Approximately, what percentage of adults are estimated to be obese, and what percentage of teenagers are considered to be overweight?
one-third or 33.4% of adults.
16% of teenagers
How many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur annually in the u.s.?
80,000 - 100,000
Most ACL injuries occur between which years of age?
15-25 years of age
What percentage of people 65 and older have at least one chronic condition? What percentage have two?
What is one major form of musculoskeletal degeneration seen in the adult population, afecting nearly 80% of all adults?
Low back pain
Which are the fastest growing age groups among health club members?
55 and older
18 and under
A state of lost physical fitness, which may include muscle imbalances, decreased flexibility, and a lack of core and joint stability.
The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movement is the definition of what?
Proprioceptively enriched enironment is_________.
An unstable (yet controllable) physical situation in which exercises are performed that causes the body to use its internal balance and stabilization mechanisms.
Define phases of training:
Smaller divisions of training progressions that fall within the three building blocks of training.
Muscular endurance is a muscles ability to ________for and extended period of time.
The ability of the neuromuscular system to enable all muscles to efficiently work together in all planes of motion is an explanation of what?
The muscle that acts as the initial and main source of motive power is?
The prime mover
What is a superset?
Set of two exercises that are performed back to back without any rest time between them
What are the 3 building blocks of training within the OPT model?
What are the different phases of training within the OPT building blocks?
Phase 1: Stabilization Endurance Training
Phase 2: Strength Endurance Trainiing
Phase 3: Hypertrophy Training
Phase 4: Maximum strength training
Phase 5: Power training
What do you call how quickly a muscle can generate force?
Rate of force production
Define kinetic chain
The combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems.
What is the communication network within the body known as?
1.The ability of the nervous systme to sense changes in either the internal or external environment.
2.The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces the appropriate response.
3.The neuro muscular response to the sensory information.
Name the functional unit of the nervous system.
What type of neurons transmit nerve impulses from effector sites to the brain or spinal cord?
Sensory (afferent) neurons
What type of neurons transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to effector sites?
Motor (efferent) neurons
What type of neurons transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another?
What are the two interdependent divisions of the nervous system? What are they composed of?
Central Nervous System: composed of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral nervous system: Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body.
Which are the sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues?
Which are the receptors sensitive o change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change?
Which are the receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change
Golgi tendon organs
Which are the receptors that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration in the joint.
The skeletal system is the bodys framework, composed of ____and____.
bones and joints
What do bones do?
Provide a resting ground for muscles and protection of vital organs.
The movable junction where two or more bones meet.
Which portion of the skeletal systmem that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column?
Which portion of the skeletal system includes the upper and lower extremities?
A flattened or indented portion of bone, which can be a muscle attachment site is known as a?
A projection protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach is a?
What is joint motion referred to as?
Which type of joints are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body?
Which type of joints do not have a joint cavity, connective tissue, or cartilage?
What is the primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability, input to the nervous system, guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement?
What are the series of muscles that move the skeleton?
What are connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and provide an anchor for muscles to produce force?
What is the functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contraction and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin?
The contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation is?
What is a motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates?
What are chemical messengers that cross synapses to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle?
Name the system that is composed of the cardiovascular and repiratory systems.
Name the system that is composed of the heart, blood, and blood vessels.
A hollow muscular organ that pumps a circulation of blood through the body by means of rhythmic contraction is the?
What is the space in the chest between the lungs that contains all the internal organs of the ches, except the lungs?
Which is the superior chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into the ventricles?
Which is the inferior chamber of the heart that receives blood from its corresponding atrium and, in turn, forces blood into the arteries?
What is the fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins, which carries nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body and also rids the body of waste products?
What are the network of hollow tubes that circulates blood throughout the body?
Which are the vessels that carry blood away from the heart?
Which are the vessels that carry blood from the capillaries toward the heart?
What is the name of the small terminal branches of an artery, which end in capillaries?
What are the name of the smallest blood vessels, which connect venules with arterioles?
Which are the very small veins that connect capillaries to the larger veins?
Which is the system of organs (the lungs and respiratory passageways) that collects oxygen from the external environment and transports it to the blood stream?
What is the process of actively contracting inspiratory muscles to move air into the body?
What is the process of actively or passively relaxing inspiratory muscles to move air out of the body?
does not reqquire oxygen
What is the biology of energy transformations and exchanges within the body, and between it and the environment?
Which is the cellular structure that supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processess by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis?
adenosine triphosphate (atp)
What is the study that uses principles of physics to quantitatively strudy how force interact within a living body?
positioned above a point of reference
positioned below a point of reference
positioned nearest the center of the body, or point of reference
positioned farthest from the center of the body or point of reference
define anterior (or ventral)
on the front of the body
define posterior (or dorsal)
on the back of the body
positioned near the middle of the body
toward the outside of the body
positioned on the opposite side of the body
positioned on the same side of the body
What is the imaginaryy bisector that divides the body into left and right halves?
What is the bending of a joint, causing the angle to the joint to decrease known as?
What is the straightening of a joint, causing the angel to the joint to increase is known as?
What is the imaginary bisector that divides the body into front and back halves?
What is the movement of a body part away from the middle of the body?
What is the movement of a body part toward the middle of the body
What is the imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves?
What is rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body known as?
What is rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body known as?
What is a muscle maintaining a certain length known as?
What is a concentric contraction?
the shortening of a muscle
An influence applied by one object to another whick results in an acceleration or deceleration of the second object is an explanation of what?
The length at which a muscle can produce the greatest force is
length tension relationship
What are muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint?
