CVSS2123Exam2

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Author:
makalove
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161216
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CVSS2123Exam2
Updated:
2012-07-07 05:10:21
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cvss rape sexual assault
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Exam 2 for Ann Lowrance's Rape & Sexual Assault class, Crime Victims and Survivors Services, OSU-OKC
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  1. Childhood sexual abuse is a violation of the
    • body, mind, & spirit, OR
    • whole person 
  2. What is child sexual abuse?
    The exploitation of a child for the sexual gratification of an adult.
  3. Types of behavior that constitute child sexual abuse (Sgroi):
    • nudity
    • disrobing
    • genital exposure
    • observation of the child
    • kissing
    • handling
    • masturbation
    • fellatio
    • cunnilingus
    • instrumental penetration
    • digital penetration
    • penile penetration
    • child prostitution
    • child pornography 
    • cyber predation
  4. Phases of child sexual abuse:
    • engagement
    • build relationship 
    • inducements
    • secrecy
    • disclosure
    • suppression
  5. How many girls are sexually abused before they turn 18?
    1 in 3
  6. How many boys are sexually abused before they turn 18?
    1 in 7-11
  7. What two things happen when a child is sexually abused?
    • childhood ends
    • survival begins 
  8. What is the most common type of child sexual abuse?
    Father (or stepfather) - Daughter
  9. At what age does the average incest offense start?
    8
  10. How long does the average incest offense last?
    8 years
  11. Which child sex offenders are the most amenable to treatment?
    Fathers, because they have a genuine relationship with the victim, they have a lot to lose.
  12. How many victims do female-preferential extra-familial child molesters have, on average?
    19.8
  13. How many victims do male-preferential extra-familial child molesters have, on average?
    105.2
  14. What are the chances of a child sex offender getting caught?
    3%
  15. What percentage of incest offenders are fixated/sexually preoccupied?
    26%
  16. What percentage of incest offenders are adolescent regressives?
    33%
  17. What percentage of incest offenders are angry retaliators?
    10%
  18. What percentage of child sexual offenders use alcohol?
    33%
  19. What percentage of child sexual offenders were sexually abused as children?
    70%
  20. What percentage of child sexual offenders were physically abused by their fathers?
    50%
  21. What percentage of child sexual offenders were physically abused by their mothers?
    44%
  22. What percentage of stepfather-stepdaughter incest offenders also offend outside the home?
    49%
  23. What are the two basic types of child sexual offenders?
    • Fixated
    • Regressed 
  24. Qualities of fixated offenders:
    • true pedophile - persistent, continual, compulsive attraction to pre-pubescent children
    • if married, wife may be adult survivor & sexual dysfunction is likely
    • attracted to children since adolescence
    • usually extra-familial victims
    • victims are adolescent boys or pre-pubescent girls
    • psychological & emotional characteristics of children
    • unable to attain any degree of psychsexual maturity
    • no age-appropriate sexual relationships
    • do not find agemates sexually attractive or desirable
    • recruit, groom, & develop relationships with vulnerable children
    • "relationships" continue for several years
    • believe the sexual contact is caring and mutual
    • believes the child receives pleasure and/or education from the abuse
    • high risk to the community
    • those who abuse boys commit more offenses - an average of 150 victims 
    • victims are less likely to report or more likely to delay reporting 
  25. Qualities of regressed offenders:
    • primary sexual attraction is to agemates
    • abuse is a temporary departure precipitated by external stressors - loneliness, isolation, depression...
    • rarely attracted to a specific type of child
    • abuse children to whom they have easy access
    • gender of victims vary
    • most are married/cohabitating
    • poor self-confidence, low self-esteem, self-pity
    • fewer victims; some commit extra-familial assaults
    • commit deviant sexual acts less frequently
    • not motivated by sexual motives alone (power, control, abuse)
    • behavior emerges in adulthood
    • capable of feeling remorse
    • treatment -> lower risk of re-offending
  26. What is the most striking characteristic of a sex offender?
    Apparent normality
  27. What is the cycle of offending?
    • deviant sexual fantasies
    • masturbation
    • steps toward overtly deviant behavior
    • targets victim
    • fantasy rehearsal
    • plan the act
    • groom the victim
    • offend
    • reinforcement of original fantasy
    • anxiety 
  28. Explain aversiveness vs. abusiveness
    Much of what adults teach/make kids do is aversive - things they don't want to do or that are unpleasant or uncomfortable - but not abusive. Because kids are accustomed to aversiveness, it makes abusing them easy.
  29. What are the messages and rules child sexual abuse victims learn?
    • don't feel
    • always be in control
    • deny
    • don't trust
    • keep the secret
    • be ashamed of yourself 
  30. What are some aftereffects of child sexual abuse seen in adult survivors?
    • fear of being alone in the dark/sleeping alone
    • nightmares/night terrors
    • swallowing/gagging sensitivity
    • alienation from the body; not at home in the body
    • gastrointestinal problems
    • wearing a lot of clothing
    • eating disorders
    • self destruction
    • phobias (irrational)
    • need to be invisible
    • need to be perfect
    • depression
    • anger issues
    • splitting/depersonalization
    • rigid control of thoughts
    • trust issues
    • boundary issues
    • guilt, shame, low self-esteem
    • pattern of being a victim
    • feeling a demand to produce to be loved
    • abandonment issues
    • inability to remember a certain period of life
    • feeling crazy, different, unreal
    • denial
    •  a range of sexual issues
    • intimacy issues
    • avoidance of mirrors
    • limited tolerance for happiness
    • aversion to making noise
    • multiple personality issues 
  31. Nonsadistic offender victim echoes:
    • "I am worthless"
    • "I enjoyed it"
    • "I caused the abuse"
    • "I didn't say 'no' or protest"
    • "I am evil" 
