The first six are traditionally referred to as "parts of speech."
1 - Noun
word that is a person, place, thing or idea
2 - Verb
Used to express action
3 - Adjective
Modifies the noun
Ex: Sue quickly opened the big box of chocolates
The inexpensive, comfortable shoes. (Coordinated)
That's an interesting idea. (Attributive)
That idea is wicked. (Predicative)
The good, the bad, and the ugly. (Substantive)
Tell me something interesting. (Post-positive)
4 - Adverb
Modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb
Ex: Sue quicklyopened the big box of chocolates
The waves came in quickly over the rocks.
I found the film incredibly dull.
The meeting went well, and the directors were extremely happy with the outcome!
Crabs are known for walking sideways.
I often have eggs for breakfast.
However, I shall not eat fried eggs again.
5 - Preposition
Notes the relation of a noun to an action or a thing - preposition indicates a relation between things mentioned in a sentence
Ex: Sue quickly opened the big box of chocolate
as a modifier to a verb:
sleep throughout the winter
danced atop the tables for hours
as a modifier to a noun:
the weather in April
cheese from France with live bacteria
as the complement of a verb:
insist on staying home
dispose of unwanted items
as the complement of a noun:
a thirst for revenge
an amendment to the constitution
as the complement of an adjective or adverb:
attentive to their needs
separately from its neighbors
as the complement of another preposition:
until after supper
from beneath the bed
group of words beginning with a preposition
Ex: Sue quickly opened the big box of chocolates
She is on the computer.
TJ could hear her across the room.
David walked down the ramp.
They walked to their school.
Dylan ate in the kitchen.
Prepostional Phrase (2)
A prepositional phrase should not be confused with the sequence formed by the particle and the direct object of a phrasal verb, as in turn on the light. This sequence is structurally distinct from a prepositional phrase. In this case, "on" and "the light" do not form a unit; they combine independently with the verb "turn".
Another common point of confusion is that the word "to" may appear either as a preposition or as a verbal particle in infinitive verb phrases, such as "to run for president".
Prepositional phrases generally act as
complements and adjuncts of noun phrases and verb phrases.
The man from Chinawas enjoying his noodles. (Adjunct of a noun phrase)
She ran underhim. (Adjunct of a verb phrase)
He gave money to the cause. (Oblique complement of a verb phrase)
A student of physics. (Complement of a noun phrase)
She argued with him. (Complement of a verb phrase)
Connects two words, phrases or clauses together
and: used to connect words, phrases, or clauses
but: indicates a contrast or exception
or: presents opinions, alternates, or substitutes for ideas of equal importance
nor: presents an alternate negative idea
are pairs of conjunctions that work together to coordinate two items. English examples include both…and, [n]either…[n]or, and not [only]…but [also], whether... or.
• Either you do your work, or prepare for a trip to the office.
• Not only is he handsome, but he is also brilliant
• Neither the basketball team, nor the football team is doing well
• Both the cross country team and the swimming team are doing well
• Whether you choose to stay, or go is your decision.
• Either you get As, or you do not go to school.
also called subordinators,
are conjunctions that introduce a dependent clause.
as much as
as long as
as soon as
in order that
7 - Determiner
noun-modifier that expresses the reference of a noun or noun-phrase in the context, including quantity, rather than attributes expressed by adjectives. This function is usually performed by
The girl is a student.
I've lost my keys.
Some folks get all the luck.
Which book is that?
I only had two drinks.
I'll take that one.
Both windows were open.
takes place of a noun.
Lisa gave the coat to Phil.
All three nouns in the sentence can be replaced by pronouns: She gave it to him.
The replaced phrase is called the antecedent of the pronoun
I love you
Thatreminds me of something.
Helooked at them.
Take it or leave it
Who says so?
stand in place of the names of people or things
first-person singular (I)
first-person plural (we)
second-person singular and plural (you)
third-person singular human or animate male (he)
third-person singular human or animate female (she)
third-person singular inanimate (it)
third-person plural (they)
are used when the person or thing is the subject of the sentence or clause. subjective pronouns are I, you, he, she, it, we, what, who, and they
English example: I like to eat chips, but she does not
An objective pronoun
in grammar functions as the target of a verb,
as distinguished from a subjective pronoun, which is the initiator of a verb.
In layman's terms, the target is the object on which the verb acts, and the initiator is the subject performing the action.
"The dog chased the cat", the dog is the initiator (or subject), and the cat is the target (or object).
A prepositional pronoun .
personal pronoun that is used as the object of a preposition and come after a preposition. No distinct forms exist in English; for example: Anna and Maria looked at him
are used to indicate possession or ownership
Those clothes are mine
Group of words that contains a subject and a verb
- Independent - main idea & can stand by itself
- Dependent - subject and & verb (but can't stand by itself)