Praxis 2- test 2

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  1. students learn more when they must construct, reconstruct, or deconstruct these problems
    • Mrs. Heron asks her students to examine the word problems to find pertinent information, decide on an operation to solve, make inferences and connections and solve the problem. She is asking them to analyze.   Bloom's Taxonomy:
    • 1. Knowledge level -- information directly from the text 2. Comprehension level -- giving the meaning of terms, idioms, language, making inferences etc.
    • 3.  Application level -- applying knowledge from a text to a new passage or situation
    • 4.  Analysis level -- examining parts to sort, categorize, make connections etc.
    • 5.  Synthesis level -- to make generalizations or to take information and develop a strategy
    • 6. Evaluation level -- to judge veracity, fact or opinion or bias
  2. Which is true about choosing appropriate activities for literature response?
    Response activities should be focused on instruction and involve feedback.Literature response activities should be focused around instruction and provide time for appropriate feedback.  Time for reading should be balanced with response activity time.  Students who self-select may choose books above or below their reading level and this choosing should be a feature of teacher instruction and discussion.  Teachers can suggest books for readers in their area of interest or to match reading level. 
  3. What does it mean to scaffold reading instruction?
    Modeling, sharing, interacting, guiding, and supportingAs a teacher moves a student along a scaffold, she will model, share, interact, guide, and support her students as they develop reading skills and comprehension.  The amount of support should be determined by individual student need. 
  4. What is the major difference between self-selected writing and focused writing in the elementary classroom
    Focused-writing activities have standards that must be met.  Self-selected writing is to encourage students to develop writing skills.Focused writing activities have standards that must be met because the emphasis is on helping students develop automaticity with writing skills.  Self-selected writing helps students develop skills and confidence.  There are two types of focused-writing -- process and single draft.  The teacher gives the students a topic or prompt.  The teacher may also choose the style of writing to be used, for example persuasive.  Both focused-writing and self-selected writing help students develop as writers. 
  5. hen ten dig big keep beep pig wigWhat aspect of reading is Mrs. C. reviewing with her group
    Phonemic awarenessThis teacher is working orally with her students on rhyme. Phonemic awareness closely correlates with reading success. Emergent readers must learn that language involves individual words which are made up of syllables and that syllables are composed of phonemes or sounds.  Phonemic awareness is an oral skill.  Children must learn to distinguish sounds, words and syllables to learn to read and write. 
  6. He practices every day for 3 hours.  He lands 38/40 of his jumps correctly. What percentage of jumps does he land correctly?
    To introduce proportional equations and equivalencies.A proportion  is an equation of two equivalent ratios.  For example, if Anderson lands 38/.40 jumps that would be expressed as 38:40 in a ratio.  This could be expressed as 38/40 = x/100.  These are equivalent fractions or ratios.  To solve, multiply 38 times 100 to get 3,800. Then multiply x times 40 to get 40x. Divide both sides by 40 and the answer is 95% of his jumps.
  7. Which of the following questions posed to a social studies class involves the highest level thinking skill?
    Did the invention of writing affect history?  How?Many questions that teachers pose are on the knowledge level of learning.  This means that facts must be found  or recalled. This question requires the students to analyze a historical event and the effect it had on cultures and history.  Analyzing is the higher level thinking skill.
  8. Sketch to Stretch strategy
    Read the story.  Draw a picture showing what you think the story was about.  After you draw your picture, share it with your partner.  Talk about what you drew and what your partner drew. A Sketch to Stretch activity asks the student to make meaning from the text.  Drawing is a visual, kinesthetic support for comprehension and may engage some reluctant, less verbal students.  The students' interpretations of the story's meaning will vary and the following discussions will prod thinking beyond the literal.  Students usually enjoy drawing so this activity will be engaging and enlightening.
  9. students locate cities on a globe and state the longitude and latitude of each city.  They then plot these cities locations on a coordinate grid. Which aspect of location are her students practicing?
    Absolute locationPlotting longitude and latitude is a device for finding absolute location on the globe. Relative location deals with the interaction between places.  Locating places on a globe or coordinate grid representing latitude and longitude is using absolute location.
  10. Which type of graphic organizer helps the reader illustrate cause and effect?
    A fishbone organizerWith a fishbone organizer, the reader charts cause and effect.  The result is written horizontally and the causes are added in a diagonal pattern.  This looks like a fishbone. Venn Diagrams work well for contrasting and comparing.  Webs branch information from a central idea. 
  11. They are plotting the inventions which were introduced between 6000 and 3000 B.C.E.  Which of the following inventions divides prehistoric times from historic times
    The invention of writingThe invention of writing in Mesopotamia in 3500 B.C.E. divides prehistoric from historic times.  History implies a recording of events.  The plow, the development of solar calendars, and the smelting of copper ore all occur between 6000 and 3500 B.C.E.  The recording of historic events was begun by the Sumerians of Mesopotamia with cuneiform.
