Exam 2 for Ann Lowrance's Rape & Sexual Assault class, Crime Victims and Survivors Services, OSU-OKC
Childhood sexual abuse is a violation of the
body, mind, & spirit, OR
What is child sexual abuse?
The exploitation of a child for the sexual gratification of an adult.
Types of behavior that constitute child sexual abuse (Sgroi):
observation of the child
Phases of child sexual abuse:
How many girls are sexually abused before they turn 18?
1 in 3
How many boys are sexually abused before they turn 18?
1 in 7-11
What two things happen when a child is sexually abused?
What is the most common type of child sexual abuse?
Father (or stepfather) - Daughter
At what age does the average incest offense start?
How long does the average incest offense last?
Which child sex offenders are the most amenable to treatment?
Fathers, because they have a genuine relationship with the victim, they have a lot to lose.
How many victims do female-preferential extra-familial child molesters have, on average?
How many victims do male-preferential extra-familial child molesters have, on average?
What are the chances of a child sex offender getting caught?
What percentage of incest offenders are fixated/sexually preoccupied?
What percentage of incest offenders are adolescent regressives?
What percentage of incest offenders are angry retaliators?
What percentage of child sexual offenders use alcohol?
What percentage of child sexual offenders were sexually abused as children?
What percentage of child sexual offenders were physically abused by their fathers?
What percentage of child sexual offenders were physically abused by their mothers?
What percentage of stepfather-stepdaughter incest offenders also offend outside the home?
What are the two basic types of child sexual offenders?
Qualities of fixated offenders:
true pedophile - persistent, continual, compulsive attraction to pre-pubescent children
if married, wife may be adult survivor & sexual dysfunction is likely
attracted to children since adolescence
usually extra-familial victims
victims are adolescent boys or pre-pubescent girls
psychological & emotional characteristics of children
unable to attain any degree of psychsexual maturity
no age-appropriate sexual relationships
do not find agemates sexually attractive or desirable
recruit, groom, & develop relationships with vulnerable children
"relationships" continue for several years
believe the sexual contact is caring and mutual
believes the child receives pleasure and/or education from the abuse
high risk to the community
those who abuse boys commit more offenses - an average of 150 victims
victims are less likely to report or more likely to delay reporting
Qualities of regressed offenders:
primary sexual attraction is to agemates
abuse is a temporary departure precipitated by external stressors - loneliness, isolation, depression...
rarely attracted to a specific type of child
abuse children to whom they have easy access
gender of victims vary
most are married/cohabitating
poor self-confidence, low self-esteem, self-pity
fewer victims; some commit extra-familial assaults
commit deviant sexual acts less frequently
not motivated by sexual motives alone (power, control, abuse)
behavior emerges in adulthood
capable of feeling remorse
treatment -> lower risk of re-offending
What is the most striking characteristic of a sex offender?
What is the cycle of offending?
deviant sexual fantasies
steps toward overtly deviant behavior
plan the act
groom the victim
reinforcement of original fantasy
Explain aversiveness vs. abusiveness
Much of what adults teach/make kids do is aversive - things they don't want to do or that are unpleasant or uncomfortable - but not abusive. Because kids are accustomed to aversiveness, it makes abusing them easy.
What are the messages and rules child sexual abuse victims learn?
always be in control
keep the secret
be ashamed of yourself
What are some aftereffects of child sexual abuse seen in adult survivors?
fear of being alone in the dark/sleeping alone
alienation from the body; not at home in the body
wearing a lot of clothing
need to be invisible
need to be perfect
rigid control of thoughts
guilt, shame, low self-esteem
pattern of being a victim
feeling a demand to produce to be loved
inability to remember a certain period of life
feeling crazy, different, unreal
a range of sexual issues
avoidance of mirrors
limited tolerance for happiness
aversion to making noise
multiple personality issues
Nonsadistic offender victim echoes:
"I am worthless"
"I enjoyed it"
"I caused the abuse"
"I didn't say 'no' or protest"
"I am evil"
Potholes for trauma:
first consensual sexual step
birth of first child
child's age at her age of onset
death of offender
What senses can flashbacks involve?
Nonsadistic offender victim echoes - "I am worthless":
Her needs, wishes, and desires do not matter
Nothing she ever does is right
She is unimportant, worthless, or even bad
She deserved what she got
She sees herself as "damaged goods"
Nonsadistic offender victim echoes - "I enjoyed it":
Pairs emotionally adverse experience with sexual response
Leads to adult sexual problems
Bodily responses (prohibits reporting, prohibits concept of healthy sexuality, promotes alienation from their own bodies, dissociative responses)
Nonsadistic offender victim echoes - "I caused the abuse":
I "wanted" the abuse to happen
I'm so sexy, he couldn't resist me (offenders cite physical responsiveness, natural tendency to freeze initially, and accommodation to abuse over time)
Porn as norm
Aversion does not equal abusiveness to a child
Child's difficulties in defining reality
Nonsadistic offender victim echoes - "I didn't say 'no' or protest":
Offenders win their trust and they want to please him
They are afraid of being punished or hurt
They have dissociated, and may have no recall of the abuse, or parts of it
"I didn't say 'no'" - How did you say yes?
Nonsadistic offender victim echoes - "I am evil":
Projected by the offender
Intrapsychic issues for adult survivors of child sexual abuse:
Lack of motivation
Self-destructive behavior issues for adult survivors:
Physical problems for adult survivors:
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Oral hygeine issues
Eating disorders in adult survivors:
Relationship issues for adult survivors:
Length of relationship (short, or get stuck)
Fear of commitment
Poor choice of partners
Sexual issues for adult survivors:
Resiliency factors for female survivors:
Find supportive relationships outside the family
Developed a sense of positive self-regard
Used spiritual grounding
Recognize their own personal power
Attribute blame and responsibility on the abuser
Adopted a philosophy of life that opens them to learning and growing
Steps to healing for adult survivors:
allow and experience
separate from the past
Role of the advocate with adult survivors:
Offer a safe space
Provide safe resources
Know your own filters (beliefs & biases)
Don't let the need to maintain a "veil of safety" allow you to blame the victim
What percentage of child victims of natural parent incest report (immediate/later/never):
Immediate - 17%
Later - 30%
Never - 55%
To whom do adolescent victims disclose?
Mom - 21%
Best friend - 23%
Non-disclosure - 28%
What factors make recantation of child victims more likely?
Lack of maternal support
Abuse by male caretaker
What percentage of victims recanted in cases where the offender confessed?
Which offenders are the most dangerous to the community, and how many victims do they have?
Men who sexually abuse extrafamilial male victims
What are the hard signs of incest/child sexual abuse?
What percentage of child sexual assault disclosures are false?
What are the soft signs of incest/child sexual abuse?
Lack of privacy in home
Reports of nudity/partial nudity
Unusual behavior around chores/watching & checking on children
Child sleeping fully clothed
Uses sexualized insults
Jealous fathers/not allowing dating
Consistent visitation with batterer
Bite marks on thighs/breasts of child
What percentage of child sexual abuse victims present with medical evidence?
What is dissociation?
A perceived separation of the mind from the emotional state, or even the body; detachment from reality; may range from mild to severe.