  32. Potholes for trauma:
    • first consensual sexual step
    • arousal reality
    • sanctioned sex
    • birth of first child
    • child's age at her age of onset
    • adult victimization
    • forgiveness
    • death of offender
    • disclosure 
  33. What senses can flashbacks involve?
    • Visual
    • Tactile
    • Auditory
    • Olfactory
    • Taste
    • Affective 
  34. Nonsadistic offender victim echoes - "I am worthless":
    • Her needs, wishes, and desires do not matter
    • Nothing she ever does is right
    • She is unimportant, worthless, or even bad
    • She deserved what she got
    • She sees herself as "damaged goods" 
  35. Nonsadistic offender victim echoes - "I enjoyed it":
    • Pairs emotionally adverse experience with sexual response
    • Leads to adult sexual problems
    • Bodily responses (prohibits reporting, prohibits concept of healthy sexuality, promotes alienation from their own bodies, dissociative responses) 
  36. Nonsadistic offender victim echoes - "I caused the abuse":
    • I "wanted" the abuse to happen
    • I'm so sexy, he couldn't resist me (offenders cite physical responsiveness, natural tendency to freeze initially, and accommodation to abuse over time)
    • Porn as norm
    • Aversion does not equal abusiveness to a child
    • Child's difficulties in defining reality 
  37. Nonsadistic offender victim echoes - "I didn't say 'no' or protest":
    • Offenders win their trust and they want to please him
    • They are afraid of being punished or hurt
    • They have dissociated, and may have no recall of the abuse, or parts of it
    • "I didn't say 'no'" - How did you say yes? 
  38. Nonsadistic offender victim echoes - "I am evil":
    • Projected by the offender
    • Characterological self-blame 
  39. Intrapsychic issues for adult survivors of child sexual abuse:
    • Depression
    • Dissatisfaction
    • Low self-esteem
    • Lack of motivation
    • Control issues
    • Dissociative phenomena 
  40. Self-destructive behavior issues for adult survivors:
    • Addictions
    • Suicide attempts
    • Self-harm
    • Interactional problems 
  41. Physical problems for adult survivors:
    • Headaches
    • Stomachaches
    • Skin problems
    • Pelvic inflammatory disease
    • Bladder infections
    • Cramping
    • Sore throats
    • Oral hygeine issues
    • TMJ
    • Grinding teeth 
  42. Eating disorders in adult survivors:
    • anorexia
    • bulimia
    • obesity 
  43. Relationship issues for adult survivors:
    • Length of relationship (short, or get stuck)
    • Fear of commitment
    • Poor choice of partners
    • Violent relationships 
  44. Sexual issues for adult survivors:
    • sexual preference
    • dysfunction
    • sadomasochistic practice
    • desire disorder
    • promiscuity 
  45. Resiliency factors for female survivors:
    • Find supportive relationships outside the family
    • Developed a sense of positive self-regard
    • Used spiritual grounding
    • Recognize their own personal power
    • Attribute blame and responsibility on the abuser
    • Adopted a philosophy of life that opens them to learning and growing 
  46. Steps to healing for adult survivors:
    • acknowledge
    • understand
    • allow and experience
    • separate from the past 
  47. Role of the advocate with adult survivors:
    • "Bear witness"
    • Offer a safe space
    • Remake meaning
    • Provide safe resources
    • Know your own filters (beliefs & biases)
    • Don't let the need to maintain a "veil of safety" allow you to blame the victim 
  48. What percentage of child victims of natural parent incest report (immediate/later/never):
    • Immediate - 17%
    • Later - 30%
    • Never - 55% 
  49. To whom do adolescent victims disclose?
    • Mom - 21%
    • Best friend - 23%
    • Non-disclosure - 28% 
  50. What factors make recantation of child victims more likely?
    • Lack of maternal support
    • Abuse by male caretaker 
  51. What percentage of victims recanted in cases where the offender confessed?
    24.5%
  52. Which offenders are the most dangerous to the community, and how many victims do they have?
    • Men who sexually abuse extrafamilial male victims
    • >100 victims 
  53. What are the hard signs of incest/child sexual abuse?
    • Sexualized play/art
    • Sexualized behavior
    • STIs
    • Disclosure 
  54. What percentage of child sexual assault disclosures are false?
    2%
  55. What are the soft signs of incest/child sexual abuse?
    • Lack of privacy in home
    • Reports of nudity/partial nudity
    • Unusual behavior around chores/watching & checking on children
    • Child sleeping fully clothed 
    • Uses sexualized insults
    • Sexualized dress
    • Jealous fathers/not allowing dating
    • Holocaust eyes
    • Consistent visitation with batterer 
    • Bite marks on thighs/breasts of child 
  56. What percentage of child sexual abuse victims present with medical evidence?
    36%
  57. What is dissociation?
    A perceived separation of the mind from the emotional state, or even the body; detachment from reality; may range from mild to severe.
  58. What are some types of dissociation?
    • Depersonalization
    • Psychological numbing
    • Disengagement
    • Amnesia 

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