  12. Which of the following would not be a good demonstration for explaining the terms for microorganisms?
    A film is shown of mosquitoes biting a person's arm. The person contracts malaria. Malaria is a virus. Bacteria are single-celled living organisms.  They reproduce by duplicating themselves.  They are not dependent on a host. They cause putrification and fermentation.  Protozoa are a diverse group of unicellular organisms that live inside or outside of a cell.  They are often mobile.  Yeasts and molds are fungi. There cell walls contain chitin which differentiates them from plants.  They are also used for fermentation.  A virus is smaller than one cell. It needs a host cell.  It is not a living thing. It is not responsive to antibiotics.  A cold or the flu is caused by a virus.  Malaria is caused by a protist which is a unicellular living organism or protozoan.
  13. Which of the following would be least effective for enhancing vocabulary comprehension and retention?
    Word WallsTopic boards call attention to the meanings of words by displaying the words by topic with their meanings.  Vocabulary journals or logs help students increase their personal vocabularies.  Students list words which are unfamiliar to them and add the meanings they glean from context or through discussion or research.  Word books are produced by students.  Students list words with meanings or illustrations which will help them retain meaning.  Word walls are alphabetical listings of single words. These help with spelling and writing. 
  14. Which is not a focused purpose of timed-repeated reading?
    To assess prosody Timed repeated reading is used to assess reading rate, that is how quickly and accurately a student reads. It is also used to assess error rate which relates to the appropriateness of the text.  Too many errors may indicate that this text is beyond the reading level of the student.  Prosody is how the student uses expression in reading. Timed repeated reading helps students understand that practice helps them read more quickly and easily.
  15.  After an experiment about wind, the teacher groups the students and suggests that they design an experiment that will determine wind direction.  The students come up with various experiments which they design and test.  They then report their results to the class. What type of teaching is this teacher using with this activity?
    Inquiry teachingThe scientific inquiry process includes formulating testable hypotheses, conducting repeatable experiments, and gathering and analyzing data.  Students must conduct an investigation, collect data, draw conclusions from the data, explain the data, and defend their conclusions.  With inquiry teaching, a question is posed by the teacher and the students experiment, collect data, draw conclusions, and report results.  Cooperative teaching is team teaching in which a group of teachers coordinates in order to teach a varied ability group with a variety of learning activities and strategies.  Integrated teaching would be the combining of subject areas, such as reading and science, across the curriculum. 
  16. Which of the following is not true about identity elements?
    Any whole number divided by 0 is equal to that same number.Dividing a number by zero is not possible.  0 is not an identity element for division.  Subtraction does not have an identity element.  The identity element for addition is 0. The identity element for multiplication is 1.
  17. You ask your sixth grade students to pretend that they are a member of the "Third Estate" and create a list of grievances. Which part of French society would they be focusing on?
    The middle class, urban workers, and peasantsThe Third Estate, the middle class, urban workers, and peasants, bore the brunt of taxation and endured the inequalities of a feudal government.  The privileged classes were corrupt. The thinking of the Enlightenment theorists incited the people to ask for reform. When it was not forthcoming, the Reign of Terror (1793-1794) eliminated much of the aristocracy and the king and queen.  Members of the middle class controlled the Directory and believed that through peace they would gain wealth and reshape society.  In this society, money and property would grant prestige and power rather than an inherited aristocracy.  The Directory did not prevail. 
  18. Their teacher gives them several cut-outs representing halves, fourths, thirds, sixths, eighths, fifths, and tenths.  She then asks them to construct whole shapes using the pieces and experiment with trading pieces to make a whole shape with the new pieces. For example, they may trade four eighths for one half in a whole square shape.  Which of the following is the most likely reason for this type of lesson?
    To get students to use inductive reasoning to reduce fractions with a common divisor.This activity will help students discover equivalent fractions. For example, they will see that 4/8 = 1/2.  After finding several equivalent fractions, they may then reduce the fractions using a common divisor.  For example, they may discover that 2/10 = 1/5 and make the connection that 10 equals 2 times 5, then 1/10 is half of 1/5. 
  19. During a social studies lesson concerning city environments and country environments, the teacher asks her students to stop after a reading on the city and tell her what they might see, smell, and hear in the city.  She then repeats the process after a selection about the country.  Which comprehension process are the students being asked to use?
    ImagingWhen students use their senses to relate to a text, they are imaging.  They might think about the sights, sounds, smells, tastes and feelings a text invokes. Self-monitoring occurs during reading.  Readers double-check and review information for reasonableness and accuracy.  Applying prior knowledge to a new text is also a thinking/reading process.  Students might write a paragraph about being in the city or country.    
