Exam 3: Nasal Cavities
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Exam 3: Nasal Cavities
anatomy nasal cavities
review of 7/5 lecture on nasal cavities for exam 3
What part of the respiratory tract do the nasal cavities comprise?
first part of upper respiratory tract
The nasal cavities are continuous with the pharynx via:
two openings (choanae)
The pharynx leads to what?
larynx and lower respiratory tract
What is contained in the nasal mucosa?
respiratory (ciliated) epithleium
Is the respiratory epithleium highly vascular?
What does the respiratory epithleium (mucosa) function to do?
heat/cool incoming air to match air present in lungs
The secretions of what keep the epitheium (muscosa) moist?
many mucous glands
What are the external features of the nasal cavities?
two nasal bones
various nasal cartilages
two external nares
What forms the roof of the nasal cavity?
cribriform plate (ethmoid bone)
What is contained in the cribriform plate?
many olfactory foramina
What is above the cribriform plate?
What is contained in olfactory epithelium?
sensory recptors for smell
Where is the olfactory epithelium?
covers inferior surface of cribriform plate
Where do olfactory nerves enter the nasal cavities?
via olfactory foramina
The olfactory nerves pass through the olfactory foramina to terminate where?
What is the nasal septum?
separates two nasal cavities from one another
What makes up the nasal septum?
perpendicular plate of ethmoid
Is the vomer or the perpendicular plate of ethmoid more superior?
perpendicular plate of ethmoid
What covers the nasal septum?
typical nasal mucosa
What are in the lateral walls of the nasal cavities?
three conchae (turbinates)
What makes up the three conchae?
composedof bone covered with nasal mucosa
What is the function of the nasal conchae?
increase surface area of nasal cavities
facilitates "conditioning" of incoming air
The superior and middle conchae are processes of which bone?
Which bone is the inferior concha a process of?
none, it is an independentbone
What is found below each concha?
an airspace or meatus
Where is the superior nasal meatus?
below superior concha
What does the nasolacrimal duct drain?
tears from eyes
Where does the nasolacrimal duct empty?
into inferior nasal meatus
What is found just posterior to the superior concha?
The sphenoethmodal recess receives drainage from what?
Which conchae might be absent in some people?
What forms the floor of the nasal cavities?
What are paranasal sinuses?
air-filled spaces lined with moist mucosa found within some of the bones of the skull
The secretions of the paranasal sinuses drain into what?
middle nasal meatus and sphenoethmoid recess
How are the paranasal sinuses named?
according to bones in which they are contained
What are the names of the paranasal sinuses?
Which sinuses are singular (not paired)?
Which sinuses are bilateral?
The ethmoid sinuses are represented bilaterally by 8-10 air cells contained in:
bony labyrinth of ethmoid bone in medial wall of orbit
Which sinus is the biggest?
What is the function of the paranasal sinuses?
decrease weight of skull
adds resonance to voice
Which sinus is at the greatest risk for infection?
because opening is in upper reaches of sinus and is hard to drain (have to turn head horizontally)
What supplies blood to the nasal cavities?
maxillary artery and its nasal branches
Which branch of the maxillary artery is the major blood supply to the nasal cavity?
sphenopalaine artery (with branches all over)
Which cranial nerves provide innervation to the nasal cavities?
In the nasal cavities, CN VI provides what?
sensory to ethmoid, sphenoid, and frontal sinuses
supeiror and middle conchae
In the nasal cavities, CN V2 provides what?
sensory to maxillary sinus, palate and inferior conchae
The trigeminal nerve detects what in the nasal cavity?
What do parasympathetic motor fibers innervate in the nasal cavities?
mucous glands and blood vessels
Where are preganglionic parasympathetic motor fibers contained?
greater petrosal nerve (brnch of VII)
Which nerve does the greater petrosal nerve combine with?
lesser petrosal nerve
The greater petrosal n. combines with the lesser petrosal n. to form what?
the nerve of pterygoid canal
Which nerve does the nerve of the pterygoid canal join with?
Where is the pterygopalatine ganglion located?
Where are postganglionic parasympathetic motor fibers originating in the pterygopalatine ganglion distributed?
with sensory branches of CN V2 to nasal mucosa
What does parasympathetic stimulation do in the nasal cavity?
increase mucous production
Where are postganglionic sympathetic motor fibers in the nasal cavity contained?
deep petrosal nerve
The postganglionic sympathetic motor fibers in the deep petrosal nerve pass through with foramen and combine with what?
foramen lacerum to combine with greater petrosal nerve
When the deep petrosal nerve passes through the foramen lacerum and combines wih the greater petrosal nerve, what do they form?
nerve of pterygoid canal
Do the sympathetic fibers synapse when they pass through the ganglion?
Where are the sympathetic fibers distributed?
with sensory branches of CN V2 to blood vessels of nasal cavity
What happens during sympathetic motor stimulation of the nasal cavity?
decreased mucous production
What is the function of CN I in the nasal cavity?
special sensory fibers for smell