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study of how body works to maitain life emphasizing cause and effect mechanisms
how physiological processes are altered in disease of injury
- Physiology of invertebrate and vertebrate groups
Steps of Scientific method
- 1. Observations
- 2. Form a testable hypothesis about observations
- 3. Conduct and analyze experiments to test hypothesis
- 4. Draw concludsions about whether or not results support hypothesis
- 5. Develop a theory= general statement explaining natural phenomena that is based on proved (supported and reproducible data) hypotheses.
Steps in Testing of Hypothesis
Quantitative measurements= free of biases (possibly blind)
Experimental group - subjected to the testing condition.
Control groups = theoretically identical to experimental group in every way except the testing condition.
How is homeostasis maintained?
With the use of feed back loops.
What are the 3 parts of all feedback loops?
- 1. Sensors = Detect deviations from set point (average within physiological range set by the body) and send information to integrating centers.
- 2. Integrating centers = receive information from snsors and will cause the increase or decrease of activity of effectors; determines a response -usually part of the CNS or endocrine system.
- 3. Effectors = usually muscle or gland; will respond to messages from integrating centers to bring back homeostasis; produces the response.
What are the 2 types of feedback loops?
- 1. Negative feedbackloops- most common- when the action of the effectors is in the opposite direction of the initial change. Ex: body temp. rises above normal and negative feedback loop responds by lowering temp.
- 2. Positive feedback loops - Rare- when the action of the effectors is in the same direction of the initial change; initial change is amplified- Ex: initiation of blood clotting causes more clotting
Control is built into organ being regulated
Control comes from outside of organ; by nervous and endocrine systems. -The nervous and endocrine systems are tightly coupled and work together to control activities of most of the other body systems.
What are cells of our body surrounded by?
Extracellular Matrix = A meshwork of protein fibers (collagen & elastin fibers) linked to molecules of gel-like ground substance
What is intersitial fluid?
it is tissue fluid- resides in hydrated gel of ground substance- also contains glycoproteins, proteoglycans, which form chemical bonds between carbohydrates on the surface of cells and protein fibers.
What is the function of the plasma membrane?
Seperates intracellulca environment from extracellular environment. All nutrients entering the cell and all waste leaving the cell must pass over the plasma membrane.
What is selevtive permeability?
A function of the plasma membrane in which only certain kinds of molecules are allowed to pass.
What are some examples of things impermeable to plasma membranes?
Proteins, nucleic acids, some ions, and/ or other molecules necessary for cellular function/ metabolism.