  20. Mrs. Barnes displays a diary written by her great-grandfather which details his experiences in the Great Flood at Johnstown in 1889.  She shares sections of the diary with her class, then asks them to search on approved sites on the Internet for other first-hand accounts. Which of the following is Mrs. Barnes employing with her class?
    The use of primary resourcesDiaries, logbooks, artifacts, ledgers, oral histories, letters and census reports are all primary resources. Authors often use these to support literature meant for young readers.  Textbooks, non-fiction texts and encyclopedias are secondary resources.  Visual materials include photos, illustrations, posters, charts, computer graphics etc.  Interactive resources allow the student to collect, sort, analyze or adapt information.  This teacher wants her students to find first-hand accounts in order to understand what happened at the event. 
  21. Consider the four shapes shown (a square, a circle, a rectangle, and an equilateral triangle.)  Make a statement that is true about at least three of the shapes.Which statement is incorrect?
    Three of the shapes contain parallel lines.The square and the rectangle have parallel lines. The square, rectangle, and triangle are polygons formed by the union of three or more straight lines. The square, the rectangle, and the triangle are contain angles that are equal. All are plane shapes.
  22. Young students may confuse numerals with the concept of number. Which activity would help them get the concept of number?
    Asking students to show a quantity of blocks.Number is a concept which means how many.  A numeral is a symbol used to represent a number. The students needs to connect a given quantity with the numeral which represents it. They must know that a written "4" represents four blocks, for example.  Counting aloud or identifying a place on a number line may not convey this concrete concept to students. 
  23. List the steps necessary for ensure student success in learning.
    3.  Determine the level and abilities of your students.  Plan lessons based on behavioral measurable goals.  Share these goals with your students.  Plan lessons which will instruct, guide and support the students.  Plan how you will assess your students and provide feedback.  Plan small steps for learning.  Plan lessons which will support independent learning and also direct instruction based on the needs of the students.  Include a variety of strategies and activities which will engage and support all learning styles.  The answer rated 3 is most inclusive for answering the prompt.  The answer states all the steps for supporting all students' success. 
  24. Nerve terminals called receptors send impulses to the central nervous system.  Which type of receptor helps an animal feel pain?
    ExteroceptorsExteroceptors send impulses related to pain, temperature, touch, and pressure to the central nervous system.  Interoceptors are internal environment receptors.  Proprioceptors relate information about movement, position, and tension. 
  25. A second grade class is exploring the issue of community. During language arts, the class reads A Chair for My Mother by Vera B. Williams.  This book is about a family that has a fire which destroys their home.  The community helps them furnish their new home. Describe one instructional activity you might use during the reading of this story to enhance your students comprehension of the concept of community and explain how you might assess their understanding.
    This question requires that you detail a learning activity which would help students understand a concept.  You might put the class into groups and have the students read the story and list all of the ways the family was helped.  You would ask them to tell who in the community helped. The group would then report to the class and give their findings which would be listed on a chart.  The small group provides an opportunity for many students to participate.  They will have to think critically when finding story details which support the concept of community. After the groups report, a discussion of the findings and how they relate to the concept of community.  Students might also be led to see how the group worked as a community to complete the assignment. The group might then be asked to write a short story about a time when the community helped someone they knew.  This would extend the concept of community to the application stage.  Your answer must include a complete explanation of how your activity would support the concept you want the students to comprehend and how you will assess this comprehension.
  26. Much research has been done on the teaching of reading comprehension. Some questions persist about the most effective way to teach comprehension in the classroom.  Which of the following would not be supported by the National Reading Panel report of 2000?
    Teachers should decide which reading strategy best matches their teaching style and help students acquire it.The NRP suggests that explicit teaching of strategies, teacher modeling of strategies with thinking aloud, guided practice with the strategy and support for students applying the strategy are effective steps for teaching reading comprehension strategies.  Using a variety of strategies is more effective than relying on one. 
  27. Mr. Scott brings two miniature rose bushes into his classroom, one red and one white. He cuts a stem from the red bush and splits it. He then cuts a slit in the stem of the white rose and connects the red rose stem to it. What is he hoping to demonstrate for his students? 
