Ways of reducing aggression in society:
1. Reduce injustices that erupt into violent behavior create more justice more equality.
More opportunity will reduce violent aggression through talking, reasoning. If no role model, must choose for yourself.
2. Severe punishment is effective only temporarily, must do more show long range, better way.
Children copy parents behavior. Child will learn "not to get caught" and will be aggressive outside the home.
3. Mild punishment by warm, caring adult
Identification - good role model
Internalization - isn't way we should behave, creates cognitive dissonance by internally justifying not being violent.
Severe punishment, capitol punishment - no real difference in crime rate from states that have capitol punishment and those that do not.
Public Hangings - for minor things like pick pockets did not work. While the pick pockets were being hung, pick pockets worked the crowd, picking their pockets. Seeing a bad guy punished does not reduce the bad behavior.
If children see aggressive behavior rewarded, will increase likelihood of aggressive behavior.
Klu Klux Klan - bring their children and babies to events in order to socialize child. Showed Klan killing blacks, increased membership. Reward for Klan was popularity.
Greatest effect - showing movie to little children increased Klu Klux Klan.
To change people who are aggressive needs long term rehab to change - in prison, w/counseling and job opportunities.
Prisoners who have murdered someone have the lowest repeat offense when out of prison because, recidivism. 75% of murders are from aggression.
Children ages 6-12 with aggressive and emotional problems were treated by rewarding alternative behavior, reward for good behavior by praising, lots of attention when not aggressive.
Don't give attention when being aggressive. Punishment is still attention.
Teach children to respond to their aggression in a more positive way:
communicate - learn to share their feelings
reward for good behavior
make leader for group
Build empathy towards other people, reverse dehumanization process by showing person as human rather than uncivilized.
Dehumanized victims of Kent State by saying they were pregnant, filthy, crawling with lice, putting them in an inferior category to justify aggression.
Emotional Learning is the only way to build empathy and reverse dehumanization.
When you are raised with a minority it builds empathy.
Equal status contact (Interdependent relationship, need other people, meaningful contact.)
When Trueman integrated the military there were a lot of people upset but more time spent together, more human they became.
Nonaggressive Role Models: parents, teachers, experiments shows this works.
What is Deindividuation? - A state of lessened self-awareness, reduced concern over social evaluation and weakened restraints against prohibited forms of behavior because they can remain anonymous.
Ex: Spring Break, Mardi Gra people have anonymity, anonymous so crowd can become a mob, getting carried away with the emotion of the crowd, leading toward more aggression. Don't have to take responsibility for their actions.