What is rotary motion?
movement of the bones around the joints
A force that produce rotation is?
What is the sudy of posture and movement and the involved structrues and mechansisms that the central nervous system uses to assimilate and integrate sensory info with previous experiences?
What are groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement?
What is the cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sese position and limb movements?
What is the cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering information, interpreting, and executing movement known as ?
What is the repeated practice of motor control processes, which lead to a change in the ability to produce complex movement?
What is the use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the kinetic chain in motor learning known as?
What is the process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment?
What is information provided by some external source, such as a health and fitness professional, videotape, mirror, or heart rate montior to supplement the internal environment known as?
What is measurable data about a clients physical state such as body composition, movement and caridovascular ability known as?
The alignement and fuction of all components of the kinetic chain at any given moment is referring to your?
What is the alignment of the musculoskeletal system that allows our center of gravity to be maintained over our base of support known as?
What the ability of the neuromuscular system to monitor and manipulate movement during functional tasks using the least amount of energy, creating the least amount of stress on the kinetic chain known as?
Maintaining a state of ballance in the alignment of the kinetic chain is called?
The ability of the nervous system to communicate effectively with the muscular system is called?
The ability of the neuromuscular system to contaract eccentrically, isometrically, and concentrically in all three planes of motion is known as?
What are predictable occurrences of muscle imbalances caused by altered movement patterns?
postural distortion patterns
What is the normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allow the full range of motion of ajoint called?
What is the capability to be elongated or stretched called?
The combination of flexibility and the nervous systems ability to control this range of motion efficiently in known as?
dynamic range of motion
What is the ability of the neuromuscluar system to allow agonists, antagonists, and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce, reduce, and dynamically stabilize the entire kinetic chain in all three planes of motion called?
The multiplanar soft tissue extensibility with optiomal neuromuscular efficinecy throughout the full range of motion is known as?
dynamic functional flexibility
What are predictable patterns of muscle imbalances?
postural distortion patterns
The tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns is?
What is alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint known as?
The concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional antagonist is?
altered reciprocal inhibition
The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when inappropriate muscle take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover is?
What are altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired neuromuscular communication at the joint?
What is a fitness assessment?
A systematic problem solving method that helps the fitness professional make educated decisions about exercise and acute variable selection.
A fitness assessment is not designed to diagnose any medical issues but rather to assess _____and _____status.
What are the observation methods a fitness pro can use when conducting a fitness assessment to obtain a balanced overview of the client?
Gathering information on personal history, occupation, lifestyle, and medical background on prospective client would be gathering what sort of info?
What is the name of the questionnaire used to help gather subjective info for a prospective client and what is it designed for?
PAR-Q: Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire
Designed to help qualify a person for low to moderate to high activity levels.
What is objective info?
forms of measurable data
What are the categories of objective info?
Body composition assessments
How do you get the training heart rate zones of a client?
1. Get the max heart rate zone by subtracting age from 220
2. Multiply max heart zone by appropriate intensity level (65-90%)
What training heart rate zone is 65-75% of max heart rate?
What training heart rate zone is 80-85% of max heart rate?
What training heart rate zone is 86-90% of max heart rate?
What is a clients zone 1 training heart rate zone if the client is 31?
When refering to blood pressure the systolic reading is what?
The pressure produced by the heart as it pumps blood to the body.
Normal systolic pressure ranges from 120-130 mmg
What is diastolic pressure?
Signifies the min pressure within the arteries through a full cadiac cycle
Normal pressure ranges from 80-85 mmg
What is blood pressure measured with?
What is one of the most important pieces of info that can be obtained by a health and fitness pro?
starting body fat percentage
What does nasm use to measure body fat percentage?
Where are the durnin formulas four sight skin fold measurments taken?
When taking measurements for the durnin formula, they all should be taken on what side and why?
After the four sights of skin fold measurements for the durnin formula have been taken, what should you do?
add the total in mm
find the appropriate age and gender category for body compostion on the durnin/wormersley body fat % calculation table
How is a neck measurment taken?
Align the tape directly across the adams apple
How is a chest measurement taken?
Tape across the nipple line or upper chest for women
How is a waist measurment taken?
At the narrowest point of the waist, below the rib cage and just above the top of the hip bones
If there is no apparent narrowing of the waist, mesure at the naval.
How is hips measurement taken?
with feet together, at the widest portion of the buttocks
How is a thigh measurement taken?
postion tape 10in above the top of the patella
How is a calf measurement taken?
at the maximal circumference between the ankle and the knee
How is and arm measurement taken?
At the maximal circumference of the biceps, measure with arm extended, palm facing forward
What are two common forms of assessing cardiorespiratory efficiency?
three-min step test
rock port walk test
How is the 3 min step test performed?
1.get training heart rate zones
2.perform a 3min step test by having client do 24steps per min on an 18in step(may have to be lowered). rest 1 min then measure pules for 30sec and record # as recovery pulse. Take pulse and multiply by 5.6, take duration (180sec) multiply by 100, take that # and divide it by pulse x 5.6 result
3. Find the result on the chart to see where the client ranks.
4. Determine which zone client will start in.
After performing a 3min step test your clients recovery pulse is 75, which zone should you start him in?
How do you perform the rockport test?
1.training heart rate zones
2.Record weight, walk 1mile as fast as he can control, record time, record heart rate, determine vo2 score
3. Take that score and plug it into the chart to see fitness level then determine which zone to start.
determine a vo2 score for a client that is 200lbs,male,45yrs old with a heart rate of 165 after rockport test which took 15 min to complete