    FragmentationAsexual plant propagation, also called vegetative reproduction, is the method by which plants reproduce without the union of cells. The product will be a plant identical to the parent.  Fragmentation is a type of asexual reproduction. Grafting is an example of this. This is what Mr. Scott is attempting.  Germination occurs in seeds when enough water is absorbed by the seed to cause biochemical changes that initiate cell division.  Transpiration is the evaporation of water from a plant. Sexual propagation involves a male and female seed
  28. What is the most important benefit for allowing students to design math problems for addition or subtraction?
    When students make up their own problems it helps them structure their own learning experiences. They will create problems that have meaning for themselves. For example, they may include family members or pets. They will see that math can be applied in real-world situations.  An example might be: I have two puppies. I have to walk each puppy.  It takes me five minutes to walk the first and seven minutes to walk the second.  How many minutes did it take to walk both puppies?  They will also have to use their writing skills to make the problems clear.  They will have to include key words so that others can see which operation should be used.  They can analyze their problems to see if they are clear and solvable. 
  29. Mr. D. teaches fourth grade.  He puts the following on the board:      2x + 3 = 7        2x - 2 = 2     2x + 7 = 11    2 x + 10 = 14   2x = ?He then asks his students how they migh solve for "x." Which type of reasoning is he asking his students to use?
    Inductive reasoningMr. D. is asking his students to find the rule necessary to solve the problem.  When a teacher instructs from the general to the specific, she is teaching with deductive reasoning. She would teach the general rules and then have the students apply them to specific problems.  When teaching with inductive reasoning, the teacher introduces a concept and the students then make inferences from the data and develop generalizations. For example, the teacher might show several examples of subtraction problems with two places and ask the students to identify the rule.  A discovery or inquiry lesson would start with an intriguing problem which would lead the students to brainstorm possible solutions. Adaptive reasoning involves using logic to justify an answer or decide on a process.
  30. Which is true of prior knowledge?
    Prior knowledge has a reciprocal relationship with comprehension.Prior knowledge enables reading comprehension and good reading comprehension adds to prior knowledge.  Prior knowledge is vital to good reading comprehension.  Students must have a lot of prior knowledge in order to understand what they read.  Students must activate and apply this knowledge for good comprehension. This application occurs throughout reading. Good connections are fostered between prior knowledge and new ideas.
  31. Integers are the counting numbers --  positive and negative --  and zero.  Rational numbers are all numbers which can be expressed as a ratio.  Which of the following is NOT true?
    Any fraction can be expressed as an integer.It may be helpful to explain integers as counting numbers which stretch to the right and the left of zero on a number line.  Rational numbers are numbers that can be expressed as the ratio of two integers. These can be expressed as fractions, 3/4, decimals, 0.75 or percents 75%.   There is an infinite number of fractions between any two integers.  An integer can be expressed as a ratio, for example: 7 = 7/1. All fractions are not integers.
  32. Joan is often confused when solving word problems. She is asked to solve the following:Fourteen ducks are floating on the lake.  Seven fly away. How many are left?Joan draws a pond with fourteen ducks on it. She then draws seven more. She counts 21 ducks.  Which method for solving is Joan using?
    A semiconcrete modelThe most concrete method for teaching will involve using real objects.  The semiconcrete method uses visual representations or pictures.  The semiabstract method will use symbols, such as tally marks, to solve problems.  The abstract method uses symbols, operations and numerals to solve.  Joan might be helped by giving her some counting blocks to solve this problem. 
  33. On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther nailed 95 theses to the Wittenburg Door. You ask your students to research the changes caused by the actions of Martin Luther and to write a persuasive paper stating how Luther's actions were beneficial or damaging to the European culture of the time. The arguments must be persuasive and well-supported. Which level of Depth of Knowledge (DOK) will your students employ with this assignment?
    On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther nailed 95 theses to the Wittenburg Door. You ask your students to research the changes caused by the actions of Martin Luther and to write a persuasive paper stating how Luther's actions were beneficial or damaging to the European culture of the time. The arguments must be persuasive and well-supported. Which level of Depth of Knowledge (DOK) will your students employ with this assignment?
  34. Which is the correct definition for onsets and rimes?
    Onsets are all the letters up to the vowel in small words. Rimes are the letters from the vowel to the end of the word.In order to read and spell words, readers must understand the patterns of letters in the words.  In small words, onsets are all the letters up to the vowel. Rimes are the letters from the vowel to the end of the words. Morphemes are roots, prefixes, and suffixes in polysyllabic words. 
  35. Read the following passage written by a second grade student. Assess the student's needs and tell how you might help the student correct her mistakes.Amy walked her dog every day.  She walked him yesterday. She walked him today.  She will walked him tomorrow too. If she walked him every day next month, her mother is going to give her a prize.  She likes to walked her dog.
    The student has a problem with tenses. I would have her circle all of the times she wrote "walked." Then I would talk to her about when Amy is walking her dog.  Is it in the past, right now, or in the future?  I would then help her understand that -ed tells about the past.  We would then review her passage and underline the clue words that tell when the action is happening.  I would help her determine when walk or walks is more appropriate. 
