Nervous Muscles and Bones.txt

Card Set Information

Nervous Muscles and Bones.txt
2012-07-06 11:35:45

Show Answers:

  1. Function of Stabilizer Muscles
    Supports body while prime movers and synergists perform movement patterns
  2. Function of Synergist Muscles
    Assist prime movers during movement
  3. Function of Agonist Muscles
    Prime Movers responsible for particular movement
  4. Function of Antagonist Muscles
    Opposite action of prime movers
  5. Type IIa Muscle Fibers
    -Type II used for
    -Twitch speed
    - Color
    -Larger or smaller than Type I
    -Oxidative capacity
    -Fatigue rate
    -Speed reaches max tension
    • -Force and power (sprint)
    • -Fast Twitch
    • -White
    • -Larger
    • -Higher oxidative capacity
    • -Slower fatigue rate
    • -Quicker
  6. Type IIb Muscle Fibers
    -Type II used for
    -Twitch speed
    - Color
    -Oxidative capacity
    -Fatigue rate
    • -Force and Power (sprint)
    • -Fast Twitch
    • -White
    • -Lower oxidative capacity
    • - Quick fatigue
  7. Type I Muscle Fibers
    -Type I used for
    -Twitch speed
    -Larger or smaller than Type II's
    -Fatigue rate
    -Speed reaches maximal tension
    • -Stabilization and posture
    • -Slow Twitch
    • -Red
    • -Smaller
    • -Slower fatigue rate
    • -Slower to reach max tension
  8. Sliding Filament Theory- how does contraction of filaments within sarcomere take place
    • Sarcomere shortens=Z lines move closer together
    • -Myosin heads attach to actin filament and asynchronously pull (power strokes) the actin filament across mysosin
  9. Sarcomere
    Function unit of muscle (repeating sections of Actin and Myosin)
  10. Myofibril
    -Contains 2 types of what
    • Contains two myofilaments that are the contractile components of muscle tissue
    • -Actin (thin filament)
    • -Myosin (thick filament)
  11. Sarcolemma
    Plasma membrane that encases muscle fibers (and cell components)
  12. Motor Unit
    A motor neuron and the muscle fibers with which it connects (innervates)
  13. Neuromuscular Junction
    Point where neuron meets individual muscle (synapse between nerve and muscle fiber)
  14. Acetylcholine
    -what and what it does
    • -Neurotransmitter that crosses synapse from from to neuron to muscle
    • -It stimulates muscle to begin movement sequence
  15. Excitation-Contraction Coupling
    The entire process of of neural stimulation creating a muscle contraction- from neural activation to sliding filament.
  16. Neural Activation
    Contraction of muscle generated by neural stimulation
  17. Troponin
    -where found and what it does
    • -Found on the actin
    • -Provides binding sites for calcium and tropomyosin when muscle needs to contract
  18. Tropomyosin
    Found on the actin. Keeps myosin from attaching to actin when muscle relaxed.
  19. Tendons
    -what they do
    -what they act as
    • -Attach muscles to bone
    • -Anchor from which muscle can exert force and control bone and joint
    • -Poor vascularity
  20. Fascicle
    Bundle of muscles
  21. Perimysium
    Wraps around fascicle
  22. Epimysium
    Surrounds muscle. Under fascia.
  23. Fascia
    -what does it help to form
    • Outermost layer of muscle bundle
    • -Helps form muscle tendon
  24. Ligament
    -What it does
    • -Connective tissue for joints connecting bone to bone
    • -Provides static and dynamic stability and input to nervous system
    • -Poor vascularity
  25. Synovial Joints
    • Joints held together by joint capsule and ligaments
    • -Most associated with movement in the body
  26. Nonsynovial Joints
    No joint cavity, fibrous connective tissue or cartilage. Little or no movement (sutures of skull)
  27. Appendicular Skeleton
    Upper and lover extremities, shoulders and pelvis girdle (126 bones)
  28. Bones
    -2 main functions
    • -Leverage: act as levers when acted on by muscles
    • -Provide Support: efficiently distribution of forces acting on body
  29. Processes
    Bone protrusions where muscles, tendons and ligaments attach
  30. Depressions
    Flattened or indented portion of bone where muscles can attach
  31. Arthrokinematics
    Joint motion: Roll, slide, spin
  32. Joint Capsule
    • -At all synovial joints
    • -Compartment of fluid and tissue surrounding joint
  33. Joint Receptors
    - Type of what
    • -Sensory receptor
    • -In and around joint capsule

    • -Respond to pressure and acceleration and deceleration of joint
    • - Act to signal extreme joint position (prevent injury)
    • -Act to initiate reflexive inhibitory response if too much stress on joint
  34. Axial Skeleton
    Skull, rib cage, vertebral column (80 bones)
  35. Kinetic Chain
    Combination and interrelation of nervous, muscular and skeletal systems
  36. Sensory Function of Nervous System
    Ability to sense change in internal or external environment
  37. Integrative Function of nervous system
    Ability to analyze and interpret sensory info to allow proper decision making which will produce appropriate response
  38. Central Nervous System
    -Made up of
    Brain and Spinal Chord
  39. Motor Function of nervous system
    Neuromuscular response to sensory info
  40. Peripheral Nervous System
    -What does it connect
    • Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout body
    • -Connects nervous system to muscle
    • -Relays info back to brain
  41. Mechanoreceptors
    Sensory receptors responsible for sensing body tissue distortion
  42. Muscle Spindles
    • A mechanoreceptor -major sensory organ of muscles
    • -Sits next to muscle
    • -Will cause muscle to contract to prevent injury
  43. Golgi Tendon Organs
    • A mechanoreceptor- sensitive to muscular tension and rate of tension change
    • - Where muscle and tendon meet
    • -Will cause muscle to relax to prevent injury when under heavy stress