any student's score on a test.
Degree of difference or deviation from mean.
Distance between the highest and the lowest scores in a group.
Measure of grade level based on comparison with norming samples from each grade.
Scores based on the standard deviation.
Qualities of an assessment instrument that offend or unfairly penalize a group of students because of the students' gender, socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, etc.
Individually administered tests to identify special learning problems.
Assessment procedures that require the student to create an answer instead of selecting an answer from a set of choices.