  36. Elementary teachers often used concrete representations to teach math concepts.  Mrs.Carton is using plastic shapes, which represent plane shapes, to teach geometric concepts. The students have a square, an equilateral triangle, a rectangle, a trapezoid, hexagon,and a parallelogram.  Which shapes will the students sort to show shapes with acute angles?
    The triangle, the trapezoid,the parallelogramObtuse angles measure more than 90°.  Acute angles measure less than 90°. Right angles measure 90°. A hexagon has only obtuse angles and also has parallel lines.  Rectangles and squares contain right angles
  37. Choose the scenario that shows students using the generalizing aspect of reading comprehension.
    Maria reads about the climates in Maui and Fiji. She concludes that the two islands share similar climates because they are both located in the Pacific Ocean.Maria is generalizing from what she has read.  Generalizing involves taking small pieces of information and applying them in a larger context.  This might involve drawing conclusions using information in a text. Applying prior knowledge to a new text is also a thinking/reading process.  Making judgments about what you read, or evaluating text, is a higher-level thinking skill.  This adds value to what you read.  These processes, connect, organize, image, predict, self-monitor, generalize, apply, and evaluate, can also be used in writing.    
  38. Your third grade science class is studying the forces that affect the earth.  You ask your students to give statements about these forces. Which is incorrect?
    Ricky says, "Continental drift is the cause of new mid-ocean ridges and movement of the earth's crust away from the mid-ocean ridges."There are many forces which affect the earth.  The moon's gravitational pull causes the tides.  Plate tectonics, the study of the movement of the plates of the earth, shows that faults, earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountains were caused by the shifting of these plates.  Tsunamis are often caused by volcanic eruptions under the sea or by earthquakes.  The creation of new oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges and the movement of the crust away from the mid-ocean ridges is caused by seafloor spreading.
  39. Some second grade students are having difficulty with the prefixes used in metric measurement. Which of the following comparisons would NOT help them remember?
    A kilometer is shorter than a mile.Young children like visual or tactile examples.  A penny is called a cent.  100 cents is equal to one dollar so "cent" means 100th of a dollar.  Centi means one hundredth.  A millipede is a funny looking creature thought to have 1,000 legs.  Milli means one thousandth.  Kilo is one thousand of something.  Comparing a kilometer to a mile will not clarify this term.
  40. Mrs. Robin is using 10-mats with her students. She asks them to put seven blocks in the mat's spaces. She then asks them to put four blocks below. She writes 7 + 4 = ?.  She then asks her students to find an easer way to solve this problem using the 10-mat.  Her students move three blocks up from below the mat to fill in the 10-mat.  They write 10 + 1 = 11.  What process is Mrs. Robin introducing to her students?
    RegroupingRegrouping involves grouping ten ones to make one ten.  Students will do this with concrete activities such as the above.  10-mats, "ones" blocks and "tens" blocks are often used to introduce regrouping in addition and subtraction.
  41. Mrs. Brown's class is learning to find the area of triangles.  She asks them to write the correct formula for finding the area of a triangle. Which is an incorrect formula for finding the area of a triangle?
    Area = 3sThis is the formula for the perimeter of an equilateral triangle.  Since the teacher did not specify which type of triangle was being measured, all of the other formulas might apply. Area = √3 divided by 4 times s2  is the formula for finding the area of an equilateral triangle.
  42. The nervous system of animals has two divisions. Which of the following is correct for these divisions?
    Somatic and autonomicIn the nervous system, the somatic allows voluntary control over skeletal muscle and the autonomic, or involuntary, controls cardiac and glandular functions.  Involuntary responses are called reflexes.   Nerve terminals called receptors send impulses to the central nervous system. 
  43. A fifth grade class is studying the structures of animals.  They are attempting to find pictures to represent these structures. Which student has not made a correct connection?
    Beth : A dance group doing the macarena which she says represents of tissue.Tissue is a group of the same kind of cells. The eggs are all the same.  An organ is a group of the same kind of cells working together. The pillars support the roof together.  A system is a group of organs working together to accomplish a special activity.  The builders do different jobs but work together to build a house. The dance group might be closer to a representation of an organ.
  44. A first grade teacher poses the following problem to her class:My sister is very silly. She likes to put slippers on all of her kittens. She has 12 slippers. All of her kittens have slippers on their feet.  How many kittens does she have?She allows the students to brainstorm solutions to the problem and gives them paper, crayons and scissors to work with.  Which concept of set theory will her students be employing in this problem?
