Exam 3: Nasal Cavities

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Exam 3: Nasal Cavities
2012-07-15 10:52:22
anatomy nasal cavities

review of 7/5 lecture on nasal cavities for exam 3
Show Answers:

  1. What part of the respiratory tract do the nasal cavities comprise?
    first part of upper respiratory tract
  2. The nasal cavities are continuous with the pharynx via:
    two openings (choanae)
  3. The pharynx leads to what?
    larynx and lower respiratory tract
  4. What is contained in the nasal mucosa?
    respiratory (ciliated) epithleium
  5. Is the respiratory epithleium highly vascular?
  6. What does the respiratory epithleium (mucosa) function to do?
    • humidify
    • heat/cool incoming air to match air present in lungs
    • filter air 
  7. The secretions of what keep the epitheium (muscosa) moist?
    many mucous glands
  8. What are the external features of the nasal cavities?
    • two nasal bones
    • various nasal cartilages
    • two external nares  
  9. What forms the roof of the nasal cavity?
    cribriform plate (ethmoid bone)
  10. What is contained in the cribriform plate?
    many olfactory foramina
  11. What is above the cribriform plate?
    cranial cavity
  12. What is contained in olfactory epithelium?
    sensory recptors for smell
  13. Where is the olfactory epithelium?
    covers inferior surface of cribriform plate
  14. Where do olfactory nerves enter the nasal cavities?
    via olfactory foramina
  15. The olfactory nerves pass through the olfactory foramina to terminate where?
    olfactory epithelium
  16. What is the nasal septum?
    separates two nasal cavities from one another
  17. What makes up the nasal septum?
    • vomer
    • perpendicular plate of ethmoid
    • septal cartilage 
  18. Is the vomer or the perpendicular plate of ethmoid more superior?
     perpendicular plate of ethmoid
  19. What covers the nasal septum?
    typical nasal mucosa
  20. What are in the lateral walls of the nasal cavities?
    three conchae (turbinates)
  21. What makes up the three conchae?
    composedof bone covered with nasal mucosa
  22. What is the function of the nasal conchae?
    • increase surface area of nasal cavities
    • facilitates "conditioning" of incoming air 
  23. The superior and middle conchae are processes of which bone?
    ethmoid bone
  24. Which bone is the inferior concha a process of?
    none, it is an independentbone
  25. What is found below each concha?
    an airspace or meatus
  26. Where is the superior nasal meatus?
    below superior concha
  27. What does the nasolacrimal duct drain?
    tears from eyes
  28. Where does the nasolacrimal duct empty?
    into inferior nasal meatus
  29. What is found just posterior to the superior concha?
    sphenoethmoidal recess
  30. The sphenoethmodal recess receives drainage from what?
    sphenoid sinus
  31. Which conchae might be absent in some people?
  32. What forms the floor of the nasal cavities?
    hard palate
  33. What are paranasal sinuses?
    air-filled spaces lined with moist mucosa found within some of the bones of the skull
  34. The secretions of the paranasal sinuses drain into what?
    middle nasal meatus and sphenoethmoid recess
  35. How are the paranasal sinuses named?
    according to bones in which they are contained
  36. What are the names of the paranasal sinuses?
    • frontal
    • maxillary
    • ethmoid
    • sphenoid
  37. Which sinuses are singular (not paired)?
    • frontal
    • sphenoid
  38. Which sinuses are bilateral?
    • maxillary
    • ethmoid
  39. The ethmoid sinuses are represented bilaterally by 8-10 air cells contained in:
    bony labyrinth of ethmoid bone in medial wall of orbit
  40. Which sinus is the biggest?
  41. What is the function of the paranasal sinuses?
    • decrease weight of skull
    • adds resonance to voice  
  42. Which sinus is at the greatest risk for infection?
    • maxillary
    • because opening is in upper reaches of sinus and is hard to drain (have to turn head horizontally) 
  43. What supplies blood to the nasal cavities?
    maxillary artery and its nasal branches
  44. Which branch of the maxillary artery is the major blood supply to the nasal cavity?
    sphenopalaine artery (with branches all over)
  45. Which cranial nerves provide innervation to the nasal cavities?
    • CN V1
    • CN V2
    • CN VII
    • CN I   
  46. In the nasal cavities, CN VI provides what?
    • sensory to ethmoid, sphenoid, and frontal sinuses
    • supeiror and middle conchae 
  47. In the nasal cavities, CN V2 provides what?
    sensory to maxillary sinus, palate and inferior conchae
  48. The trigeminal nerve detects what in the nasal cavity?
    • pain
    • temperature
    • pressure
    • touch
  49. What do parasympathetic motor fibers innervate in the nasal cavities?
    mucous glands and blood vessels
  50. Where are preganglionic parasympathetic motor fibers contained?
    greater petrosal nerve (brnch of VII)
  51. Which nerve does the greater petrosal nerve combine with?
    lesser petrosal nerve
  52. The greater petrosal n. combines with the lesser petrosal n. to form what?
    the nerve of pterygoid canal
  53. Which nerve does the nerve of the pterygoid canal join with?
    pterygopalatine ganglion
  54. Where is the pterygopalatine ganglion located?
    pterygopalatine fossa
  55. Where are postganglionic parasympathetic motor fibers originating in the pterygopalatine ganglion distributed?
    with sensory branches of CN V2 to nasal mucosa
  56. What does parasympathetic stimulation do in the nasal cavity?
    • increase mucous production
    • vasodilation
  57. Where are postganglionic sympathetic motor fibers in the nasal cavity contained?
    deep petrosal nerve
  58. The postganglionic sympathetic motor fibers in the deep petrosal nerve pass through with foramen and combine with what?
    foramen lacerum to combine with greater petrosal nerve
  59. When the deep petrosal nerve passes through the foramen lacerum and combines wih the greater petrosal nerve, what do they form?
    nerve of pterygoid canal
  60. Do the sympathetic fibers synapse when they pass through the ganglion?
  61. Where are the sympathetic fibers distributed?
    with sensory branches of CN V2 to blood vessels of nasal cavity
  62. What happens during sympathetic motor stimulation of the nasal cavity?
    • vasoconstriction
    • decreased mucous production 
  63. What is the function of CN I in the nasal cavity?
    special sensory fibers for smell