Genetics 1

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Genetics 1
2012-07-06 14:39:15
Dr Troy Bray

Genetics Lecture Test Number One
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  1. What are the different types of genes? (give a short description of each)
    • Houskeeping : Are in constant supply. (e.g. Cox1, rubisco, and ATP synthase enzymes)
    • Inductive : These must be turned on.
    • Constitutive : Both. 
  2. Describe the Genetic Code.
    DNA sequences within most genes contain the information to direct the order of amino acids within polypeptides.
  3. What is a codon?
    3 bases = 1/20 Amino Acids
  4. How many pairs of chromosomes are there in humans?
  5. What is gene expression?
    The process of using a gene sequence to affect the characteristics of cells and organisms.
  6. Genetics span what four areas?
    • Molecular
    • Cellular
    • Organism
    • Population 
  7. What are the Genedtic modification types? (Give a discription of each)
    • Gene Mutations : small alteration that will alter the expression or funtion of the protiens that the gene specifies.
    • Structure : Major alteration, large section of a chromosome is lost, rearranged, or reattached to another chromosome.
    • Number : Major alteration, some organisms may recieve to many or few chromosomes. 
  8. What is an enviornmental factor and what is an example?
    • External influences that dictate the way that genetic variation is manifested in an individual.
    • PKU 
  9. What is PKU?
    • Phenylketonuria
    • 1 in 10k births
    • Humans posses gene that encodes an enzyme known as Phenylalanine hydroxylase. People with one or more copies of the gene to metabolize the AA Phenylalanine.
  10. What is a homologue?
    in 2n cells, organism contains one chromosome from each parent which code for the same genes.
  11. What is pangenisis?
    It is a pre mendalian concept in which all cells contribute to human gametes.
  12. What is the argument of SPermists vs. Ovists?
    A pre mendalian concept that involves the belief of a hemunculus. Which is a little man hat resides in either egg or sperm and the other gamete is simply there for nutritive purposes.
  13. What is the blending theory?
    A premendalian concept in which both sexes contribute evenly to the offspring.
  14. What is the particulate Theory of inheritance?
    It states that Genes that govern certain traits are inherited as discrete units and remain unchanged.
  15. What is independent assortment?
    Different genes will randomly assort their alleles during the formation of gametes.