    Comparing objects in a setThe teacher is asking her students to use one-to-one correspondence to solve this problem.  They must put slipper on each paw of each kitten.  This is comparing sets.  A set is a real or imagined collection of objects which may or may not be related.  When students sort items according to specific criteria, they are classifying the objects in the set. When ordering in sets, a student might sort from smallest to largest or vice versa.  When patterning objects, they must repeat a pattern. When comparing, they might use the concept of one-to-one correspondence for two sets or use a numerical total for the set.  Older students might use division to solve this problem.
  45. Special area teachers can help emergent readers get the basics necessary for reading. Which teacher is using an activity which would help students understand the concept of syllables?
    The music teacher has the students clap a beat while reciting the words to a song.Clapping the beats of words is a good way to help students understand syllables.  In reading class, they might clap the beats of individual words.  Students can also compare word lengths to the number of syllables or vowel sounds the word has.
  46. Mr. Roan asks his class to write a word problem which would demonstrate the Property of reciprocals?
    My mother bought a pizza. The pizza has six pieces.  We have six people in our family. If each person gets one slice of pizza, what fraction of the pizza will each person get?The reciprocal property states that any number (except zero) multiplied by its reciprocal will equal one.  The reciprocal of a number is 1 divided by that number.  One whole pizza of six slices divided by six people will give each person one slice.  That would be 1/6th of the pizza. ( 6 * 1/6 = 1) The Commutative property for addition and multiplication states that the order of the addends or factors does not change the sum or product.  The Associative property is a grouping property which works for three or more addends or factors.  The sum or product is not affected by the grouping of the addends or factors. 
  47. Which book is an example of a predictable book?
    Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See? by Bill Martin, Jr.Predictable books use repeated patterns, refrains, words and rhymes to help emergent readers "read."  Teachers use these with shared reading.  New readers develop confidence with this type of reading. 
  48. Mrs. Wing teaches geometry.  She draws an equilateral triangle on the board and then draws a line from the top to the center of the base.  She marks this point on the base with the letter "a".   She then asks her students to identify the angles that are formed at this vertex.  Which is NOT an angle that could be identified with this diagram?
    Acute angle An acute angle measures less than 90°. The two angles formed by the bisection of this equilateral triangle should form two right or 90° angles. These angles are adjacent because they share a common vertex, one side only, and one angle does not lie inside the other. They are supplementary because the sum of the measures of the two angles is 180°.
  49. The reading teacher wants her students to understand that sentences are made up of individual words. Which activity would NOT help with this?
    Read a sentence. Ask your students to echo the sentence back to you. Then have them read a sentence which a partner will echo.Phonemic awareness closely correlates with reading success. Emergent readers must learn that language involves individual words which are made up of syllables and that syllables are composed of phonemes or sounds.  Phonemic awareness is an oral skill.  Children must learn to distinguish sounds, words and syllables to learn to read and write. Counting words with chips or hopping will help students understand that sentences are made up of individual sounds. Echo reading helps with fluency and accuracy.
  50. Context clues help readers build comprehension.  Which of the following would be an example of a syntactic cue?
    Look at the word in the sentence.  Is it in the place of a verb?Syntactic cues are grammatical hints, word order hints, suffixes and prefixes, and word function hints. Semantic cues relate to meaning.  Phonetic cues are decoding cues relating to the phonics rules which are vital for beginning readers.  All are important for comprehension.
  51. Research on the importance of prior knowledge is mostly devoted to reading comprehension. Which of the following is correct concerning vocabulary and comprehension?
    A student's knowledge of a topic affected comprehension differently than their knowledge of vocabulary.Research by S. Stahl, V.C. Hare, R. Sinatra, and J.F. Gregory has helped define the role of prior knowledge in comprehension.They found that a reader's knowledge of a the topic of a passage helps them to get the gist of the passage while the reader's understanding of the vocabulary in the passage aides comprehension of details.  Prior knowledge and vocabulary knowledge both add to comprehension. 
  52. A reading recovery teacher is asking her students to focus in the words: space, blank, clock, frank.  She points out that at the beginning of these words there are two letters that work together but keep their sounds. Which of the following concepts is she attempting to reinforce with these words?
    BlendsBlends are two consonants which are joined but keep their sounds.  Rimes are the letters from the vowel to the end of single syllable words.  Digraphs are two letters that represent one speech sound.  Diphthongs are vowel sounds produced when the tongue glides from the first vowel sound to the second vowel sound in the same syllable. This teacher is working on beginning blends.
  53. Often students find math concepts being used in other areas of study. Which of the following might be encountered in a geography lesson?
    A coordinate planeA coordinate plane can be used to locate places on a map.  Longitude and latitude are a type of coordinate plane.  Any point can be located on the plane with an ordered pair. 
  54. Writing rubrics can be helpful for students who are confused about writing to a topic. However, some rubrics are too abstract for young writers. A series of questions might be more helpful. Which of the following questions would be helpful to a student who is having difficulty understanding what narrative writing is?
