Card Set Information

2012-07-06 11:42:37

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  1. The combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal system.
    Kinetic chain
  2. Three primary funtions of the nervous system
    • Sensory function
    • Integrative function
    • Motor function
  3. The ability of the nervous system sense changes in eithere the internal or external environment
    Sensory Function
  4. The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret the sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produses the appropriate response.
    Integrative function
  5. The neuromuscular response to the sensory information
    Motor function
  6. The functional unit of the nervous system
  7. Three main parts of a neuron
    • cell body
    • axon
    • dendrites
  8. responsible for gathering information from other structures back into the neuron
  9. a cylindrical projection from the cell body that transmits nervous impulses to other neurons or effector sites(muscles or other neurons)
  10. Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites to the brain or spinal cord
    Sensory (afferent) neurons
  11. Transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to effector sites (muscles, glands)
    Motor (efferent) Neuron
  12. Transmits nerve impulses from one neuron to another
  13. Composed of the brain and spinal cord, serves mainly to interpret information
    Central Nervous System
  14. Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body
    Peripheral nervous system
  15. >connection to activate effector sites
    >Provides a constant update on the relation between the body and the environment
    >Relay information back to the brain via sensory receptors
    Peripheral Nervous System
  16. Specialized structures that are essentially responsible for sensing distortion in tissues
    located in muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints
    Include muscle spindles, golgi tendon organs, and joint receptors
  17. Are the major sensory organs of the muscles and sit parallel to the muscles fibers.
    Sensitive to change in length and rate of change.
    Will cause the muscle to contract
    Muscle spindles
  18. Are at the point where the muscle and tendon meet
    Are sensitive to changes in muscular tension
    Will cause the muscle to relax
    Golgi Tendon organ, GTO
  19. Located in and around the joint capsule
    Receptors that respond to pressure, acceleration and deceleration in the joint
    Joint receptors
  20. the bodys framework
    composed of bones and joints
    skeletal system
  21. provides a resting ground for muscles and protection of vital organs
  22. site where movement occurs as a result of muscle contraction

    the movable junction where two or more bones meet
  23. flattened or indented portion of bone which can be a muscle attachment site
  24. projection or protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach
  25. Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column.
    Axial skeleton
  26. Portion of the skeleton that consists of the upper and lower extremities
    Appendicular skeleton
  27. Two main functions of the bones
    • Leverage
    • Support
  28. Joint motion
  29. one joint rolls across the surface of another as a bike tire rolls on the street
    roll joint
  30. Femoral condyles moving (rolling) over tibial condyles during a squat is an example.
    Rolling joint
  31. One joints surface slides across another as a tire skidding on the street.
    Sliding joint
  32. Tibial condyles moving (sliding) across the femoral condyles during a knee extension
    Sliding joing
  33. One joint surface rotates on another like twisting the lid off a jar
    Spinning Joint
  34. The head of the radius rotating on the end of the humerous during pronation and supination of the forearm
    Spinning Joint
  35. The primary connective tissue for a joint, made primarily of collagen and elastin, characterized by poor vasculrity (blood supply) and thus do not heal well
  36. Functions of ligaments
    • connects bone to bone
    • provides static and dynamic stability
    • provides input to the CNS
  37. >No joint cavity and fibrous connective tissue; little or no movement
    >example: Structures of the skull
    Nonsynovial Joint
  38. Produces synovial fluid, has a joint cavity and fibrous connective tissue

    Example: Knee
    Synovial Joint
  39. No axis of rotation; moves by sliding side to side or back and forth

    Example: carpels of the hand
    gliding joint
  40. Formed by the fitting of condyles of one bone into elliptical cavities of another; moves predominantly in one plane

    Example: Knee
  41. Uniaxial; moves predominantly in one plane of motion (sagittal)

    Example: elbow
    Hinge Joint
  42. One bone fits like a saddle on another bone; moves predominantly in two planes (sagittal, frontal)

    Example: Only carpometacarpal of the thumb
    Saddle joint
  43. Only one axis; moves predominantly in one plane of motion; transverse

    Example: Radioulnar
    Pivot joint
  44. most mobile of the joints; moves in all three planes of motion

    Example: shoulder
    Ball and socket joint
  45. The device that the nervous system commands to move the skeletal system
    Muscular system
  46. Movers and stabilizers of the body
  47. The muscle bundles from outer to innermost
    • Fascia
    • Epimysium
    • Fasicle
    • Perimesium
    • Edomesium
  48. Connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and provide an anchor for muscles to produce force; control the bone and joint. Have poors vascularity thus slower to repair and adapt.
  49. The plasma membrane encasing muscle fibers
  50. Contain myofilaments, actin and myosin, that are the contractile components of muscle tissue
  51. Denotes another sarcomere along the myofibril
    Z line
  52. Sarcomere
    • Functional unit of muscle
    • Like the nueron is for the nervous system
    • Produces muscular contraction
    • Consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin
  53. Tropomyosin
    • Located on the actin (thin filament)
    • blocks myosin binding sites located on the actin filament
    • keeps myosin from attaching to actin while the muscle is in a relaxed state
  54. Troponin
    • Also located on the actin filament
    • Plays a role in muscle contraction
    • Provides binding site for both calcium and tropomyosin
  55. Methods for muscles to generate force
    • Sliding filament theory
    • excitation contraction coupling mechanism
  56. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers with which it connects (innervates)
    Motor unit
  57. Essential for contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation
    Neural activation
  58. Chemical messengers that cross synapses to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle
  59. The neurotransmitter used by the neuromuscular system
    Once attached stimulates the muscle fibers to go through a series of steps to produce a contraction
    Acetylcholine, ACh
  60. Sliding filament theory steps
    • A sarcomere shortens as a result of the Z lines moving closer together
    • The Z lines converge as the result of myosin heads attaching to the actin filament asynchronously pulling the actin filament across the myosin
    • results in a shortening fo the muscle fiber
  61. Type I muscle fibers
    • slow twitch
    • smaller in size
    • more capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin
    • Increased oxygen delivery
    • often referred to as red fibers
    • less force produced
    • slow to fatigue
    • Long-term contractions(stabilization)
  62. Type II muscles
    • fewer capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin
    • deceased osygen delivery
    • larger in size
    • more force produced
    • quick to fatigue
    • short-term contractions (force and power)
    • Fast twitch
  63. Muscles that act as prime movers
  64. Assist prime movers
  65. Stabilize while prime mover and synergist work
  66. Oppose
    Prime mover
  67. Agonists:
    Hip extension
    Chest Press
    Overhead Press
    • Gluteus maximus
    • Pectoralis major
    • deltoid
    • latissimus dorsi
    • gluteus maximus, quadriceps
  68. Synergists:
    Hip extension
    Chest Press
    Overhead Press
    • Hamstring;erector spinae
    • anterior deltoid, triceps
    • triceps
    • posterior deltoid, biceps
    • hamstrings
  69. Stabilizers:
    Hip Extension
    Chest press
    overhead press
    • transversus abdominous, internal oblique, mutifidus (low back)
    • rotator cuff
    • rotator cuff
    • rotator cuff
    • transversus abdominous
  70. perform the opposite action of the prime mover
  71. Antagonists:
    Hip extension
    Chest press
    Overhead press
    • Psoas
    • Posterior deltoid
    • latissimus dorsi
    • pectoralis major
    • Psoas