    Is the paper clearly about just one character, person, place, or event?A series of pointed questions might be more helpful to inexperienced writers than a writing rubric.  Rubrics can overwhelm young writers.  They might focus solely on the rubric and lost creativity.  A narrative focuses on one character, person, place, or event. 
  55. Which of the following is an incorrect match?
    Gregory I : The Holy Roman EmpireThe Holy Roman Empire was established in 812 when Pope Leo III named Charlemagne the Emperor.  Its purpose was to reestablish the Roman Empire in the West.  Gregory I helped the power of the popes to grow during 590 to 604 CE.  He was the first pope to rule as the secular head of Rome. King John signed the Magna Carta in 1215 CE.  Clovis I reigned from 481 to 511 CE.  He ruled the Frankish Kingdom and converted to Christianity.
  56. Mr. A.'s class is doing a unit on discounts and percents.  He poses the following problem:  Ann goes to the discount store in her town. She sees that beach towels are on sale for 1/4th of their original price.  Which of the following is following would be the correct way to show the discounted price if the original price is $8.00?Which student got it right?
    Alex: The discount would be 75%.The towels originally cost $8.00 and are not on sale for one fourth of that amount.  One fourth of 8 would be 8/4 or $2.00. $2.00 is 1/4 of $8.00.  So if the new price is $2.00, then the discount would be 75% or $6.00.
  57. Which sentence could be used to test a reader's word identification skills?
    The author's porpoise is to entertain the reader.Readers must not only be able to read unfamiliar words but they must also be able to identify how a word is used correctly or incorrectly in order to make meaning.  Comprehension is an interactive process involving word identification, prior knowledge, comprehension strategies, and reader engagement.  Readers need all of these components to accurately comprehend and respond to literature. Word identification involves decoding, phonics, and vocabulary.  The word porpoise is incorrectly used in this context. 
  58. Mrs. Genaro has her students make presentations after each concept is introduced and practiced as a summative assessment.  For example, after working on the concept of taking a percent, she asks them to construct a word problem in which a percent must be found, present it to the class, and demonstrate how the problem would be solved.  They must also be prepared to take questions from the class. This procedure involves all except which of the following?
  59. Mrs. Genaro has her students make presentations after each concept is introduced and practiced as a summative assessment.  For example, after working on the concept of taking a percent, she asks them to construct a word problem in which a percent must be found, present it to the class, and demonstrate how the problem would be solved.  They must also be prepared to take questions from the class. This procedure involves all except which of the following?
    Mastery lectureMastery lecture is when the teacher presents a large amount of information in a relatively short time.  The reasoning is from general to specific. This procedure of having students demonstrate their understanding of a concept involves adaptive or logical reasoning. The students must logically connect the concept with the specific situation or problem. The student receives feedback when the class asks questions.  Application and demonstration involve higher-level thinking skills.
  60. Read the scenario and decide which comprehension process is being practiced.Mrs. Anderson has her students read selections about parrots and rabbits. She then asks them to think about how they would care for each pet, what their needs are, and what they might be able to do with each pet. She asks them to write a paragraph telling which pet they would choose with supporting details.
    Evaluating dataThese students are being asked to make a judgment or decision.  Making personal connections to reading is a powerful process needed for comprehension. Students  connect personal experiences and memories to reading or make connections to other texts.  They can then note similarities or differences between their previous experiences and the new text. Predicting means making an educated guess about what might happen next based on what you already know, perhaps from perusing the title and illustration or connecting information to previous reading or experiences. Generalizing involves taking small pieces of information and applying them in a larger context.  This might involve drawing conclusions using information in a text. Making judgments about what you read, or evaluating text, is a higher-level thinking skill.  This adds value to what you read. 
  61. Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn recommend two activities to increase reading fluency in the primary grades. Which are these?
    Reading aloud to students and having students reread instructional-leveled texts.Reading aloud and encouraging repeated readings are good activities for building fluency.  Armbruster, Lehr & Osborn recommend these two activities in Put Reading First (2001). These activities build interest and confidence in reading.  Hearing the teacher read fluently provides a good model.  Repeated readings build confidence.
  62. Research on the importance of student writing has focused on several aspects. Which of the following is not supported by recent research on student writing?
    Student writing programs should be focused on the produce produced and be supported by a rubric.Researchers such as N. Atwell, Lucy Calkins, and Donald Graves emphasize the importance of the writing process.  Writing should be authentic, not perfect. Writing is a collaborative activity. The teacher and the students work together.  Writers develop as they grow and move through stages.  One developmental perspective is invented or phonetic spelling instead of standard spelling.  Rubrics are a tool for evaluating writing. 
  63. Choosing the correct reading format supports student interest and success.   Which of the following is most correct about reading format selection?
    A reading format should make the lesson multi-level in order to maximize the number of students who can benefit from it.Choosing the correct reading format works to the benefit of a greater number of students.  The reading format should support the struggling readers.  A selection that is too difficult will frustrate these readers even if it is a high-interest choice.  A reading format which is multi-level will reach a greater number of students.  It is a good idea to vary the composition of your groups in order to use a variety of comprehension strategies and reach all readers.
  64. Many math concepts are evident in art. The art teacher is using math concepts with her fifth grade students.  Using graph paper, they trace a polygon. They then recreate the same polygon but reduce it to a smaller size. Which math concept is this activity attempting to show?
    ScalingScaling is drawing a figure in an enlarged or reduced form using an uniform scale.  A collection of plane shapes that fill a plane with no gaps or overlaps is a tessellation.  A tessellation of hexagons is seen in a honeycomb.  Translation is moving a shape from one place to another without changing scale.  Mathematical concepts can be demonstrated in art, music and physical education. 
  65. In the content areas, books on topics can provide prior knowledge, enrich vocabulary, and build comprehension. Two approaches for reading in the content area are theme studies and book studies. Which correctly identifies each?
    In book studies, the teacher uses a particular book associated with a theme or related learning outcome. In a theme study, teachers use a variety of books to establish concepts.When planning a theme study, the teacher chooses a topic to explore and then reads or provide books that highlight that topic. For example, a theme about immigrants might include books such as Abuelita's Heart by A. Cordova or Grandfather's Journey by A. Say.  In a book study, a particular book is used to help students focus on a theme, introduce concepts, or build knowledge of a topic.  A book study about insect metamorphosis might include The Very Hungry Caterpillar by Eric Carle. 
  66. Theories of Continental Drift are supported by all of the following except:
    Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur more often in sites central to the continents.Plate tectonic theories support all of the choices except this one.Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur more frequently along plate boundaries than in sites far from the boundaries. The moving sections of the earth are called plates.
  67. Mr. Adams asks his students to match pictures to the type of energy they represent. Which is most correct?
    An apple : chemical energyThe food we eat is a storage unit for chemical energy. This will later be converted to kinetic energy and heat in our bodies. Energy is the ability of matter to move other matter or to produce a chemical reaction in other matter.  The energy of motion is kinetic energy.  A waterfall is a good example.  The storage of energy is potential energy.  A icicle holds potential energy.  The energy of moving molecules is heat energy.  A pot of boiling water has moving water particles.  Some machines, such as steam engines, are powered by heat energy.  The energy of moving electrons is electrical energy.  Nuclear energy occurs when an atom splits in two or when the nuclei of atoms fuse together.  This produces a great amount of energy which is used in nuclear power plants.  A speeding roller coaster car could use electrical energy in the form of electric current and mechanical energy which is produced by moving bodies.  Electrical energy is produced by moving electrons.
  68. spelling strategy
    • Use the Words You KnowIn Use the Words
    • You Know, students use the letter or rhyme patterns to find or create other words which match the pattern.  In Making Words, students manipulate words by changing one letter to make a new word.  With Word Sorts students sort an existing list of words by characteristic.  With What Looks Right? students try to determine which is the correct spelling of the word according to visual and spelling clues.  All of these activities are enjoyable and good ways to teach spelling skills and word patterns. 
  69. Which is not true about the elements of the earth's environment?
    Denitrifying bacteria return the nitrogen to the soil for plants to use.Nitrifying bacteria return nitrogen from animal and plant waste to the soil for plants to use.  Denitrifying bacteria changes some of this waste material and returns it to the air to continue in the nitrogen cycle.  The atmosphere of long ago contained more hydrogen and helium. 
  70. Students in a social studies class have been studying the Stamp Act, the Tea Act and the Intolerable Acts.  The teacher asks them to imagine that they are at summer camp.  Every week, their parents send them a letter with new rules about how they are to behave at camp. She asks them to tell how they might feel about this. Then she asks them to connect their feelings to the feelings of the colonists concerning these Acts of Parliament. Which level of cognition is the teacher asking her students to use with this activity?
    SynthesisKnowledge requires recalling facts, terms, or basic concepts.  Application is solving problems by applying acquired knowledge, facts, and techniques in different situations.  Analysis is examining and deconstructing information.  Synthesis is compiling information in a different way by combining elements in a different pattern.  When the teacher asked her students to imagine a situation similar to that of the colonists and then to connect their feelings with those of the colonists, they are synthesizing information from both situations in order to understand in a new way. 
Card Set:
Praxis 2- test 2
2012-07-06 03:51:57

elememtary ed
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